Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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„ „ Woodmeu, Frederiksborg.

„ Molihe Coll. The Four Seasons (a series).

RUNCIMAN, Alexander, historical painter, was
born at Edinburgh in 1736. He is said to have
served his apprenticeship to a coach-painter, and
by dint of mere practice to have acquired facility of
hand and a considerable intelligence in colouring,
though he was still uninstruoted in drawing the
figure. He travelled to Italy, where he studied for
five years, and painted a ' Nausioaa at play with
her Maidens.' On his return he lodged for a time
with Hogarth'-s widow in Leicester Square, and
exhibited some pictures in 1772. The next year
he settled at Edinburgh, where he conducted the
recently established Academy of Arts, and painted
some historical pictures, among which was an altar-
piece for the episcopal chapel in the Cowgate. He
was patronized by Sir James Clerk, who employed
him to decorate his mansion at Petmyouick with
some subjects from Ossian. He died suddenly in
1785. There are a few etchings by Runciman from
his own designs, among which are the following :

Sigismunda weeping over the Heart of Tanored.

A View of the Netherbow Port, Edinburgh.

RUNCIMAN, John, a Scotch historical painter,
and brother of Alexander Runciman, was born at
Edinburgh in 1744. He executed few works during
his short career, in which he showed very high
promise. About 1766 he accompanied his brother
to Rome for the purpose of study, but his health
gave way, and he died at Naples in 1768. There
is a monument to him in the Canongate Church,
Edinburgh. Among his works are :

Christ and the Disciples on the road to Emmaus.
{National Gallery, Edinburgh.)

King Lear in the Storm. {'ITie same.)

Portrait of himself. (The same.)

Judith and Holofernes.

RUN6ALDIER, Ignaz, engraver and miniature
painter, the son of a silver worker, born at Gratz in
1799, had his earliest lessons from Kauperz, and
in 1816 entered the Vienna Academy. His best
plates are : ' Ossian,' after KrafEt ; ' Jupiter and
Thetis,' after Fiiger ; ' St. Sebastian,' after Guido
Reni ; ' Madonna,' after Kadlik ; a portrait of
Fiiger the younger, after Fiiger. He also became
very successful in portrait painting in miniature.
He died at Gratz in 1876.

RUNGE, Philipp Otto, a painter, born at
Wolgast in Pomerania in 1776, studied first at





Copenhagen under Abildgaard and Juel, and then
in Dresden. He made himself a name by an
allegorical representation of the 'Four Seasons,'
painted at Hamburg, and was afterwards much
employed in wall painting. He died at Hamburg
in 1810.

RUNK, Ferdinand, a German landscape painter,
born at Fribourg, Brisgau, in 1764. He acquired
a reputation by his ' Twenty-foiir Views in the
Tyrol,' aquatinted by Piringer, and by a series of
eight pictures of ' Nature, from the sea-coast to the
mountain-tops.' He died at Vienna in 1834.
There is a 'Tyrolese Landscape' by him in the
Vienna Gallery.

RDOPPOLI, GiDSEPPE, a painter of flowers and
fruit, who particularly excelled in the representation
of grapes, was born at Naples in 1600, and died
there in 1669.

EDPERT, Peince, the third son of the Elector
Palatine of the Rhine and Princess Elizabeth of
England, who played so considerable a part in
our Civil War as leader of his uncle, the king's,
cavalry, was born at Prague in 1619. At one time
he was looked upon as the inventor of the art of
mezzotint engraving, but it has been shown that
he learned it of Ludwig von Siegen, a Lieut.-
Colcmel in the service of the Landgrave of Hesse,
and introduced it into England. He died in London
in 1682. The following is a list of those prints in
mezzotint which can be assigned with some con-
fidence to ' Prince Rupert of the Rhine.' He made

use of the annexed monogram : m •

1. A Magdalene in contemplation ; after M. Merian.

2. An I&ecutioner holding a Sword in one hand and a

Head in the other, after Spagnoletto, known as ' The
Great Executioner.*

3. The Executioner's head, known as ' The Little Exe-

cutioner,' done for Evelyn's Seulptura, who informs
us that it was presented to him by the Prince him-
self, as a specimen of the newly invented art.

4. A Standard-Bearer {three-quarter length Jigure),

5. The same Figure to the shoulders.

fi. Bust of an Old Man with bald head and flowing

7. Portrait of a Young Man, leaning on his left arm.

8. Head of an Old Man with moustache (right profile) .

9. A "Woman's Head, looking down.

10. Boy with basket of fish, on sea-shore; ajier

Teniers (?).

11. Magdalen, turned to our right, her hands crossed on

her bosom.

12. Boy with lighted candle ; after Schalcken (?).

He is also credited with the following etchings :

1. A Mendicant Friar, with rosary ; in the manner of


2. A Beggar singing ; Do.

3. Landscape with man driving a waggon.

4. (?) Old Beggar resting on staff.

5. (?) A Man with a basket on a stick over his


6. Scene on Sea-shore, » man carrying a sack in the


RUPP, Ladislads, a Viennese architect and
engraver, was born in 1790. He was a pupil of
the Academy in his native town, but also studied
in Italy. The date of his death has escaped

RUPPRECHT, Feiedeich Gael, landscape
painter, etcher, engraver on wood, and architect,
was born at Oberzeun, near Anspaoh, in 1779.
After receiving some preliminary instruction at
Nuremberg, he went to Dresden and improved


himself by copying the pictures of Claude, Titian,
Paul Potter, and other old masters ; and also turned
his attention to architecture and perspective ; ac-
quiring considerable knowledge of both. In 1802
he made a tour through the south of Germany to
study landscape, but it being war time he met
with much interruption, and, to support himself,
was compelled to have recourse to portrait paint-
ing. He became acquainted with General Drouet,
whose portrait he painted, and those of several of
his ofiScers, and for some time accompanied the
former through Germany as his interpreter. Rup-
precht's water-colour landscapes are drawn with
great minuteness, and finished like miniatures.
He is, however, better known by his etchings ; he
also did a few woodcuts and a lithograph. As an
architect Rupprecht was employed to restore the
old cathedral of Bamberg to its primitive state,
and he prepared the plans, models, and drawings
for that purpose, and for some years superintended
the work, but did not live to witness the com-
pletion. The cathedral possesses about a hundred
and thirty of his drawings, some of which are
interesting to the antiquary, as representing curious
objects of ancient date discovered during the
restorations. In other respects, Rupprecht pos-
sessed much knowledge, particularly of history,
and showed much critical sagacity in matters con-
nected with the fine arts. An enlarged account of
his life and works was published at Bamberg in
1843, by J. Heller, and there is a portrait of him
after Klein. He died at Bamberg in 1831.


1. Portrait of E. T. A. Hoffmann, for that writer's

' Phantasiestiicken,' published in 1819.

2. Cover for 'Germany's Celebration of the Battle of

Leipsic,' by K. W. Fiisser. 1815.

3. A Peasant counting Money ; signed and dated 1814.

4. The Chapel in the Wunderburg, near Bamberg. 1815.

5. The same subject with variations. 1815.

6. Mary with the Child, and two Angels.

7. The Chapel of St. EUzabeth, at Bamberg.

8. The Altenberg. 1816.

9. The Monument of Count Adelbert von Babenberg.

10. View of the Ruins of the Castle of Babenberg.

11. Monument of Adelbert in the wood near Altenbnrg.

12. Title to B. v. Hornthal's ' Deutsche Friihlineskranzen.'


13. Bamberg, from the north side. 1817.

14. View of Capuchin Church, Bamberg. 1817.

15. The same, with variations.

16. Church of the CarmeUtes, and Convent of St. Theo-

dore, in Bamberg, with Bussian carriages, aud
Cossacks on horseback. 1818.
17 and 18. Views of the town of Hochstadt on the Aisch.

19. Two Views of the Town-hall of Bamberg.

20. Two Views of the Cathedral of Bamberg. 1821.

21 and 22. Visiting Cards of Count von Lamberg and of
the artist.

RUPRECHT, JoHANN Christian, (Rhpeut,) a
German painter, was born at Nuremberg in 1600.
He copied the works of A. Durer and several other
masters with great talent. He also produced
several original compositions, among which was
the 'Raising of Lazarus,' in the church of Se-
bald at Nuremberg. The Emperor Ferdinand III.
carried him to Vienna, where he died in 1654.

RUSCA, Francesco Carlo, a painter, was bom at
Lugano in 1701. He studied law, but abandoned
it for art, which he studied at Turin under Amiconi ;
and at Venice from the works of Titian and Veronese.
From Venice he travelled through Switzerland,
Hanover, Berlin, and came also to England. He




died at Milan in 1769. He painted several portraits,
among which were :

The Countess Schuleuburg.

The Doge of Venice.

Charles I. of Brunswick. (^Brunswick Gallery^

RUSCHEWEYH, Ferdinand, a designer, en-
graver, and lithographer, who distinguished himself
by his engravings after Cornelius, Overbeok, Steinle,
and other artists of the same school ; also after Fra
Angelico, Raphael, Giulio Romano, Miohel-Angelo,
and Thorwaldsen. He was bom at Neustrelitz in
1785, and commenced his studies at Berlin about
1803. He passed some time at Vienna, and in 1808
went to Rome. His enthusiasm for the older Italian
masters, and his desire to emulate Marc-Antonio,
made him the natural interpreter of those painters
who wished to restore the ancient simplicity and
religious feeling of art. Ruscheweyh's engravings
did much to diffuse the knowledge of these artists
throughout Europe. While at Rome he engraved
the beautiful illustrations to Goethe's Faust by
Cornelius, many sacred and classical subjects by
Overbeck, in addition to a long list of plates after
the old Italians. On his return to his native
country in 1832, he engraved the 'Jews in Exile,'
after Benderaann ; ' Christ in the Temple,' and
' Ruth and Boaz,' after Overbeck. He died in 1845.

RUSS, Karl, painter and engraver, born at
Vienna in 1779, was a pupil of Schmitzer and
Maurer. In 1800 he was appointed guardian of the
Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. In 1822 he exhibited
a series of pictures, thirty-seven in number, repre-
senting scenes taken from the history of the House
of Hapsburg. He died in 1843.

RUSS, Leander, painter, born at Vienna in 1809,
was a pupil of the Academy in that city, and painted
military subjects in water-colours, such as the
Battles of 'Kolin,' ' Caldiero,' and 'Leipzic' ;
and 'Charles XII. at Poltawa.' He also worked
much in Indian-ink. He died at Vienna in 1864.

RUSSEL, Antony, an English portrait painter,
the son of Theodore Russel, born about 1660. He
is supposed to have studied under Riley. Many of
his works were engraved by J. Smith and Vertue.
He died in 1743.

RUSSEL, Theodore, a Flemish portrait painter
and copyist, born at Bruges in 1614. He learned
his art under his uncle, Cornelius Jansen, and Van
Pyck, with whom he lived in England. His chief
patrons were Lord Essex and Lord Holland. He
found much employment as a copyist, especially of
Van Dyck's portraits. The date of his death is not
known. The following are some of his works :

Hampton Court. Copy of Rubens' ' Thomyris re-

ceiving the ht ad of Cyrus.'
Holyrood Palace. Charles II.

„ James II.

London. Nat. Portrait ) Sir John Suckling ; after Van

Gallery. J Dyclc.
Woburn Abbey. Several portraits.

RUSSELL, John, son of a bookseller, an English
portrait painter, chiefly in crayons, born at Guild-
ford in 1744, was a pupil of Francis Cotes, whose
manner he followed. His portraits are not in-
ferior to those by Cotes, though somewhat florid
in colour. Time and dust have destroyed a great
many. He published a work on the elements of
painting in crayons, which was considered valuable
at the time, and went through two editions. He
was also fond of astronomy, and constructed a
model showing the appearance of the moon, for

which he obtained a patent: he called it the
Selenographia, and published a description with
plates engraved by himself. In 1788 he was elected
an R.A. He was portrait painter in crayons to
George III. and to the Prince of Wales. He
visited some of the principal towns in England, in
pursuit of his profession, and died at Hull in 1806.

RUSSELL, William, an English portrait and
subject painter, born in the latter part of the 18th
century. He was the son of John Russell, R.A. He
practised in London, and exhibited at the Academy
from 1805 to 1809, after which year no trace of
him can be discovered.

RUSSI, Franco de'. See Crivelli, Taddeo de'.

RUSSI, Giovanni, or Franco, de', miniature
painter, a native of Mantua. In 1455-61 he illumin-
ated the ' Este ' Bible for Borso, Duke of Modena,
in conjunction with Taddeo Crivelli.

RUSSO, Giovanni Pietro, a painter of Capua, of
some local celebrity, who lived in the 17th century.

RUSTICI, Cristoeoro, painter, the son of Iii
Rdstico, practised in Italy in the 16th century, and
imitated the style of his father.

RUSTICI, Francesco, (Rustichino,) born at Siena
about the year 1595, was a pupil of Francesco
Vanni. He for some time imitated the style of
Michel-angelo Caravaggio, while his subjects re-
semble those of Gerard Honthorst. He studied
at Rome the works of Annibale Caracci and Guide,
and painted some pictures there for the public
edifices and private collections. His best picture
is an ' Annunciation,' at Siena. In the Pitti Gallery
there is a fine ' expiring Magdalene ' ; and in the
Palazzo Borghese at Rome, there is a ' St. Sebastian '
by Rustici. He died in the prime of life, in 1625.

RUSTICI, ViCBNZo, painter, practising in Italy
in the 17th century, was a member of the artist
family of Rustici, but less famous than the rest.
He was a pupil of Casolano.

EUSTICO, II, painter, practised at Siena in
the 16th century, and was a pupil of Sodoma.
He devoted himself mainly to the treatment of
grotesque subjects.

RUSUTI, FiLlPPO, (RuSERUTl,) was the author of
some mosaics in the church of Santa Maria Mag-
giore, Rome, which were executed about the year
1380, and represent Christ in the act of benediction,
various Saints, and the legend of the Church's

RUTA, Clementi, painter, born at Parma, 1668,
a pupil of Spolverini and of C. Cignani, came to
Naples in the train of Charles de Bourbon. He
became blind towards the close of his life, and died
in 1767.

RUTGERS, , called Old Rutgers, was an

excellent designer of landscapes with the pen and
in water-colours, of whose life there is no account.
His manner is broad and vigorous, and his figures
well grouped.

RUTHART, Karl, (Rdtharts,) a German
animal painter who is known to have been in
Italy from about 1660 to 1680, and to have stayed
some time in Venice: further details of his life
are entirely wanting. His pictures, representing
stag and bear hunts, are found in most German
galleries. In the Dresden Gallery are four pictures
signed with his name : ' Ulysses and Circe ; ' ' Stags ; '
' Stags pursued by Dogs ; ' and a picture of large
dogs used in bear hunts. In the Louvre there is
also a 'Bear Hunt.'

RUTTEN, Jan, painter of interiors, was born
at Dordrecht in 1809. He was a pupil of A. Van





Stry, whose granddaughter he married, and of G.
A. Schmidt.

RUVIALE, Fkanoesoo, called 1l Polidoeino.
According to Dominici, this painter was a native of
Spain, though he was brought up at Naples, where
he flourished about the year 1540. Having seen
some of the works of Polidoro da Caravaggio at
Naples, whither he had fled from the sacking of
Rome, he became his disciple, and followed the
style of that artist with so much success, that he
acquired the name of II Polidorino. His principal
works at Naples are a 'Dead Christ, with the Virgin
Mary and St. John,' in the chapel of the Courts of
Justice ; and the ' Descent from the Cross,' in that
of the Vioaria Griminale.

RUWERSMA, Wessel Pietee, born at Kollum,
Friesland, in 1750, was a self-educated painter of
portraits and landscape. He died at Buitenpost in

RDYSCH, Anna, a painter of flowers and fruits,
after the manner of Rachel Ruysch, to whom she
is supposed to have been related. She practised in
Holland towards the end of the 17th century.

RUYSCH, Rachel, (Ruisoh,) flower painter, born
at Amsterdam in 1664, was the daughter of Fred-
erick Ruysch, a celebrated professor of anatomy.
At a very early age, without the instruction of a
master, or any other assistance than that of copying
the prints that accidentally fell in her way, she
gave such proofs of an unusual gift for art, that
her father placed her with William van Aelst, an
eminent flower painter. She soon surpassed her
instructor, and being recommended by her extra-
ordinary talents was appointed paintress to the
Elector Palatine. She married, when young, a
portrait painter, Jurian Pool, and is sometimes called
by his name. They lived together about fifty years,
and had ten children, yet she always signed her
pictures with her maiden name. She was more
Successful in painting flowers than fruit, and she
chose exotics in preference to those that were
indigenous to her country. She is admirable in
her manner of grouping as well as in pencilling ;
and each flower is relieved by its neighbour, and
all kept in perfect harmony. With great taste and
judgment she introduced among her flowers the
insects peculiar to the country whence they were
derived ; and these she depicted with microscopic
accuracy. The labour she bestowed on her works
prevented their being numerous ; two, a flower
and a fruit piece, are said to have occupied her for
seven years ; and these she bestowed on one of her
daughters as a marriage portion. Rachel Ruysch
continued the exercise of her talent until she had
reached a very advanced age, and died at Amster-
dam in 1750. Works :
Amsterdam. Museum. Flowers.
„ „ A Bouquet.

„ „ Flowers.

Berlin. Museum, A Bouquet.

Brussels. Museum. Flowers and Fruit.

Dresden. Gallery. Three pictures of Flowers and

Glasgow. Gallery. Flowers in a Vase.

„ „ Flowers and Insects.

Hague. Museitm. Two Flower Pictures.

Munich. Museum. Five pictures of Flowers and

Botterdam. Museum. Flowers.

„ Gallery. Large Flower-piece.

Vienna. Liechtenstein \ Two pictures of Flowers and
Gallery, j Fruit.

RDYSDAEL, Tsaao van, the brother of Solomon
and Jacob van Ruysdael, lived at Haarlem. He


combined the trade of picture-dealing and the pro-
fession of painting. His works, which are mostly
landscapes, are found in a few German galleries.
He died at Haarlem in 1677.

RUYSDAEL, Jakob van, (or Roisdael,) land-
scape painter, was bom at Haarlem about 1630.
He was the son of Izaak Ruysdael, a frame-maker,
and a pupil of Everdingen. In 1648 he entered the
Guild of Haarlem, but in 1659 went to Amsterdam,
where his co-religionists, the Mennonites, took him
into their almshouse. It is not known under whom
he studied, but Houbraken informs us that, although
he bad given proof of extraordinary ability at the
early age of fourteen, he did not at first follow
painting as a profession, but for some years applied
himself to the study and practice of surgery. He
afterwards lived in habits of intimacy with Nicholas
Berghem, and he is said to have been advised by
that artist to devote his attention entirely to paint-
ing. His success warranted the recommendation
of his friend ; his pictures were purchased with
avidity, and he soon became one of the most popular
painters of his time.

In the pictures of Ruysdael, it is evident that he
designed everything from nature, and he is un-
usually happy in his selection of it. His trees and
broken grounds are pleasing in form, and his skies
light and floating. The talents of Ruysdael were
not confined to landscape proper, he painted sea-
pieces with equal success, and his pictures of fresh
breezes and gales of wind are equal to those of
any other painter of his time. Ruysdael's pictures
are sometimes provided with figures by Adriaan
Van der Velde, or Philips Wouwerman.

It is said that Ruysdael visited Italy, but the
assertion rests on no sure foundation ; there is more
probability that he lived for some time on the
borders of Germany, and there found those valleys
between ranges of mountains, with the remains of
ancient ohfiteaux, the solemn woods and groves,
or impetuous waterfalls he so often painted. Some
have made him a student of the wild scenery of
Norway ; but with no authority beyond the subject
of his pictures. In spite of his fondness for paint-
ing the wilder appearances of nature, it is scarcely
too much to say, that the comparatively uneventful
pictures from the neighbourhood of Haarlem are
those in which he charms us most. Smith's Cata-
logue describes four hundred and forty-eight pic-
tures by Ruysdael, leaving out those that properly
belong to Everdingen, and a few duplicates or
copies. Ruysdael has left a few slight but effect-
ive etchings. He died at Haarlem in 1682. Of
his pictures we may name :

Amsterdam. Museum.

Antwerp. Museum.

Brussels. Museum.

Castle Howard.
Dresden, Gallery.

Dublin. iVat. Gall.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall.

The "Waterfall.
The Castle of Bentbeim,
"Winter Landscape.
"Wooded Landscape.
View from Haarlem.
Three Landscapes.

The Jewish Burial Ground.
A Landscape; with figures by

Van de "Welde.
A Stream running through »

A "Waterfall ; and nine other

landscapes of a similar kind.
The ^yind-mill.
A "Woody Landscape.
Wood on the Banks of a River.
Landscape, with Figures by








Nat. Gall.

Dahoich Gall&i'y.

„ Bridyewater Gall.
Luton. Marqais of Bute.



Oxford. Worcester Col-
Paris. Louvre.

Petersburg. Hermitage.
The Hague. Museum.

View of Katwyk.

Landscape with Figures.

The Ford.

Landscape, Buins, and Figures.


Small Landscape.

A Landscape with Kuins (Bre-
derode Oastle).

Forest Scene.

Two Watermills.

Kock Landscape with Torrent.

Watermills and Bleachers.

An Old Oak.

The Broken Tree.

The Plain of Holland, from
Brederode Oastle.

Four Landscapes with "Water-

Two Windmills near a Pathway.

A Waterfall.

The Edge of a Wood.

Six Landscapes,

Interior of a church at Amster-

Two Landscapes.

A Waterfall.

A Torrent.

Seven Landscapes.

> Wooded Landscape.

The Storm.
Forest, with Cattle.
Landscape known as ' Le Buis-

Landscape known as ' Le Coup

de Soleil.'
Two more Landscapes.
Mountain, with still water.
A View of Haarlem.
A Waterfall.

RUYSDAEL, Jakob van, a cousin of the cele-
brated painter of the same name, ia recorded as a
painter by Van der Willigen. He was Master of
the Haarlem Guild in 1664. Other details of his
life are unknown, as also are his works. He died
at Haarlem in 1681.

RUYSDAEL, SAtoMON van, the uncle of Jakob
vanRuysdael, was born at Haarlem at the commence-
ment of the I7th century. He painted landscapes
and views of rivers in Holland, in which he modelled
himself on Van Goyen. He was particularly suc-
cessful in the representation of water. In 1648
he was Dean of the Haarlem Corporation. He
died in 1670. Works :

Amsterdam. Museum.

The Halt.

Antwerp. Museum.

The Village Inn.
Calm at Sea.

Berlin. Museum.
Brussels. Museum.

Five Landscapes.
The Ferry.

» it
Dresden. Gallery.
Dublin. Nat. Gallery.


Three Landscapes.

View of Alkmaar in Winter

Glasgow. Gallery.
Munich. Gallery.
Eotterdam. Museum.

Kiver Landscape.
Three Landscapes.
The Maas at Dordrecht.

RUYTEN, Joannes Michael, painter, born at
Antwerp, 1813. He first studied under Regemorter,
then in Holland under W. J. Nuyen. He painted
chiefly views of towns and coast scenery, into
which he introduced figures ; and he was fond of
trying effects of light, which were not always
happy in execution. He also etched a few plates.
He died in 1881.

RUYTENSCHILDT, Abbaham, painter, bom at
Amsterdam, 1778, a pupil of J. Andriessen and of
P. Barbiers, painted landscape and genre pictures.
He-died in 1841.

RUYVEN, PiETEB van, born at Leyden, 1651,
was a pupil of Jakob Jordaens, and an historical

painter of talent. He painted the triumphal arch

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 112 of 201)