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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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logues in 1809, when he was scarcely sixteen
years of age, and for several years he exhibited
historical works, to which he devoted much atten-
tion. But in 1814 he became an assistant to
Andrew Robertson, a miniature painter on ivory,
to which branch of art he at length wholly
applied himself. He obtained a large practice
in the highest circles. The Queen, the Prince
Consort, and their family sat to him, as well as
the King and Queen of the Belgians, the King
and Queen of Portugal, Napoleon III., &o. It is
said that the total number of his miniatures exceeds
2200. In 1838 he was elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy, becoming a full member in the
following year, when he also received knighthood.
In the cartoon competition of 1843 he won a pre-
mium of £100 with an ' Angel Raphael Discoursing
with Eve.' He continued in full practice, holding
the first rank in his art, until 1857, when he was
struck by paralysis. After a period of consider-
able suffering he died, unmarried, on January
20th, 1860.

ROSSELL, Josef, a Spanish painter and mem-
ber of the Academy of St. Biirbara at Valencia,
who is known as the author of a ' St. Luke ' on
linen, presented to the Academy in 1754.

ROSSELLT, CosiMO (di LonENZO di Filippo Ros-
SELLl), born at Florence in 1439, was a pupil of Neri
de Bicoi from 1453 to 1466, and is then thought
to have won the friendship of Benozzo Gozzoli.
At some period of his life he visited Lucca, for a
fresco by him can be seen above the portal of the
church of S. Marline, besides other paintings in that
city. In the court of the SS. Annunziata, Florence,


is a fresco representing ' Beato Filippo receiving the
Habit of the Servites from the Virgin,' which is
said to have been painted in 1476. In 1480 Ros-
selli was invited to Rome by Sixtus IV. to compete
with Ghirlandaio, Signorelli, and Perugino, in the
decoration of the Sixtine Chapel ; and according
to Vjsari gained the Pope's approbation over his
rivals through the immense quantity of gold and
ultramarine used by him in his pictures. His sub-
jects were the ' Passage of the Red Sea,' ' Moses
delivering the Tables of the Law,' ' The Sermon
on the Mount,' and 'The Last Supper.' Rosselli's
masterpiece is a fresco in the chapel of the S.
Sacrament in S. Ambrogio, Florence, which repre-
sents ' The Exhibition of a Miracle-working Chalice.'
Amongst his pupils and assistants were Piero di
Cosimo and Fra Bartolomraeo. In 1496 he valued
Baldovinetti's frescoes at S. Trinila, Florence, and
he died in 1507, in which year he made his will.
Pictures by this artist are to be found in the churches
of S. Ambrogio and S. Maria de' Pazzi, Florence,
also in :

Berlin. The Gallery. The Virgin in Glory.
., , Christ in the Tomb.

„ „ Massacre of the Innocents.

Florence. S. Ambrogio. Procession of the Miraculous
„ „ The Assumption.

" "^^ ^'iSa'^"' ] Coronation of the Virgin.
„ S. Annunziata. The Virgin delivering to St. Philip
Benizzi the garb of the Servites.
„ Academy. St. Barbara Triumphing.

London. Nat. Gall. St. Jerome and Saints (from the
Euccellai chapel in the Eremiti
di S. Girolamo at Fiesole).
Lucca. S. Martinn. Christ taken down from the Cross.
Paris. Louvre. Virgin Glorified.

Eome. Sistine Chapel. Passage of the Red Sea.
„ „ Sermon on the Mount.

„ „ The Last Supper.

EOSSET, ■ — , a French landscape painter of the
18th century of some talent, who was employed at
Sevres to paint landscapes on porcelain.

ROSSETTI, Cesare, an Italian painter of the
17th century, the pupil and assistant of the Cavaliere
d'Arpino, under whom he worked at the decoration
of San Giovanni Laterano during the pontificate of
Clement VIII.

ROSSETTI, Gabriel Charles Dante, painter,
was born May 12th, 1828, at 38, Charlotte Street,
Portland Place, London. Though an Englishman
by education and adoption, bis family was of Italian
origin, and had once borne the name of Delia
Giiardia, Rossetti being merely a sobriquet which
gradually crystallized into a surname. His father,
Gabriele Rossetti, was a native ofVasto d'Ammone,
a small town of the Abruzzi, on the Adriatic
coast. He was the author of various critical and
poetical works, became well known as a comment-
ator on Dante, and held the appointment of keeper
of bronzes in the Museo Borbonico at Naples. In
1820 the elder Rossetti took a prominent part, both
as a politician and as a writer of patriotic songs, in
the national moveuient by which the King of the
Sicilies was forced to grant a constitution to his
subjects. When, in 1821, Ferdinand, backed by
an Austrian army, entered his kingdom to annul
the lately-won charter, Gabriele Rossetti was com-
pelled to fly. He escaped to Malta, and eventually
to England, where he settled, and in 1831 became
Professor of Italian literature at King's College,
London. Shortly after his arrival in England he
married Frances, the daughter, by an English wife,




of Gaetano Polidori, sometime secretary to Alfieri.
The second child of this marriage was the poet-
painter, Dante Rossetti, the most famous of a gifted
quartet. His eldest sister, Maria, is known as the
author of a critical work, called ' The Shadow of
Dante.' His brother, William Michael Rossetti, has
an established reputation as a critic and poet, and
his younger sister, Christina, takes high rank among
nineteenth-century poets.

The early childhood of Rossetti was not, on the
whole, remarkable, though he is said to have shown
his artistic bent at a very early age, and mention is
made of various precocious juvenile efforts, which
were, however, chiefly literary in character. He
received his education at King's College School,
where he remained until about 1843, at which
time he began his art education in Sass's School.
Here he studied until 1846, when he was admitted
to the Royal Academy Schools. He stopped short,
however, of the Life School, and never thoroughly
mastered the difficulties of drawing the human
form. On his leaving the Academy Schools in
1848, Rossetti, who had been greatly attracted by
some exhibited works of Ford Madox Brown, asked
permission to attend his studio as a pupil.

In Mr. Madox Brown's studio Rossetti painted
his first work in oil, a portrait of his father, and
in 1847 he took a studio in Cleveland Street, Fitz-
roy Square, jointly with Mr. Holman Hunt.
In the autumn of 1848, Rossetti, whose great
personal charm, no less than his brilliant intel-
lectual and artistic qualities, had gathered round
him a circle of gifted young sympathizers, became
the prime mover in the famous ' Pre-Raphaelite '
revolt. In strict adherence to his new principles
Rossetti painted his ' Girlhood of Mary Virgin,'
which was exhibited in 1849, and, together with
other productions of the brotherhood, raised a
storm of indignant criticism. By the large class
who decline to judge of any artistic endeavour
save from their own accepted standards, the new
movement was savagely denounced, and it was
not till many years later that its quickening in-
fluence upon English art came to be widely
acknowledged. The idea of an organ to spread
the ideas of the brotherhood occurred to Rossetti
in the autumn of 1849, and in January 1850,
appeared the first number of ' The Germ,' a title
which gave place in the third number to the less
happy one of ' Art and Poetry.' The short-lived
periodical came to an end with its fourth number.
It claims a special interest in connection with
Rossetti's career, not only as having been the
summary and exposition of the new gospel, but
as the vehicle by which he first became known to
the world as a poet. It contained in all twelve
contributions by him, among them the prose
allegory ' Hand and Soul,' and the poem, ' The
Blessed Damozel.' Rossetti gradually drifted
away from the objective truth of the three
pictures, which alone, amongst his important
works, were conceived and painted according to
the principles of the ' Germ.' These are the ' Girl-
hood of Mary Virgin,' the ' Ecce Ancilla Domini,'
and the unfinished ' Found.' From the year 1853
onwards his art took on an individual character
which was too soon to develop into mannerism.
" His aim in art," says one of his biographers, " was
to have something to say first, and then to say it
beautifully." It is on his powers as a oolourist
that his fame as a painter must rest, and as such
he has been too often compared with the great

Venetians ; but in his completest works — those pro-
duced between 1864 and 1870 — he achieved a splen-
dour of colour that has seldom been surpassed in
modern times. From 1850 to 1860, Rossetti did
comparatively little work in oil. The worship of
Dante was strongly manifested in his choice
of subjects at this period, to which belong the
series of water-colours inspired by passages in the
' Vita Nuova ' and the ' Divina Commedia.' For
water-colours he found at one time a much more
ready sale than for his work in oil, and to this
it is due that he produced so much in the lighter
medium. In 1857 he visited Oxford with Mr
Woodward the architect, who was then engaged
on the new building for the Union Club, and
it occurred to Rossetti that a fine effect might
be gained by the decoration of the bays in the
Debating Room with a series of wall-paintings in
tempera, from the ' Morte d'Arthur.' The funds of
the committee being insufBcient to enable them to
give a commission for the work, Rossetti, jointly
with William Morris, E. Burne Jones, and other
artists whom he had succeeded in interesting in
the scheme, consented to undertake the frescoes
gratuitously, the club defraying the actual outlay
for material, &c. Rossetti chose for his subject
' Sir Launcelot before the Shrine of the Grail,' but
he never completed the fresco, for in a very short
time it was discovered that the paint, laid on a
new wall without any sort of special preparation,
would, after a while, completely shell off from
the plaster. These frescoes are now mostly
obliterated, but a memorial of Rossetti's work
at the Union survives in a design of ' Arthur and
his Knights at the Round Table,' which was carved
in stone and coloured by Mr. Munro, and is in the
tympanum of the porch.

About 1850 Rossetti took rooms at 14, Chatham
Place, Blackfriars. In the beginning of 1851 he was
introduced by the painter Deverell to Elizabeth
Eleanor Siddall, a beautiful girl, who was afterwards
the model for some of his most famous works, and
in whom he found a type of feminine loveliness
which, variously idealized or modified, he never
wearied of reproducing. She had some artistic
aptitude, which Rossetti undertook to cultivate,
and the result was the marriage of the master and
pupil in 1860, after a long engagement. After the
birth of a still-born child in 1861, Mrs. Rossetti's
health gradually failed, and consumptive tendencies
developed. She died in February 1862, from the
effects of an overdose of laudanum. Rossetti's
grief was deep, and on the day of her burial he took
the manuscript of all his poems (of most of which
at that time there existed no other copy), and
placed them as a last gift in her coffin. From this
time he abandoned literary effort for some years,
though not, as some have said, all creative work,
for to the years 1862-1869 belong, among others,
the three pictures which show his technical power
at its highest level — the ' Lady Lilith,' the ' Monna
Vanna,' and 'The Beloved,'— as well as the ' Beata
Beatrix.' On the death of his wife Rossetti gave
up the rooms in Chatham Place, and after a stay
of six months in some chambers in Lincoln's Inn
Fields, he took No. 16, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, where
he settled in the autumn of 1862. At first he
occupied the house jointly with his brother and his
friends, Algernon Charles Swinburne and George
Meredith. But these drifted away one by one.
Between 1869 and 1874 the residence at Cheyne
Walk was varied by visits to Kelmscott Mail or,





near Leclilade, which the artist rented jointly
with Mr. William Morris. Two visits to Penkill
Castle, in Ayrshire (1868 and 1869) are memor-
able, as daring his stay there he thought out
some of his finest poems. These visits to Soot-
land, and a few short tours in France and Belgium,
make up the sum of Rossetti's journeyings outside
England. Great as was his sympathy with all
things Italian, he never saw his father's country.

In Rossetti, two metiers were so closely allied, that
in any sketch of his career it is difficult to consider
him as either solely poet or painter. In many
instances a picture was the illustration of a poem,
or a poem the elaboration of a picture. Thus the
'Blessed Damozel' was the subject of two oil-
paintings, while the 'Girlhood of Mary,' 'The
Passover in the Holy Family,' ' Mary Magdalene,'
' St. Luke,' ' The Lady Lilith,' ' Sibylla Palmifera,'
' Fiammetta,' ' The Day-Dream,' ' Astarte Syriaoa,'
' Proserpina,' and ' La Bella Mano,' have all their
counterpart in sonnets. These illustrative sonnets
it was occasionally his practice to write on the
frames of the pictures to which they referred.

In the year 1869, Rossetti was prevailed upon by
his friends to allow the exhumation of his buried
MSS. , and in 1870 the first collection of his ' Poems '
appeared. They at once attracted attention and
praise, mixed with strong dissent. About this time
symptoms of weak health appeared. He had
inherited weak sight from his father, which now
became much aggravated, and gave him great
uneasiness. A severe illness in 1872 seems to
have completed the gradual break-up in his health,
and from thenceforth he suffered terribly from
insomnia. To obtain relief, he took to chloral,
with the usual results. In 1881 he made an ex-
pedition to the Vale of St. John, near Keswick,
but it led to no improvement in his condition.
Earlj' in 1882 he went to Birchington, near Mar-
gate, and there, on the Easter Sunday of 1882, he
died. Rossetti made ten designs for book illus-
tration : one for W. Allingham's 'Night and Day
Songs ' ; five for the edition of Tennyson published
in 1857; two in 1862, for 'The Goblin Market,
and other Poems,' ofhis sister Christina ; and two,
in 1866, for her ' The Prince's Progress, and other
Poems.' He also designed two windows and a
panel for the pulpit in St. Martin's, Scarborough ;
as well as a window to the memory of his aunt,
Miss M. M. Polidori, in Christ Church, Albany
Street. The following list includes, in chrono-
logical order, all his important pictures in oil.
For those in other media we must refer the
reader to the exhaustive table appended to Mr.
William Sharpe's biography. F.S.

Portrait of Gabriele Eossetti. {Miss C. Polidori.)
Girlhood of Mary Virgin. {Lady Louisa Fielding.)
* Bcce Ancilla Domini.' [NatioTial Gallery.)
Dante and Beatrice. {J. Leathart, Esq.)
Bocoa Baeiata. ((?. P. Boyce, Esq.)
Portrait of A. C. Swinburne, Esq.
Portrait of Mrs. D. G-. Rossetti. {Arthur Severn, Esq.)
Bard Alane. (J. Leathart, Esq.)
Fair Eosamond.

Triptych. I^Llandaff Cathedral.)
Girl at Lattice. {G. P. Boyce, Esq.)
Female Head. {George Bae, Esq.)
Portrait of Mrs. Leathart. {J. Leathart, Esq.)
Beata Beatrix. (Lord Mount Temple.)
Aurelia ; originally Fazio's Mistress. (George Bae, Esq.)
The Loving Cup.

The Blue Bower. (Mrs, Dyson Perrins.)
Joan of Arc. (J. Anderson Bose.)
Monna Pomona. (A. lonides, Esq.)

II Eamoscello.

The Beloved ; or, The Bride. (George Bae, Esq.)

Sibylla Palmifera. (So.)

Monna Vanna. (Do.)

Venus Verticordia. (John Mitchell, Esq.)

Portrait of his Mother. (Mrs. Bossetti.)

Eetum of TibuUus to Delia.

Joli Goeur. (W. A. Turner, Esq. )

Monna Eosa. (F. B. Leyland, Esq.)

The Loving Cup. (Do.)

Portrait of Mrs. Lushington. (Do.)

Venus Verticordia. (Late W Graham, Esq.)

Mariana. (Do.)

Dante's Dream. ( Walker Gallery, Liverpool.)

Water "Willow. (W.A. Turner, Esq.)

Beata Beatrix. (Late W. Graham,, Esq.)

Veronica Veronese. (F. B. Leyland, Esq.)

La Ghirlandata. (Zate W. Graham, Esq.)

Dis Manibns. (F. B. Leyland, Esq.)

Fleurs de Marie. (Late W. Graham, Esq.)

Damsel of the Sang Eeal. (George Bae, Esq.)

Portrait of Mrs. Morris. (fVm. Mwris, Esq.)

La Bella Mano. (F. S. Ellis, Esq.)

Head of the Blessed Damosel. (Lord Mount Temple.)

Pandora. (Late J. Graham.)

Astarte Syriaca. (O. E. Fry, Esq.)

The Sea Spell. (F. R. Leyland, Esq.)

The Blessed Damozel. (Mrs. Dyson Perrins.)

Proserpina. (W. A. Turner, Esq.)

Dante's Dream, with predella. (Joseph Busfon, Esq.)

La Donna della Finestra. {F. S. ElUs, Esq.)

The Day Dream. (Con. lonides, Esq.)

The Blessed Damozel. (F. B. Leyland, Esq.)

Salutation of Beatrice.

BOSSETTI, Giovanni Paolo, painter, a native
of Volterra, flourished about the year 1568. Ho
was a nephew of Daniele Ricciarelli, called di
Volterra, ijnder whom he studied at Rome, and
is said to have painted history with considerable
success. After the death of his uncle he left
Rome, and returned to Volterra, where he executed
some altar-pieces for the churches, of which one
of the most esteemed was a ' Descent from the
Cross,' in S. Dalraazio. He is said to have been
still alive in 1600.

ROSSI (or Rosso), Antonio, the elder, painter,

born at Zoldo in Cadore, in the second part of the

15th century. He is said by Lanzi to have been

the first master of his great compatriot Titian, and

painted numerous works in tempera, in an archaic

and angular style. His period of greatest activity

extends from 1472 to 1607. Numerous works of

his now lost or obliterated are mentioned in

ancient records. Of those still extant there are :

Altar-piece in the churcb of San Lorenzo, at Selva in

Cadore ; painted in 1472, and signed Antonius Rubens

de Cadubrio pinxit.

Fresco of Christ and the Twelve Apostles, in the church

of San SUvestro suUa Costa, near Serravalle ; signed

ATito Boso de Cadore.

Altar-piece (St. Martin sharing Ms Cloak) in the church

of Vigo di Cadore. (1492.)
Virgin and Child with SS. Bartholomew and Sylvester,
formerly in the church of Nabii, now in the possesi-
sion of Signer Eighetti of Venice. This last picture
is signed Antonius Zaudanus (Antonio of Zoldo).
Altar-piece lately in the possession of Signora Lando-

nelli, at Venice ; signed and dated 1494.
Virgin with Saints ; signed and dated 1494. Formerly

in the church of Tjban, near Belluno.
Virgin with St. Sebastian and a Bishop ; signed ; Fonzaso,

near Feltre.
See Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ' Painting in N. Italy,' vol.
ii. pp. 172-3.

ROSSI, Andrea, an Italian engraver, born about
1726. There are several heads of popes engraved
by him, and subjects after Carracci, Novelli, Frezza,
and others. He died in 1790. The following
prints may be named :




Portraits of Joseph II. and the Archduke Leopold ;

after Pompeo Batumi.
A Bust of the Virgin ; after Carlo Bold.
St. Margaret of Gortona kneeling before a Crucifix;

after Pietro da Cortona.

ROSSI, Agnolo, a Genoese painter, bom in
1694. He was a priest, and the best-known pupil
of Domenico Parodi. In style he was a disciple
of Maratti, but he also treated humorous subjects
with success. He died in 1765.

EOSSI, Anibllo, painter, born at Naples about
1660. He was one of the favourite scholars of
Luca Giordano, and, with Matteo Pacelli, accom-
panied his master to Spain, and remained with
him as his assistant during his long sojourn at
the court of Charles II. and Philip V. His services
were rewarded by a handsome pension, and return-
ing to Italy with his master in 1702, he settled at
Venice, where he lived in ease and independence
till his death in 1719.

EOSSI, Antonio, born at Bologna in 1697 (1700),
was educated in the school of Cavaliere Marc An-
tonio Francesohini, of whom he was a favourite
disciple, and who recommended him, in preference
to his other pupils, to execute the commissions he
himself was incapable of undertaking. Of the
numerous pictures he painted for the public edifices
at Bologna, his ' Martyrdom of S. Andrea,' in the
church of S. Domenico, is perhaps the best. He
was much employed in painting figures in the archi-
tectural views of Orlandi and P. Brizzi. He died
in 1750 or 1753.

ROSSI, Bernardino db. See Dei Rossi.

EOSSI, Cablantonio, a Milanese painter, born
about 1581. He painted a 'San Siro' for the
cathedral of Pavia, in the manner of the Proeac-
cini, and is said to have been the master of Carlo
Sacchi. He died in 1648.

EOSSI, Enba, a Bolognese painter of the 17th
century, mentioned by Malvasia as a pupil of the
Oarracci, and an artist of some merit. ' He painted
numerous works for the churches of Bologna and
its neighbourhood.

ROSSI, Francesco dbi. See Dei Rossi.

ROSSI, Giovanni Battista, an engraver, to
whom is attributed a set of perspective views of
Rome, published in 1640.

ROSSI, Giovanni Battista, painter, a native of
Rovigo, born about 1627. He was a pupil of Dario
Varotari, and practised for a time at Padua, where
he painted a picture for the church of San Clemente.
He settled later at Venice, where he was still
living in 1680.

ROSSI, Giovanni Battista, called II Gobbing,
(the little hunchback,) a Veronese painter of the
i7th century. He was one of the best known of
the disciples of Alessandro Turchi, and practised
with credit for many years at Verona.

ROSSI, Girolamo, called de Rcbeis the elder,
bom at Rome about the year 1630, was brought
up at Bologna, under Simone Cantarini. His
instinct led him more to engraving than painting,
and he has left several plates after Bolognese
painters, which possess considerable merit ; among
them are the following :

The Portrait of Pope Pius V. ; after Scipione Gaetano.

Two Cupids playing ; after Guercino.

The Virgin and Child, with St. Jerome and St. Francis ;

after Zodovico Carracci, inscribed, Hieronimus de

Muheis pictor, delineavitj incidit.
S. Carlo Borromeo kneeling before a Crucifix ; after

An. Carracci.
A half-length figure of the Virgin.

St. John the Baptist ; after Ouido.
Two Children ; after the same.

EOSSI, Girolamo, called de Eubeis the younger,
son of Girolamo Rossi, was born at Rome about the
year 1680, and chiefly resided in his native city,
where he engraved a variety of plates after the
Italian painters. He also executed several portraits
of the cardinals of his time, for a series which was
afterwards continued by Pazzi and others. They
are feebly engraved. We have also by him the
following prints :

The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Oorreggio.
The Martyrdom of St. Agapita ; after Gio. Odazzi.

Nagler gives a list of twenty-one prints by the
younger Eossi, among which he enumerates those
of Pope Pius v., and of S. Carlo Borromeo kneel-
ing, attributed above to his father. According to
Zani, he was at work as late as 1749, but none of
I the dates quoted by Nagler come near to that

EOSSI, Giuseppe, engraver and draughtsman.
He practised at Florence in the inrst half of the
19th century, and his drawings and engravings,
particularly some of the ' Campo Santo ' at Pisa,
show considerable talent, but his promise was cut
short by his death in 1848, while still a young man.

ROSSI, Lorenzo, an Italian painter of the Floren-
tine school, a pupil of Pier Dandini. He imitated
the manner of the Flemish artist, Lieven Mehus,
and painted small pictures of much delicacy and
elegance. He died in 1702.

ROSSI, LoRETTO d'Ugolino, painter. Of this
artist nothing is known, but a 'CruciSxion' at
Berlin bears the following inscription : " Questa
tavola sefatte fare per Loretto d'Ugolino de Rossi
la quale a fatteta fare beltrame distoldo de Rossi,

ROSSI, Mozio, painter, was born at Naples in
1626, and was for some time the disciple of Massimo
Stanzioni. From the school of that master he went
to Bologna, where he frequented the academy of
Guide, and at the age of eighteen was sufficiently
advanced to compete with the ablest artists of his
time. An altar-piece for the Certosa, a ' Nativity,'
was considered a marvel of precocity. On his
return to Naples, he was engaged to paint the
tribune of S. Pietro in Majella, which he had not
entirely finished when his career was cut short by
his death, in 1651, at the age of 26.

ROSSI, N1COOL6 Maria, painter, was born about
1645, at Naples. He was a pupil of Luca Giordano,
and a successful imitator of his style. In some
of his more important works his master furnished
him with designs, for the paintings in the Chapel
Royal at Naples, for instance. He was much

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