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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Andrea Ferrari. His works are few and scarce, in
consequence of his early death.

SAMMARTINO. See San Martino.


SAMMIGHBLI. See San Micheli.

SAMSON, Jean, a French historical painter of
the ,16th century, who, in 1553, was engaged in
work for the chateau of Versailles.

SAMUEL, Geokge, landscape painter, was an
exhibitor at the Academy from 1786 to 1823. He
painted a ' View of the Thames from Rotherhithe
Stairs,' during the frost of 1789. He was killed by
a wall falling on him, soon after 1823.

SAMQEL, Richard, portrait painter and en-
graver, was an exhibitor at the Academy from
1772 to 1779. There is an engraving after him of
' Nine living Muses,' including Mrs. Sheridan, Mrs.
Montague, [Angelica KaufEman, etc. In 1773 ho
gained a prize from the Society of Arts for an im-
provement in the method of laying mezzotint

SAN ANTONIO, Fray Bartolome de, was born
at Cienpozuelos in 1708. At the age of fifteen he
took the habit of the order of the Trinitarios des-
calzos, and after studying philosophy and theology
went to Rome to study painting, of which he had
acquired the elements at Madrid. He remained in
Italy six years, and in 1740 returned to his convent
at Madrid, which he enriched with an immense
number of his productions. About this time tlie
Academy of S. Fernando was established, for which
he painted an allegorical picture representing
'Ferdinand VI. and the Catholic Religion,' for
which he was received as a member of that body.
The church of the Trinitarios, at Madrid, also
possesses many of his works. He died on Febru-
ary 8, 1782.

SAN BERNARDO, II Vecohio di. See Min-


SANCHEZ, Alonso, one of three artists employed
to paint frescoes at the university de Alcala de
Henares, by command of Cardinal Cisn^ros, the
founder. He was also employed, with five others,
in the embellishment of the cathedral cloister at
Toledo, for which he was paid in 1498. In 1508
he was again employed in the same cathedral with
Diego Lopez and Luis de Medina.

SANCHEZ, Andres, a native of Portillo, near
Toledo. He was a pupil of Theotocopuli, called
II Greco, and was commissioned in 1600 by the
delegate of the Franciscan missionaries to paint
certain pictures for the churches built by them
in the Spanish colonies.

SANCHEZ, Clemente, painter, was living at
Valladolid in 1620. He painted several pictures
for the Dominicans of Aranda de Duero.

SANCHEZ-COELLO, Alonzo, was born at Beny-
fayro, in Valencia, in 1513 or 1515. From his style

he appears to have studied in Italy, for his design
resembles that of the Florentines, while in colour
he follows the principles of the Venetians. In
1541 he resided at Madrid, where he formed an in-
timacy with Sir Antonio Mor, whom he accom-
panied to Lisbon, when the latter was sent by
Charles V. to paint the portraits of the royal
family. Sanchez entered into the service of Don
John, who had married Joanna, the daughter of
Charles and sister of Philip II., and made a con-
siderable stay at Lisbon. At the death of Don
John his widow recommended Sanchez to her
brother Philip, who at once received him as his
painter in ordinary when Mor made his sudden
flight from Spain. He painted many portraits of
Philip and of other members of the royal family'.
He also painted the Popes Gregory XIII. andSixtus
V. ; the Dukes of Florence and Savoy ; Cardinal
Farnese, brother of the Duke of Parma ; and many
grandees of Spain. With such patronage he became
rich, and, it is said, lived according to his fortune.
In 1570 he painted, in conjunction with his disciple,
Diego de tjrbina, the triumphal arch erected at
Madrid for the entry of Anne of Austria, the wife
of Pliilip II. In 1573 he entered into an engage-
ment to decorate with suitable subjects the prin-
cipal altar of the church del Espinar, executed by
the celebrated Francisco Giralte, and for which he
painted what may be termed a drop-scene, to serve
as a screen during the two last weeks in Lent.
Notwithstanding his advanced age Philip en ployed
him in 1682 in filling the Esourial with pictures.
For this palace-monastery he painted 'St. Paul,
the first hermit, with St. Anthony ; ' 'St. Stephen
with St. Lawrence ; ' 'St. Vincent with St. George ; '
' St. Catharine with St. Inez ; ' and 'St Justus and
Pastor,' in which he introduced a view of Alcala
de Henares, and the scenerj' about it. About this
time he painted the portrait of his friend, Father
Siguenza, which is considered a chef-cT oewore, and
has been finely engraved by Fe.dinand Selma ; and
in 1582 that of Ignatius Loyola, from casts taken
twenty-nine years previously, and from instructions
by Father Ribadeneyra. Notwithstanding all this
success, however, Coello was but a second-rate
artist. He died at Madrid in 1590. Of his works
we may name :

London. Nat. For. Gal. Full-length portraitofPhilipII.
Madrid. Museum, Portrait of Don Carlos.

„ „ Eugenia and several other


„ „ The Marriage of St. Catharine.

Vienna. Belvedere. A Spanish Lady.

SANCHEZ-COELLO, Isabella, who was born at
Madrid in 1564, was instructed by her father, Alonso
Sanchez Coello, and distinguished herself as a
painter of portraits, which are not now, however,
to be identified. She was also eminent in poetry
and music, and highly esteemed for her personal
character. She married Francisco de Herrera, and
died at Madrid in 1612.

SANCHEZ-COTAN, Fray Jdan, an eminent
Spanish painter of Madonnas, flowers, and still-
life, was born at Alcazar de San Juan in 1561 ; he
was the son of Bartolom^ Sanchez-Cotan, and Ana
de Quinones. He studied at Toledo under Bias de
Prado, whose style he imitated, and under him
made great progress in art. At first he painted
hodegones, subjects like those of Jan Fyt, but in
1604 he became a professor of the Chartreuse of
Paular, and painted subjects from Christ's Passion,
the sorrows of the Virgin, and particularly Madonnas





crowned with cliaplets of flowers ; all these he
devoted to the decoration of his convent, or
bestowed on his brethren for their private oratories.
From Paular Sanohez-Cotan was removed in 1612
to the royal Chartreuse at Granada, for which he
painted the principal historical pictures in that
monastery. It is related by Palomino that he
painted a Crucifixion for the refectory of the con-
vent, so deceptive in its appearance that birds at-
tempted to perch on the cross ; and Cean Berraudez
confesses that he, at first sight, mistook it for a
piece of sculpture. Vincenzo Carducci made a
journey from Madrid to Granada to see his works.
Sanchez-Cotan died at Granada in 1637.

SANCHEZ-D'AVILA, Andres, painter, was born
at Toledo. He went to Paris in his youth, and
afterwards established himself as a portrait painter
at Vienna. He died in 1762.

SANCHEZ DB CASTRO, Joan, of Seville, founder
of the school of Andalusia, was born in the first
half of the 16th century. In 1454 he painted
pictures for the old Gothic altar, in the chapel of
San Josef in Seville cathedral. For the church of
San Julian he executed a St. Christopher in fresco,
which was repaired in 1776, little but the signature
being left of the work.

SANCHEZ, Luis, is known only as having de-
signed in 1611 the title-page of a book called ' De la
Veneracion que se debe a las reliquias de los santos,'
engraved by Pedro Perret, and published in Madrid.

SANCHEZ, Manuel, a priest of Murcia, who
was practising as a painter in 1731.

SANCHEZ, PEDE0,'a Spanish painter, who was at
work in Toledo cathedral in 1462.

SANCHEZ SARABIA, Diego, an architectural
draughtsman and painter of familiar subjects, was a
member of the Academy of San Fernando in 1762.
By desire of that body he made drawings of the
Alhambra and of the Palace of Charles V.,at Granada.
These are now in the Academj'. Sanchez Sarabia
died in 1779.

SANCHO, EST^BAN, a Spanish painter, known
as Maneta, from his having lost his right hand.
He was a native of Majorca, and a pupil of Pedro
Ferrer, and painted many pictures for the churches
of his native island. He died in 1778.

SAN CLERICO, , an Italian scene-painter

and decorator of much repute, practising in 1823.
A good example of his work is the ceiling of the
Casino degli Negozianti at Milan.

SAN DANIELE, Battista da, was a Dalmatian,
living at Udine and San Daniele, in the middle of
the 15th century, and was the father of Martino da
Udine, surnamed Pellegrino da San Daniele. No
paintings by him are now extant, but records exist
to prove that in 1468 he contracted to paint a cur-
tain-fall for the church of Comerzo, and in 1470 an
altar-piece with four figures for the brotherhood of
San Daniele di Castello. (Crowe and Cavalcaselle,
' Painting in N. Italy,' vol. ii. p. 188.)
' SANDARS, Thomas, engraver, son of a painter
of Rotterdam, went to London, and became a
member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy. He
etched the ' Italian Fisherman,' after Vernet, and
drew and engraved fifteen views of market towns
in Worcestershire. He exhibited at the Academy
down to 1775.

SANDBERG, Johann Gdstaf, a Swedish
painter born in 1782. In the Stockholm Gallery
there are three pictures by him — a ' Giistavus
Adolphus II. at the battle of Stuhm,' and two single
figure pictures. He died in 1854.


SANDBY, Paul, was born at Nottingham in
1725. He came to London when he was sixteen
years of age, and having shown an early inclin-
ation for art, he obtained an introduction to the
draughtsmen's room at the Tower. He had studied
there about two years when the late Duke of Cum-
berland, wishing to have a survey made of the
north and west parts of the Highlands of Scotland,
young Sandbywas engaged as draughtsman, under
the inspection of Mr. David Watson. In company
with that gentleman he travelled through that most
romantic country, and, though the leading object
of his tour was the drawing of plans, in his leisure
hours he made many sketches of the scenery
which surrounded him. From these designs he
made a number of email etchings, which were
published by Messrs. Eyland and Bryce. Soon
after his return from his northern tour, about the
year 1762, he passed some time with his brother at
Windsor, and during his residence there made a
great number of drawings of views about Windsor
and Eton, which were immediately purchased by
Sir Joseph Banks at good prices. Sandby was
invited to accompany that gentleman in a tour
through North and South Wales, and was employed
by Sir Watkin Williams Wynne to make drawings
of the picturesque scenery in that country. Sandby
was the first to infuse nature into topographical
drawing ■ his predecessors had been too much ac-
customed to compose from prints after the " black
miisters," but he looked at nature with a franker
eye. To his other acquirements Sandby added
etching and engraving in the style known as aqua-
tint. He was, perhaps, the first English artist who
adopted this style, the secret of which, it is said,
was brought into England by the Hon. Charles
Greville, who purchased it from Le Prince, a
French artist, and communicated it to Paul Sandby.
His works in aquatint are very numerous, and were
popular at the time they were published. In 1768
he was appointed chief drawing-master at the
Woolwich Military Academy, which post he re-
signed in 1799. He died in London in 1809.
Works :

An Ancient Beech Tree. (Smith Kensington Museum^

Llandaff Cathedral. (Do.)

The Round Temple. (Do.)

Landscape, with Dray and Figures. (X>o.)

Chepstow Castle. (Do.)

"Warwick Castle, with Bridge and Weir. (Do)

Village Street. (Do.)

SANDBY, Thomas, brother of the aquarellist,
Paul Sandby, was pre-eminently an architect, but
claims mention as a clever draughtsman, of great
artistic feeling. He was born at Nottingham in
1721, and was, like his brother, first employed as a
military draughtsman. In this capacity he held an
appointment under the chief engineer in Scotland,
and rendered the Government the service of giving
the first intelligence of Prince Charles Edward's
landing in 1745. He was subsequently appointed
draughtsman to the Duke of Cumberland, whom he
accompanied to Flanders, and Deputy-Ranger of
Windsor Park. He published eight drawings illus-
trating improvements made by him in the park,
and many other drawings by him are in the royal
collection at Windsor, in the British Museum, and
in the Sloane Museum. He died at the Ranger's
House at Windsor, on the 26th June, 1798.





SANDER, JoHANN Heinrich, painter, born at
Hamburg in 1810, painted sea-pieces and landscapes,
and made a hit with a ' View of Heligoland.' He
died in 1865.

SANDERAT, Stienne, a French miniaturist of
the 15th century, known as having produced in
1447, for Jean de Chalon, Seigneur de Vitteau, the
'Proprietez des Choses,' illustrated with fifty

SANDERS, Cathaeina, called Van Hemessen, or
Hbemsen, was the daughter and pupil of Jan San-
ders. She married Christian de Morien, the organist
of the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp. He was
a musician of repute in the Low Countries, and
known generally as Christinano. He resigned his
post in 1556, and the pair accompanied Mary of
Hungary to Spain. Catliarina painted portraits of
small size, A fine example of tnese is to be seen in
the London National Gallery. It represents a fair-
haired man dressed in black. In 1868, there was
in the possession of M. Lesoart, lawyer at Mons, a
'Virgin and Child,' with a background of snowy
landscape, painted on panel, and signed, Caterina
de Heminsen pingehat. The dates of her birth and
death are unknown.

SANDERS, (or Sandres,) Fbans, a Flemish
painter of the 16th century, who, in 1526, painted
a 'Last Judgment' for the 'Salle des Plaids' of
the Grand Council of Mechlin. In Margaret of
Austria's Collection there was a ' Little Madonna'
by. him, which Albrecht Diirer greatly commended.

SANDERS, George L., miniaturist, was born at
Kinghorn, in Fifeshire, in 1774. He studied under
Smeaton, a well-known coach-painter in Edinburgh,
and then devoted himself to miniature painting
and giving drawing lessons. He also produced a
Panorama of Edinburgh. In 1807 he went to
London and painted numerous miniatures, among
them the Princess Charlotte, the Duke of Cumber-
land, Prince George, Lady Clementina Villiers, and
Lord Byron. About 1812 he turned his attention
to life-size portraits in oil, in which also he had
great success from the commercial point of view.
He frequently visited the continent, whence he
brought home many excellent drawings from the
Old Masters, twenty-six of which now hang in the
Scottish National Gallery. His portraits are common
in English country-houses, but few have yet found
their way into public collections. He died in
London in 1846.

SANDERS, Gerard, painter, born at "Wesel, in
Holland, in 1702, was the pupil of his father-in-law,
Tobias van Nymegen, whom he accompanied to
Diisseldorf, and there continued his studies. He
afterwards was associated with his uncle, Elias van
Nymegen, at Rotterdam, in producing designs for
tapestries. He died in 1767.

SANDERS, Jan, called Van Hemessen, or Heem-
SEN, a Flemish painter of the 16th century, was
born at Hemixem, near Antwerp. He was a member
of an artist family of some repute, as to whom little
was known until the researches of recent writers
threw some light upon their history. It-is now
established that Jan Sanders was a pupil of Hendrik
van Cleef, the elder, in 1519, at Antwerp, and that
in 1535 — 1537 he had himself set up an atelier
for pupils in that city. In 1547 — 1548 he was
Dean of the Society of Saint Luke. By his wife,
Barbe de Ffevre, he had two daughters, Christina
and the Catharina mentioned above. Towards the
close of his career he migrated to Haarlem, where
he settled. A certain similarity between his style

and that of Quentin Matsys has caused it to be
surmised that he was a pupil of that artist His
dates of birth and death are unknown, but Guio-
ciardini, in his work published in 1666, speaks
of him amongst deceased artists. The following
works by him are known :

Antwerp. Museum. The Calling of St. Matthew.

Municli. Pinakothek. A Holy Family. 1541.

„ „ Isaac blessing Jacob.

„ „ The Calling of St. Matthew.

Paris, Louvre, Tobias curing bis Father's

Blindness. {Dated 1555.)
Vienna, Gallery. The Calling of St, Matthew.

(Three versions.)

„ „ St. William,

„ „ St, Jerome,

SANDERS, John, painter and engraver, was
born in London in 1760, His works show the
influence of Bartolozzi, In 1802 he went to St,
Petersburg as engraver to the Emperor, and made
sketches of the pictures in the Hermitage. These
were published in 1805. His ' May Day,' and 'Sir
John Falstaff,' were engraved respectively by
Delatre and P. W. Tomkins.

SANDERS, John, painter, practised in London,
and exhibited at the Academy a picture of St.
Sebastian in 1772, and a ' Jael and Sisera ' in 1773.

SANDERS, John, probably the son of the last-
named John Sanders, exhibited at the Academy
from 1775 till 1820.

SANDHAAS, Karl, painter, born at Haslach, in
Baden, in 1801. After some preliminary study at
Carlsruhe, he went in 1820 to Munich, where he was
for a time the pupil of Cornelius, and completed
his art education at Milan. In 1822 he settled in
Frankfort, painting chiefly devotional works from
the New Testament history. He also etched a
set of four fanciful plates in 1844, published under
the name of ' Traume und Schaume des Lebens.'

SANDORS, Thomas, Dutch engraver, who settled
in Lpndon soon after the middle of the 18th century.
Joining the St. Martin's Lane Academy, he ex-
hibited there till 1776. There are some views of
Worcestershire engraved by him (1777-81).

SANDRART, Jakob von, a nephew of Joachim
Sandrart, was born at Frankfort in 1630, and was
instructed in engraving by Cornelius Danokerts and
Willem Hondius, under whom he worked first at
the Hague and afterwards at Dantzic. He engraved
a great number of plates, which are executed with
the graver in a clear, neat style. His best prints
are his portraits, among which are the following :

The Emperor Rudolph II.

Ferdinand II,

Ferdinand III,

Frederick, Prince of Norway,

Sophia, Electoral Princess of Saxony.

Ferdinand Maria, Duke of Bavaria.

Joachim Sandrart ; inscribed Seculi nostri Apelles.

Joannes Paulus Auer, Painter.

Nagler has given a full list of his plates. He died
at Nuremberg in 1708.

SANDRART, Joachim von, painter and writer
on art, was born at Frankfort in 1606, and was in-
structed in the rudiments of design by Matthaus
Merian and Theodorus de Bry. At the age of fifteen
he went to Prague, where he worked for a time at
engraving under Gillis Sadeler, who recommended
him to exchange the graver for the brush, Sandrart
then went to Utrecht, where he became a disciple
of Gerard Honthorst. Itis said that when Honthorst
was invited to England by Charles T,, he engaged
Sandrart to accompany him, that the king bespoke




San Giorgio

many pictures of him, that he copied the portraits
of Henry VIII., Sir Thomas More, Erasmus, and
others, by Holbein, for the Earl of Arundel, and
that he remained in England till 1627, when he
went to Venice. This however appears rather
doubtful, though it is certain that he passed several
years in Italy, and at Venice copied the finest
pictures of Titian and Paolo Veronese. Prom
Venice he went to Rome, where he resided some
j'ears, and was much employed by the Cardinal
Barberiiii and the Prince Giustiniani, and was
intrusted by the latter with the superintendence of
the engravings from statues in his gallery. From
Rome he visited Southern Italy, returning to Ger-
many in 1637. Afterwards he spent some time in
Amsterdam, but in 1649 went to Nuremberg to
paint a picture of the Peace Congress, which con-
tained fifty portraits. In 1672 he went to Augsburg,
where he was employed in several considerable
works for the Emperor Ferdinand, and for Maxi-
milian, Duke of Bavaria. In his last years he
resided at Nuremberg, where he established an
academy, and composed several works on art.
These were, ' Academia Tedesca della Architettura,
Scultura, e Pittura ; ' &c., 4 vols, in 2, folio, Niirn-
berg, 1675-79 ; ' Iconologia Deorum, 1680 ; ' ' Ad-
miranda Sculpturas Veteris Vestigia, 1680 ; ' ' Romse
antique et novas Theatrum, 1684;' and 'Academia
Artis Pictorise, 168.B,' collected from Vasari, BidoUi,
and Van Mander. But this is a Latin translation of
what had already been published in the ' Academia
Tedesca.' A uniform edition (in German) of all his
works was published at Nii'rnberg, 1769-75, in 8
vols, folio. He died at Nuremberg in 1688. Works:

Augsburg. Ch. of S.Anna. Christ in the Temple.
Munich. Finakothek. Portrait of a Woman in Black.
■yVurzhurg. Cathedral. Descent from the Cross.

SANDRART, Johann Jakob von, the son of
Jakob von Sandrart, was born at Ratisbon in 1655.
He learned the first rudiments of design from his
father, and profited by the lessons of Joachim von
Sandrart, his great uncle. He was an able designer
as well as an engraver, and possessed a ready and
inventive genius. We have some neatly executed
portraits by him, and the publications of Joachim
von Sandrart are embellished with his spirited
etchings. He also engraved several plates for a
work entitled ' Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna.' He
died at Nuremberg in 1698. The following are his
principal independent prints :

Elizabeth, Princess of Brandenburg ; after A. Le Clerc.
Silvius Jacob von Dunkelmanu ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after Joachim von Sandrart.
The Origin of Paintmg ; two plates, after the same.
The Customs of the ancient Germans ; two plates, after

the same.
iEneas saving Anchises ; from his own design,

SANDRART, Loeenz von, was probably of the
same family as the other artists of the same name.
His name is affixed to the frontispiece for a set of
prints from Ovid's 'Metamorphoses,' by Bngel-
brecht, published in 1700. It is also believed that
he was a painter in enamel, and was still living in

SANDRART, Susanna Mama von, the daughter
of Jakob von Sandrart, was born at Nuremberg in
1658, and instructed in design and engraving by
her father. She executed several plates for the
publications of Joachim von Sandrart. She married
the painter Hans Paul Auer, in 1683, and after his
death the bookseller W. M. Endter of Nuremberg.


She died at Nuremberg in 1716. We have the fol-
lowing independent prints by her :

The Feast of the Gods ; after Raphael.
The Nozze AldobraQdini ; after a design hy Bartoli.
A Bacchanalian subject ; inscribed Jmmoderatum dulce

SANDRINO, ToMMASO, born at Brescia in 1575,
excelled in perspective and architectural views, and
was not unsuccessful in history. His principal
works are the ceilings of the churches of St. Paus-
tino, S. Domenioo, and the cathedral, at Brescia.
There are also several of his works in the public
buildings of Milan and Ferrara. He died in 1630.
SANDWYK, Fbans van, painter, bom at the
Hague in 1641 or 1642. He was a pupil of Nicholas
Wieling, and a member of the Pictura Society.
Later, he became a military engineer in the service
of the States, and was killed in battle.

SANDYS, Edwyn, is mentioned by Strutt as the
engraver of a portrait of Sir William Petty.

SANE, J. P., a French painter, born about the
middle of the 18th century. He worked for some
time at Rome, and returning to his native country,
died in 1780 in Paris. His works are little known.
A ' Death of Socrates ' is spoken of as showing
considerable talent ; there are further two genre
pictures by him in the Museum of Angers ; and
his ' Lame Man at the Beautifnl Gate of the
Temple,' is in the church of St. Peter at Douai.
SANESE, Maestko Riocio. See Neroni.
SAN-FELICE, Ferdinando, born at Naples in
1675, was at once the patron and the scholar of
Francesco Solimena. He attained a name among
historical painters, and with the assistance of Soli-
mena painted alfar-pieoes for several churches.
He also painted fruit, landscapes, and perspective
views, in which he particularly excelled ; and he
had the reputation of being an excellent architect.
Solimena painted a, gallery in his house, which
afterwards became an academy for young artists.
SAN PRIANO, Maso da. See Manzuoli.
SANGALLO, Sebastiano da, painter, born at
Rome in 1482, son of Giuliano Giamberti, was called

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 116 of 201)