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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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In 1840 he gained the ' Prix de Rome,' and in 1848
a medal of the first class. He engraved some im-
portant plates, and died at Montmartre, September
4th, 1856. Among his best plates are :

Portrait of Andrea del Sarto ; after that nmstert

Poetry ; after Raphael.

Theology ; after the same.

Pamphlet notices of his life and works were pub-
lished at Lyons by J. S. Bourgeois in 1860, and by
Dr. Charles Fraisse in 1862.

SAINT-:feVRE, GiLLOT, painter, born at Banlt-
siir-Snippe, Marne. He was for a time an oBBcer
of artillery, but gave up military life to devote
himself to art. He was a frequent exhibitor at the
Salon, and died in Paris in 1858. There are examples
of his work at Versailles.

SAINT-IGNY, Jean de, a painter and engraver
of Rouen, who flourished at the end of the 16th
century. He wrote a book on the first elements of
portrait painting, and died in 1649.

SAINT-JEAN, Simon, flower-painter, was born
at Lyons in 1808, and educated there under Fran9ois
Lepage. He took Van Huysum as his model, and
rivalled his truth to nature. He died at Ecully-
Lyon, in 1860. Examples of his art are to be
found in the Museums of Rouen and Lyons.

SAINT-NGN, Abb^ de, Jean-Claude-Richard,
di'aughtsman and etcher, born in Paris in 1730.
His love for art induced him to sell his ofiice in the
Legislative Assembly, and to undertake a journey of
some duration in Italy for the purpose of making
studies from the old masters. Many of these he
etched on his return to Paris. He brought out a
' Voyage pittoresque d'ltalie et des Royauraes de
Naples et de Sicile,' with many plates, and also pub-
lislied a series of nineteen sheets of antique orna-
ments and furniture, which had a favourable influ-
ence upon decorative taste in France. He usually
signed his plates S. N., or S. No. Ho died in 1804.

SAINT-OURS, Pierre Paul de, painter, was
born at Geneva in 1752. His father, a drawing
master, sent him to Paris, where he entered the
school of Vien, and in 1780 gained the Prix de
Rome with -his picture of the ' Rape of the Sabines.'
Being however a Protestant and a foreigner he was
not entitled to the pension, but was allowed to
proceed to Rome some years later, under certain
conditions. Owing to bad health he returned to
his own country, where he devoted himself to por-
trait painting. In 1803 he won the only reward
given by the French Government in a competition
set afoot by themselves, for the best picture on the
subject of the ' Concordat.' His works are chiefly
to be found at Geneva. He died at Schafihausen
in 1809.

SAINT QDENTIN, a French painter, and pupil of
Boucher, who flourished between 1760 and 1780,
and painted landscapes and genre pictures.

SAINT-YVES, Pierre de, historical painter,
born at Maubert-Fontaine in 1666. He became an
Associate of the Academy in 1708, his entrance
picture being '.lephthah's Sacrifice' (now in the
Tours Museum). He died in Paris, March 20,

SAITER, Daniel, (Seitek, Seuteh, Syder,)
painter, was born at Vienna in 1642 (1647). He
went to Italy when he was very young, and studied
for some years at Venice, under Carlo Loth. From
Venice he went to Rome, where he studied under
Carlo Maratti. He was afterwards invited to the
court of Turin, where he painted many pictures,
among them the fresco in the Cupola of the Spedal
Maggiore. Examples of his work are also to ba
found at Brunswick, Dresden, and in the Turin
Gallery. He died at Turin in 1705.

SAITER, Johann Gotfhied, (Seiter, or
Seuter, Syder,) a German draughtsman and en-
graver, born at Augsburg in 1718. He was in-
structed by J. E. Ridinger and G. M. Preissler.
He lived some years in Italy, but died in the
hospital at Augsburg in 1800. Works :

Portrait of John Kupetzky, Painter.

George Philip Eugendas, Battle Painter.

Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Celesti.
A Holy Family ; after Andrea del Sarto.
Christ with Martha and Mary ; after L. da T'inci.
The Adulteress before Christ ; yter Frocaccini.
The Marriage at Cana; after P. Veronese.
The Flight into Egypt ; after Alhano.





SALA, VlTALE, painter, was born at Cernusco,
near Brienz, in 1803, and educated at Brera, where
he painted the 'Death of Cato;' 'The Death of
Romeo and Juliet ;' and the 'Farewell of Regulus.'
There are also works by him in the churches of
t Vigevano, Novara, Bosisio, Desio, and in those of
St. Stefano, St. Lazzaro, and St. Catharine, in Milan.
He died at Milan in 1835.

SALAI, Andeea, (Salaino, Salario,) born at
Milan about 1480, was the pupil and favourite
companion of Leonardo da Vinci, with whom he
went to Rome, and painted many pictures which
were retouched by the master. His name contin-
ually occurs in Leonardo's memoranda, and he
seems to have acted generally as the great painter's
humble friend and factotum. Unfortunately none
of the pictures assigned to him in various collections
can be authentically traced to his hand. Proba-
bility, however, seems to point to his authorship of
certain Leonardesque pictures in which greenish
and rosy tones are combined in a peculiar and not
unpleasant fashion ; a good example is in England,
in the possession of the Rev. W. H. Wayne, and
another in the Brera, Milan. Salai has often been
confused with Andrea Solario, a totally diSerent

SALAMANCA, Antonio, a very celebrated pub-
lisher and dealer in prints, flourished about the
middle of the 16th century. He is the supposed
engraver of a plate after Michelangelo's ' Pietk,' on
which is inscribed Antonius Salamanca Quod
Potuit Imitatus Exsculpsit, This is the
only direct piece of evidence that he practised en-
graving, but two more plates have been ascribed
to him : a portrait of Baccio Bimdinelli, 1546, and
the ' Creation of Animals,' after Raphael, 1548. All
the other prints with his name have excudebat, or
excudit, instead of exsculpsit.

SALAMANCA, Gehonimo db, a painter of the
16tli century, practising at Seville.

SALAZAR, Juan de, a skilful illuminator of the
16th century. He is chiefly known by his work
for the choir-books of the Escurial, and for the
mass-books of Toledo. His drawing was remark-
able for its delicacy and precision, and his colour
for its brilliance. He died at Toledo in 1604.

SALERNO, Andrea da. See Sabattini.

SALIBA, Antonello da, a Sicilian painter, who
lived in the early part of the 16th century, and
adopted the method which Antonello da Messina
is said to have introduced into Italy.

SALIMBENE, Arcangiolo, (Angelo Salim-
• BENi,) a native of Siena, who flourished in the latter
half of the 16th century. He was a pupil of
Zuccaro. Works :

Lusignano. Parish Church. The Crucifixion.
Sieua. Somemcani. St. Peter Martyr.

SALIMBENE, Cavaliers Ventdea, (Salimbeni,)
called also Bevilacqua, after his patron Cardinal
Bonifazio Bevilacqua of Ferrara, the son of Arcan-
giolo Salirabene, was born at Siena in 1557. After
being instructed in the rudiments by his father,
he went to Rome in the pontificate of Sixtus V., by
whom he was employed in the library of the Vatican,
and in the palace of the Lateran. He afterwards
visited Florence, where, in competition with Ber-
nardino Barbatelli, called II Poocetti, he painted
several pictures of the life of the Virgin in the
cloister de Servi. Salimbene lived in habits of
intimacy with Agostino Tassi, who frequently
painted landscape back-grounds to his pictures.
He died at Siena in 1613. Works :


Foligao. Cathedra!. Marriage of the Virgin.

Perugia. S. Fietro. St. Gregory.

Eome. Jesuits' Church. Baptism of Christ.

„ „ Abraham and the Angels,

„ S. Simeoni Lancellotti. The Circumcision.

„ S. Maria Maggiore. The Annunciation.

Salimbene has left a few etchings.

SALINCORNO, Mieabello, called also Cavalobi,
flourished in 1565. He was a scholar of Ridolfo
Ghirlandajo, and was one of the artists who helped
to paint the catafalque for the obsequies of Michel-
angelo. It is uncertain when he died. Zani says
he was at work in 1578.

SALINI, ToMMASo, Cavaliere, painter, bom at
Rome in 1570 or 1576, was the son of a Florentine
sculptor, who placed him under the tuition, of
Baccio Pintelli, an artist of little note. He became
a respectable painter of history, and also painted
flowers and fruit with considerable success. He
died at Rome about 1630.

SALIS, Carlo, was born at Verona in 1680, and
first studied at Bologna under Giuseppe da I'Sole,
but he afterwards became a disciple of Antonio
Balestra, at Venice, whose style he imitated with
success. His best picture is an 'altar-piece at Ber-
gamo, representing S. Vincenzio healing the Sick.
He died in 1763.

SALLAERT, Antonie, (Salaert, or Sallaeets,)
was born at Brussels about the j'ear 1590. He
was inscribed, as an apprentice, on the corporation
book of the Brussels painters in 1606. His master,
Michael de Bordeau, also taught Philippe de Cham-
pagne. Sallaert was admitted master in 1613.
Salaert enjoyed the friendship of Rubens, whose
pupil he is ahserted, but without evidence, to have
been. He was Dean of the Painters' Guild in 163.3-4,
1634-5, 1646-7 and 1647-8, so that his death can-
not have taken place prior to 1648, but its exact
date is unknown. Pictures :

Brussels. Gallery. Christ's Passion ; an allegory.

„ „ The Infanta Isabella at the

Shooting Feast of the'Grand-
„ „ The Procession of the ' Pucelles

du Sablon.'
Madrid. Gallery. The Judgment of Paris.

Papillon mentions this artist as an engraver on
wood. He usually marked his prints with the cipher

^^. [aJI . Sometimes with the border, some-
times without. BruUiot denies that he engraved
on wood ; but a set of the Four Evangelists and
an ' Ecce Homo ' bear his mark.

SALLIETH, Mathias de, was bom at Prague in
1749, and was taught engraving by J. E. Mansfeld
of Vienna, and afterwards went to Paris and worked
under J. Ph. Le Bas ; several prints by him are
in Choiseul-Gouffier's ' Voyage pittoresque de la
Grece,' ' Voyage pittoresque en France,' and ' La
Gallerie Lebrun.' Subsequently he resided in
Holland, and employed himself on marine subjects
after his own designs, and after pictures by Dutch
masters. Among the best are, the ' Battle of
Nieuport ' ; and three others, after D. Langendyck ;
two after Kobell ; one after A. Storck ; and one
after Vander Capelle. He died at Rotterdam in

SALM, A. van, a Dntch painter of marines and
views in Holland, in black and white, in imitation
of pen-drawings. He lived about the middle of
the 17th century.

SALMEGGIA, Enea, (Salmasio,) called II
Talpino, painter, was born at Bergamo about the




year 1556. He received his first teaching at Cre-
mona, under the Campi, but afterwards became a
scholar of Procacoini, at Milan. He also passed
fourteen years at Rome, where he applied himself
to the study of Raphael. His pictures, of which
there are many in his native town, have much sim-
plicity and refinement. He died at Bergamo in
1626. Francesco and Clara, the son and daughter
of Enea Salmeggia, imitated their father's manner.

SALMERON, Ceistobal Garcia, a Spanish
painter, born at Cuenca in 1603. He was a pupil
of Pedro Orrente, and proved a reputable history
and animal painter. One of his best works is a
' Nativity,' in the church of St. Francis, at Cuenca.
He was employed by Philip IV. to paint a bull-
fight, held in honour of the birth-day of Charles II.
of Spain. He died at Madrid in 1666.

SALMERON, Francisco, brother of Cristobal
Salmeron, was born at Cuenca in 1608, and was
also a pupil of Pedro Orrente. His desire was to
distinguish himself as acolourist, for which purpose,
it is said, he chemically analyzed works by Titian,
P. Veronese, Tintoretto, and the Bassani. He neg-
lected the other essentials of art, and so, beside
their good colour, his pictures exhibit very great
defects. The church of S. Francisco at Cuenca has
a ' Burial of Christ ' by him. He died at Madi'id in

SALMIER JossE, a Flemish painter, probably a
native of Mechlin, practising about 1620. He was
related to the painter David Herregouts, to whom
he gave his first lessons in art.

SALMINCIO, Andrea, engraver, was a native of
Bologna, where he was a bookseller. He learnt
engraving from Giovanni Luigi Valesio, and pro-
duced several engravings, both on wood and on
copper, which he marked with a monogram similar
to that of Ant. Sallaert.

SALMON, Adrien Alphonse, painter, born in
Paris ,in 1802, was a pupil of Leoourt, and entered
the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1819. He was an
occasional exhibitor at the Salon, and at the
Luxembourg, but was better known iis a restorer
of pictures. He last appeared at the Salon in 1848.

SALMON, Jacques Pierre Franqois, painter,
born at Orleans on the 16th August 1781, was a
pupil of Bardin and of Regnault. He was for
some time attached to the "Bcole Centrale" of the
department of Loiret, and aflerwards worked for
forty-five years as a professor at the College of
Orleans. Several views by him of scenery in the
neighbourhood of Orleans have been engraved and
lithographed. He died at Orleans on the 10th
March, 1855. The Mus^e of that city possesses
examples of his work.

SALOMON, Bernard, an engraver, called also
'Le petit Bernard,' Bernard us Gall us, and Bernardo
Gallo, was born at Lyons (?) about 1520. Though
there is a doubt as to Lyons being his birthplace,
he certainly resided there in the last half of the
16th century, and was engaged in book illustration.
His best works were illustrations to the Bible and
to Ovid's ' Metamorphoses.' He is said to have had
a son, Jean Bernard, who pi-actised the same art as
his father, and was called Giovanni Gallo, Johannes
Gallus, &c.

SALT, Henry, a draughtsman, was born about
1785 at Lichfield, where he was also educated. He
accompanied Lord Valentia to India in 1802, and
furnished the illustrations for the book of travels
published by that nobleman in 1809. He was em-
ployed by the Government to carry presents to

negotiate an alliance with the King of Abyssinia,
the artistic result of which was the publication of
twenty-four views of Abyssinia, and the Red Sea.
In 1815 he was appointed Consul-General for
Egypt, and devoted himself to the study of the
antiquities of that country. He died between Cairo
and Alexandria in 1827.

SALTARELLO, Luoa, (Sartarelli,) was born
at Genoa in 1610, and was a disciple of Domenico
Fiasella. At an early age he gave proofs of extra-
ordinary ability, but going in 1635 to Rome in
search of improvement, he there fell a victim to
his unremitting labour while still very young.
Works :

Genoa. San Stefano. The Miracle of St. Benedict.

„ S. Andrea. Martyrdom of St. Audrew.

Lisboii. The Trinity.

SALTER, William, historical and portrait
painter, was born at Honitou in 1804, went to'
London in 1822, and became a pupil of Northcote.
He then went to Florence, where he painted a
picture of 'Socrates before the Areopagus,' and
thence to Rome and Parma, at which latter city his
studies from Correggio became famous. In 1833 he
returned to England, where he painted a picture of
the 'Waterloo Banquet.' He was also employed
in painting scenes from Shakespeare, and historical
scenes from the lives of the Stuarts. Salter was
a vice-president of the Society of British Artists.
He died in London in 1875.

SALTO, Diego db, an Augustine friar of Seville,
who took the vows in 1576, and devoted his leisure
to illuminating.

SALTZBURGER, P., a German engraver on
wood, who flourished about the year 1580 ; most of
his cuts are from the designs of Jost Amman.

SALVA, Carniero Joaquin de, a Portuguese
engraver, born at Oporto in 1727. He studied at
Rome, and was appointed Professor in the School
of Engraving at Lisbon, where he died in 1818.

SALVADOR oiP Valencia, a Spanish painter
of the Iftth century, who worked with Benozzo
Gozzoli at Rome, and was patronized by Calixtus
III., about 1450.

SALVADOR CARMONA, Manoel, was aii en-
graver and designer, who was born at Madrid in
1730, and became a pupil of Dupuis in Paris. He
died at Madrid in 1807. His engravings are much
esteemed. Among the more important may be
reckoned the following:

An Allegory in honour of Charles III. of Spain ; after

Bacchus crowning his Votaries ; after Velazquez.

A Madonna seated on Clouds ; after Murillo. 1802.

A Mnudouna,; after Van Dyck. 1757.

The Kesurrection ; after Van Zoo. 1757.

St. John the Baptist ; after Raphael Menys. 1784.

The Magdalene ; after the same.

St. Ferdinand praying ; after Murillo. 1791.

Angels appearing to Mary Magdalene ; after Guercino.

Portrait of Francois Boucher; after Eoslin Svedois.

Portrait of Collin de Vermont ; after the same.

Portrait of Cliarles III. ; after Raphael Menys. 1783.

Portrait of Don Alfonso P. de Guzman ; after VanDyck.

Joseph, a Carmelite Monk ; after Velazquez.

SALVADOR GOMEZ, Luciano, supposed to be
a brother of Vicente S. Gomez, was a pupil of
Jacinto de Espinosa. A ' St. Barbara,' in the
cathedral and a 'St. Erasmus,' in the Dominican
convent, at Valencia, are ascribed to him. He
was living in 1662.

SALVADOR GOMEZ, Vicente, was a native of
Valencia, and pupil of Jacinto de Espinosa. At
the age of fourteen he is recorded to have painted





a series of pictures from the life of St. Ignatius
Loyola, which gained him enoiish reputation to
keep him fully employed in the Valeiitian churches
and convents for the rest of his life. He was a
skilful painter of birds and animals, also of arclii-
tecture ; and his colour was pleasing. In 1670 he
was the Director of an academy held in the convent
of St. Dominic, and in 1675 he executed ten scenes
from the lives of St. Juan de Mala and St. Felix de
Valois for the choir of the church of El Remedio.
These are the only dates relating to him which are
certainly known. His pictures are numerous.

SALVADOR, Mariano Maello, of Valencia, born
in 1739, studied painting with Gonsalez Velazquez
at Madrid. He was appointed painter to tlie King
and Director-General of the Academy of St. Fer-
dinand. In 1775 he was employed in Valencia,
with Bayeu, to replace the venerable frescoes of
Juan de Borgofia in Toledo with daubs of his own.
He furnished illustrations, engraved by Salvador
Carmona, for the Infant Don Gabriel's Sallust. He
died in 1819.

SALVATORE D'ANTONIO, the author of a
panel in San Niccolo, Messina, painted at the close
of the 15th century, representing St. Francis re-
ceiving the stigmata, is thought by some to have
been the father of Antonello da Messina, but no
records of his life or death exist. The latest opinion
would make him the pupil of Antonello.

SALVESTRINI, Bartolommeo, a Florentine
painter of the 17th century, one of the most suc-
cessful imitators of Jan Bilivert. He died while
still young, a victim to the plague of 1630.

SALVETTI, Francesco, a minor Florentine
painter and engraver, born 1701. He was the
pupil and intimate friend of Anton Domenico
Grabbiani. He died in 1768.

SAL VI, Giovanni Batista, called II Sassoiter-
EATO, was born at the castle of Sassoferrato, near
Urbino, on June 11, 1605. He was the son of Tar-
quinio Salvi, who instructed him in the rudiments
of design, and when he was very young sent him
to Rome, where he passed some years. He after-
wards visited Naples, where he is supposed to have
studied under Doraenichino. But Sassoferrato did
not confine himself to any particular master, but
modelled his work on the styles of Guido, Albano,
Baroccio, and Raphael. His pictures are mostly
Madonnas, and he seldom ventured on more am-
bitious subjects. His most considerable works are
a small altar-piece in the church of S. Sabina, at
Eome, representing the ' Madonna del Rosario, with
St. Catherine and St. Dominic,' and a ' Crucifixion,'
in the church at North Craj', Kent. He died at
Rome in 1685. Additional worliis :










Court. Palace.

Nat. Gallery.





Rome. Vatican 3fuseuin.

„ Pal. L'orijhese.

Venice. Academy.


Sleep of the Child Jesus.
Virgin in Prayer.
Virgin and sleeping Child,
His own Portrait.
The Magdalene.
Virgin and Child.
Madonna in Prayer.
Virgin in contemplation.
Virgin, and Child asleep.
Virgin and Child.
The Immaculate Conception.
Virgin in Prayer.
Madonna and St. Joseph.
Adoration of the Shepherds.
Sleep of the Child Jesus.
The Assumption.
Two ' Madonnas.'
Virgin and Child.
The Life of Mary.
St. Cecilia.

SALVI, Tarquinio, a Roman painter of the 16tb
century, of whom little is known. He was a native
of Sassoferrato, and the father and first teacher of
Giambattista Salvi, called Sassoferrato. His only
recorded work is a large ' Rosario,' in the Bremitani
at Rome. It is signed and dated 1553.

SALVIATI, Francesco. See Dei Rossi, Fran-

SALVI ATI, Giuseppe. See Porta.

SALVIATINO. See Rossi, Francesco.

SALVIONI, Ro.sALBA Maria, painter, was born
at Rorne in the 17th century. She studied under
Sebastiano Conca, and in 1730 was admitted an
honorary member of the Academia Clementi of
Bologna. In the church of tlie Minorites at
Frascati there is a ' St. Catharine ' by lier.

SALVOLINI, GiusTiNO de, called also Episcopio,
a painter of the 16th century, belonging to the
Roman school, but practising chiefly in his native
town of Castel Durante, where he painted in col-
laboration with Luzio Dolce.

SALWAY, N., an English inezzotinter, who
flourished about the year 1760. He engraved some
portraits, which are not without merit.

SALV, Jacques Franqois Joseph, (Sailly,) a
famous French sculptor, born at Valenciennes in
1717, was a pupil of Coustou. He is mentioned
here as the etcher of thirty designs for vases, and
of four for monuments. He was Director of the
Academy in Copenhagen. In 1774 he went to
Paris, where he died in 1776.

SALZEA, De. See De Four.

SALZER, Friedrich, landscape painter, bom at
Heilbronn in 1827, was instructed in the principles
of his art by Baumann, but afterwards went to
Munich. He painted the backgrounds for the
battle-pieces of Kotzebue. There is a Winter-piece
by him in the Gallery of Stiittgart. In 1863 he
gave up art on succeeding to his father's business,
and died at Heilbronn in 1876.

SAM, Engel, (or Angelo,) born at Rotterdam in
1699, was a good portrait painter, but excelled
chiefly in genre. He imitated the manner of Van
der WerfE, and, it is said, painted a 'Flight into
Egypt' so perfectly resembling the work of that
master, that even experts were deceived by it.
It is also said that he imitated Metsu. He died
at Amsterdam in 1769.

SAMACCHINI, Orazio, painter, was born at
Bologna in 1532, and, according to Malvasia, was
the pupil of Pellegrino Tibaldi. He afterwards
studied the works of Correggio, and was employed
to paint in fresco the great chapel in the cathedral
of Parma, contiguous to the famous cupola by that
distinguished master. He went to Rome in the
pontificate of Pius IV., by whom he was employed,
in conjunction with Marco da Siena and others, in
the decorations of the Sala Regia. The Dresden
Gallery has a ' Holy Family ' by this artist.
Samaochini died at Bologna in 1577. Works :

Bologna. SS. Narhorre e Felice.

„ S. Giacomo Macfijiore.

„ Certosa.

„ La Triii'td.

„ Pal, Lavihertini.

Cremona. S. Abbondio.

Coronation of the Virgin.

Puriflcatiou of the Virgin.

Last Supper.


The Fall of Icarus.

Frescoes on the vault.

SAMANIEGO, Mariana. See Sii.va Bazan.

SAMBACH, Franz Kaspar, painter, was born
at Breslau in 1715, received his instruction in art
from Eeinert and de I'Bpte, and at Vienna under
Donner. In 1762 he became Professor of Architec-
ture ; and in 1772 Director of Painting in the same




academy. He painted feigned bas-reliefs in the
style of Geeraerts and Jacob de Wit. He also
executed some frescoes for the Jesuits' church at
Stuhlweissenburg, and an altar-piece for the
Eranciscan church at Camischa. He died at Vienna
in 1795.

SAMELING, Benjamin, painter, born at Ghent
in 1520, was brought up in the school of Franz
Floris, in whose style he painted historical subjects
and portraits. The church of the Jansenists at
Ghent has several works by him after drawings by
Lucas de Heere. He died at Ghent in 1614.

SAMENGO, Ambbogio, a Genoese landscape
painter of the 17th century, the pupil of Giov.

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