Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Aristotile for his knowledge of perspective and
anatomy. He was a pupil of Perugino, but, as a
painter, worked in the style of Michelangelo.
He copied the ' Cartoon of Pisa ' in oil, in grisaille,
and was one of the painters summoned to Rome by
Buonarroti when he began the Sistine ceiling. He
afterwards became the friend of Raphael, after
whose designs he built the Palazzo Pandolfini, at
Florence. As a painter most of his activity was
given to ephemeral work in theatres, and on the
fiijades of houses. See Milanesi's ' Vasari,' vol. vi.
pp. 433-456. He died in 1551.

SAN GIMIGNANO, Sebastiano da. See Mai-
S AN Q I MIGNANO, Vicenzio da. See Tamaqni.
SAN GIORGIO, EusBBio Dt, brought up in
Perugia, was a fellow-worker with Fiorenzo di
Lorenzo and Berto di Giovanni in 1501. He was
induced to join Pinturicchio at Siena, and painted
the altar-piece of the Epiphany at S. Agostino, in
Perugia. In S. Francesco at Matelica, near Fab-
riano, is a ' Holy Family ' painted by him in 1512,
perhaps his best work. Other works of his may be
seen at Orvieto, Assisi, and Perugia. In the cloister
of the Capuchin Convent of S. Damian at Assisi are
two frescoes. LermoliefE ascribes the Standard
preserved at Cittk di Castello as an early Raphael
to Eusebio di San Giorgio. He died in 1550.

San Giovanni


Santa Croce

SAN GIOVANNI, Cavaliere Ercole, called
Ebcolino di Guido. Tliis painter was a native of
Bologna, and a favourite of Guido Eeni. He
imitated and copied the works of his instructor
with such precision, that he is said to have deceived
the master himself. Malvasia reports, that Guido
having left a picture in a half-finished state, Eroole
copied it, and placed his work on the easel of his
master, who proceeded to finish it, without dis-
covering the deception. Ercole was patronized by
Urban VIII., who conferred on him the honour of
knighthood. He died young at Rome, about the
year 1640.

SAN GIOVANNI, Gerabdo da. See Haarlem.

SAN GIOVANNI, Giovanni da, called Manozzi,
born at San Giovanni in 1690, was a pupil of
Matteo Roselli, and executed a great number of
frescoes at Rome and at Florence, representing
biblical, historical, and mythological scenes. He
had much facility, and in his colour and chiaroscuro
followed Garavaggio and Spagnoletto. He died in
1636. His best works are —

*''««<"«■ 1&I/} Temptation of Christ.
Florence. Pitti Palace. Scenes from the Life of St.
„ „ A Hunting Party.

„ The A cademy. A Flight to Egypt.

„ Oynissanii. In the Cloister ; five scenes

from the life of S. Francesco.
Kome. Quattro Coronati, Frescoes in Semi-dome.
„ S, Maria del Popolo. Frescoes.

SAN GIOVANNI, Maso da. See GniDi, Tommaso.

SANGSTER, Samuel, an engraver, born in 1804,
was a pupil of Finden. He engraved for the
annuals and for the 'Art Journal.' His best plates
are — ' Neapolitan Peasants on their way to a Pesta,'
after Uwins ; 'The Gentle Student' and 'The For-
saken,' after Newton. He died in London in 1872.

SANGUINETO, Rafael, a Spanish noble of the
17th century, who practised painting as an amateur,
and was the intimate friend of Alonzo Cano.

SAN MARTINO, Marco, (or Sammaechi,) an
Italian landscape painter and engraver, who
flourished about 1680. It is in dispute as to whether
he was a native of Venice or Naples. Lanzi says
he resided at Rimini, where his pictures are more
generally to be met with. He ornamented his
landscapes with very beautiful small figures, in
which he excelled. He also attempted works of a
higher order, such as the ' Baptism of Constantine,'
in the cathedral of Rimini, and the ' Saint preach-
ing in the Desert, 'in the college of S. Vincenzio, at
Venice. Bartsoh (P. gr. tom. xxi.) has described
33 prints by him, many o£ which have his name in
full, Marco San Martina.

SANNI, Domingo Maria, a Spanish painter who
flourished in the 18th century. In the Madrid
Museum there are two pictures by him, but the
dates of his birth and death are unknown.

SANO, E. B., a Belgian painter of ruins and
interiors. He died at Antwerp in 1878.

painter, was born at Siena in 1406, and principally
instructed by Stefano di Giovanni Sassetta. S.ino
di Pietro was a most prolific artist. The Library
at Siena possesses a Codex of the University Statutes,
and a Breviary of the Nuns of St. Clara, with
his miniatures, while the Academy possesses no
fewer than 46 pictures by him. In 1428 he furnished
the model for the font in the Baptistery of S.
Giovanni in Siena. In 1433 he acted as valuator
for Sassetta. He died in 1481. Most of the

churches near Siena possess frescoes by him, and
many of the chief European collections paintings.
An 'Ascension of the Virgin' in the Academy at
Siena, a ' Coronation of the Virgin ' in the Town-
hall, and a ' Virgin and Saints ' in the church of S.
Girolamo, in Siena, are among his best works. His
other chief pictures are — ■

Paris. Louvre. Five Scenes from the Life of St.

Rome. Vatican Museum. Scenes from the Life of the

Virgin. A Predtlla.
Siena. Cathedral Library, Several Antiphonaries with


SAN SEVERING, Jacopo di, brother of the
elder Lorenzo di San Severino, whom he assisted
in the fresco in San Giovanni Battista, at Urbino,
dated 1416. Nothing further is known of him.

SAN SEVERINO, Lorenzo di, was born in
1374. In 1416 he and his brother Jacopo decorated
the oratory of San Giovanni Battista at Urbino
with frescoes, (wliich still remain, though much
defaced by time,) representing scenes from the life
of St. John the Baptist, and the Crucifixion. The
latter is inscribed, "M.C.C.C.C.X.V.L die xvii.
Julii. Laurentius. de. Santo. Severino. et. Jacobus,
frater. ejus. hoc. opus, fecerunt."

SAN SEVERINO, Lorenzo di, another artist of
the same name, and supposed to be a son of
Lorenzo. Three works by him exist, dated from
1481 to 1483 ; the first is in the sacristy of a church
at Pansola near Macerata; the second is a fresco in
the collegiate church of Sarnano ; and the third is
a panel in the National Gallery, representing the
Marriage of St. Catharine, with four saints. The
last picture is signed Laurentius II Severinasptsit.

SANSON E, II. See Marchesi, Giuseppe.

SANTA CROCE, Francesco di Simone da, some-
times called Eizo, was born in the village of Santa
Croce in the latter part of the 15th century. In
his youth he went to Venice, and is thought to
have been a pupil of Carpaccio or Previtali, both
of whose styles he greatly affects, though in a
picture of the ' Madonna and Saints ' now in the
church of S. Pietro Martire, Murano, he signs him-
self a pupil Of Bellini. His earliest known work is
the ' Annunciation,' painted in 1504 for the church
of S. Spino, near Croce, and his latest the altar-
piece of the Madonna and six Saints in the church
of Chirignano, near Mestre. Pictures by him may
be found in the Locchis Carrara Gallery, Bergamo,
which possesses three examples, and in the Berlin
Gallery. An ' Epiphany ' and ' Noli Me Tangere '
are in the Venice Academy. The date 1541 occurs
upon one of his pictures (an altar-piece in a village
church near Mestre), but its authenticity is not
beyond dispute. The latest year anterior to it is

SANTA CROCE, Girolamo da, a relative of
Francesco da Santa Croce, was born in the early
part of the 16th century. He is said to have been
a pupil of Bellini, and to have painted at Venice
from 1620 (which is the date of the altar-piece
in the church of San Silvestro, an enthroned St.
Thomas k Becket between St. John the Baptist
and St. Thomas) to 1549, when he completed the
' Last Supper ' at San Martino. In 1527 he painted
the ' Charity of S. Martin ' for the church of
Luvigliano, near Padua ; and in 1532 he executed
fourteen frescoes representing scenes in the life of
St. Francis of Assisi, in the Scuola di Francesco
della Vigna, Venice, which have now vanished.
The convent church still contains a fresco of the





' Christ in Benediction,' and a small picture of the
' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.' Other works by
this Santa Croce are :

Berlin. Museum. The Epiphany.

„ „ Christ carrying His Cross.

„ „ The Crucilixiou.

„ „ Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.

Dresden. Gallery. The Nativity.

„ „ The Martyrdom of S. Lawrence.

Loudon. Nat. Gallery. Two figures of Saiuts.

Venice. Manfrini Pal. Adoration of the Magi.

SANTAFEDE, Fabeizio, the son of Francesco
Santafede, was born at Naples in 1560. He was
first instructed by his father, but he afterwards
became a scholar of Francesco Curia, and at length
visited Rome, where he remained two years, study-
ing the principal objects of art in that capital. On
his return to Naples he was employed in several
considerable works for the public edifices. For
the church of the Nunoiata he painted a ' Nativity,'
and an ' Annunciation to the Shepherds ; ' for S.
Maria de Constantinopoli, an ' Adoration of the
Magi,' and for S. Maria Nuova a ceiling. He died
at Naples in 1634.

SANTAFEDE, Fbancesco, born about 1519, was
a Neapolitan, and a scholar of Andrea Sabbatini,
called da Salerno. There are many of his works
in the churches at Naples, of which the best, per-
haps, is the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' in S. Maria

SANT AGNESE, Stefano da, otherwise known
as "the Pievan of Sant Agnese," is the author of
an enthroned Madonna, signed, and dated 1369,
now in the Correr Museum, Venice. The Academy
of that city possesses a ' Coronation of the Virgin,'
signed by Stefano in 1381. Nothing further is
known of him.

SANTAGOSTINI, Giaointo and Agostino, the
sons of Giacomo Santagostino, painted in the
17th century. Among their joint works were
large pictures for S. Fedele in Milan. They also
painted many works independently of each other,
and Agostino was the author of a little treatise on
the pictures in Milan, called ' L'Immortalitk et
Glorie del Pennello,' published in 1671.

SANTAGOSTINO, Giacomo Antonio, born at
Milan in 1588, was a scholar of Giulio Cesare
Procaccini, under whom he became a very reput-
able artist. He painted several pictures for the
churches of Milan, particularly for S. Lorenzo
Maggiore, S. Maria del Lantasio, and S. Vittore.
He died in 1648.

SANTARELLI, Gaetano, painter, a noble of
Pescia, was a pupil of 0. Dandini. He died young.

SANTELLI, Felice, a Roman painter of the
16th century. He painted for the church of the
P. P. Spagnuoli del Risoatti Soalzi, in competition
with Baglione. Lanzi mentions a signed picture
by him in the church of Santa Rosa, at Viterbo.

SANTEN, Gerard van, a Dutch painter of battle-
pieces, who was much patronized by Prince
Frederick Henry of Orange. In 1629 he was
received into the Guild of St. Luke, at the Hague,
and in 1650 he was still at work.

SANTERRE, Jean Baptiste, a French painter,
born at Magny, near Pontoise, in 1658, was a
pupil first of Francois Lemaire, and then of Bon
Boulogne. He was very careful as to his processes,
making many experiments in pigments, and finally
restricting himself to five, on which he could, as he
thought, depend, and delaying the varnishing of
his pictures for ten years. His works are few.


The best are 'Susanna and the Elders,' and a
female portrait, in the Louvre ; a ' Mary Magdalene
penitent,' and a 'Saint Theresa,' at Versailles.
Santerre formed an academy for female students,
from which he drew many of his models. His
portraits and domestic subjects are carefully de-
signed and harmonious in colour. Many of his
works have been engraved. He died in Paris in

SANTI, Antonio, a native of Rimini and a pupil
of Cignani, died in 1700. The great promise shown
in his early works was robbed of fruition by a
premature death.

SANTI, Bartolommeo, a native of Lucca, who
studied at Bologna, and practised as a scene-
painter and decorator in the 18th century.

SANTI, DoMENico, called Mengazzino, (Mingac-
CINO,) was born at Bologna in 1621, and was one
of the ablest disciples of Agostino Metelli. He
nearly equalled his instructor in painting perspec-
tive and architectural views. The churches and
palaces at Bologna, particularly S. Colombano, the
Servi, and the Palazzo Ratta, possess many of his
works, which are embellished with figures by
Giuseppe Metelli, Gio. Antonio Burrini, and espe-
cially by Domenioo Maria Canuti. He also
painted pictures of a small size, which are fre-
quently mistaken for the works of Agostino Metelli.
He died in 1694.

SANTI, Giovanni, the son of a general dealer
and the father of Raphael, was born at Castello di
Colbordolo, in the territory of Urbino, about 1435.
He himself was brought up to his father's trade,
and was probably induced to study art through
his acquaintance with Melozzo da Forli and Pietro
della Francesca. His earliest known works are the
frescoes in the church of S. Domenico, at Cagh,
representing the Resurrection and a Madonna En-
throned among four Saints. lu 1483 his son
Raphael was born in the Contrada del Monte,
Urbino, in a house purchased by Santi in 1464. In
1484 Santi painted an altar-piece for the church
of Gradara, near Pesaro, representing the Virgin
and Child, with Saints. In 1491 his wife, Magia
Ciarla, died, leaving her son eight years old. The
fresco still extant in Santi's house, a Virgin with
the Sleeping Infant pressed to her bosom, is said to
have been painted from his first wife and her little
son Raphael. In 1492 Santi married Bernardina,
the daughter of a jeweller named Piero di Parte.
Giovanni Santi was one of the best Umbrian
painters of his time. His style is simple and un-
afEected, but there is an unpleasant coldness about
his colouring. His best works are considered to be
a ' Madonna with Saints,' in the church of San
Francesco in Urbino ; a ' Madonna with Saints,' in
the convent of Montefiorentino, near Urbino ; a
' Visitation of the Virgin,' in Santa Maria Nuovo,
and a 'Madonna with Saints' in the Hospital
Church of Santa Croce, the two last being both at
Fano, and an ' Enthroned Madonna ' in fresco, in
the Dominican Church at Cagli (dated 1492). He
was a poet as well as a painter, and left a Chronicle
in rhyme, still preserved in the Vatican, entitled
' Gesta gloriosa del Duoa Federigo d'Urbino.' He
died at Urbino in 1494. Additional works :
Berlin. Gallery. Two altar-pieces.

London. Nai. Gallery. Madonna and Child (?).
Milan. Srera. An Annunciation.

Kome. Laferan. An enthroned St. Jerome.

Urbino. Brotherhood oft ■., , , - di ci i. j.-

8. Sebastian. \ Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.

„ Gallery. Madonna with four Saints.



Santo Kinaldi

SANTI, PlETEO, commonly called Pietro Bar-
TOLi, and sometimes II Pbrugino, from his birth-
place, was born at Perugia, about the year 1635.
In the early part of his life he studied under Le
Maire and N. Poussin, and practised painting, but
abandoned it, to devote himself entirely to engrav-
ing, in which he greatly distinguished himself by
the merit and number of his phites. He died at
Rome in 1700. His plates are chiefly etched, and
his point is extremely free and masterly. He some-
times marked his works P. B. F., but more fre-
quently Petr. Ss. Bart, sc. Romce. The number
of his prints is very considerable ; the following list
comprises the best :

^diniranda liomanorum Antiquitatum ac veteris Sculp-
ture Vestigia; eighty-one plates.
Moinance Tiuiynitudlnis Monunienta; one hundred and

thirty-eight plates.
Veteres arcus Auyuistorum tnumphis insiynes ; fifty-two

Colonna di Marco Aurelio, ^c, the Antouine Column ;

seventy-eight plates.
Colonna Trqjana, di Alfonso Ciacconi ; one hundred and

twenty-eight plates.
Sepoleri antichi Eomani ed Etruschi trovati in Roma;

one hundred and twenty-three plates.
The Nozze Aldobrandini ; two sheets.
Le Piiture antiche delle yrotte di Roma, ^c. ; assisted by

F. Bartoli ; ninety-four plates, 1680 and 1706.
Le antiche Lucerne sepolcrali in Roma, 1691 and 1704 ;

one hundred and nineteen plates.
Antiquissimi Viryiliani Codicis fraymenta et picture, ex

Bibl, Vaticana ; fifty-five plates.
Scenes from the Life of St. Peter ; after Lanfranco.
Subjects from ' Kaphael's Bible ' ; forty-two plates.
Grottesques; after Raphael; inscribed Parerya atque

ornamenta in Vatican^, ^c. ; forty-three plates.
Jupiter hurling thunderbolts at the Giants ; after Giulio

The Birth of the Virgin ; after Allani.
The Virgin and Child in the Clouds ; aftei- L. Carracci.
Coriolanus and his Family ; after An. Carracci.
S. Carlo Borromeo led by an Angel ; aftei- the same.
Daniel in the Lions' Den ; aftei^ Fieti-o da Cortona.
St. John preaching ; after P. F. Mola.
The Adoration of the Magi; after Raphael; in three

Jupiter nursed by Amalthea ; after Giulio Romano.
Hylas carried off by Nymphs; after the same.
Sophonisba before Masinissa ; aftei' the same.
The Continence of Scipio ; after the same.
St. Stephen ; fro7n his own desiyn.
St. Bernard enchaining the Devil ; do.
Theatre erected in St. Peter's for a Canonization ; do.
The sepulchral Monument of Pope Urban VIII ; do.

SANTI, Raphael. See Sanzio.

SANTI, Sebastiano, a painter, born at Venice
in 1788, was first a restorer of pictures, and then
a painter in fresco. His works are to be found in
the Venetian churches. He died in 1866.


DE, horn at Toledo in 1728, was a learned writer,
an ingenious embla/ioner of state documents, and
a skilful designer. He held an office as receiver of
crown rents, and was also much employed in copy-
ing manuscripts for the royal libraries. In these,
and in literary pursuits, he was occupied for up-
wards of thirty years. He assisted Bayer in the
formation of the Index to the ancient Hebrew,
Greek, Latin, and Spanish manuscripts in the
Escurial ; wrote on the topography of Spain, of
her geographical position in America, and of
matters ecclesiastical and political. But he is
noticed here mainly for his artistic talents, as a
painter of landscapes, and an ornamental designer
of frontispieces for books in Indian ink and with
VOL. II. G a

the pen. He painted in oil four views of Toledo,
several portraits of distinguished persons, and a
number of landscapes. He had a peculiar aptitude
for the designing of frontispieces, and his talent
was in great request by authors and publishers for
that purpose. These will be found prefixed to
many of the books printed in Spain during the
second half of the last century. He died at Madrid
the 13th of January, 1796.

SANTILLANA, Joan de, a skilful glass painti r
of Burgos, practising towards the close of the 16th
century. Jointly with Juan de Vuldivieso he
worked in the cathedral of Avila, where he painted
(in 1497) four windows by the ' Altar de Gracia,'
one of which, representing St. John, still exists.'
He also painted scenes from the life of Christ for
the windows of the Cloister Library, and a ' Resur-
rection,' for the cathedral.

SANTINI. Two painters of this name were
living at Arezzo in the 17th century. Tliey were
distinguished as 'the Elder' and 'the Younger.'
Lanzi mentions a 'St. Catharine' by Santini the
Elder in the cloister of the Conventual Friars of

SANTINO de' RITRATTI. See Vandi, Sante.

SANTIS, Orazio di, an engraser, probably a
rrative of Aquila, flourished from 1568 to 1577,
according to the dates on his prints, which are
chiefly after the designs of Pompeo Aqnilano.
Bartsoh has described seventeen prints by Santis,
and supposes that there are others which have not
come to his knowledge. Nagler has added 74
plates of antique statues at Rome, the joint work
of Santis and Cherubino Alberti, published in 1684.

See Gdzman, Juan de.

SANTO-DOMINGO, Fray Vicente de. This
Spanish monk' is entitled to notice as being the first
instructor of Navarrete, called el Mudo, and for
his discernment of his pupil's talents at a very
early age. He taught him all that he himself
knew, and then very honestly advised his friends
to send him to Italy for improvement. Four
pictures in the church at Estrella were attributed
to Santo-Domirgo, but it is now ascertained that
they were painted in 1669 by Navarrete, when, for
the benefit of his health, he had permission from
Philip II. to reside at Logrono. But Santo-Domingo
painted the grisailles on the walls of the cloister,
and other pictures which are in the convent of
S. Catalina de Talavera de la Reyna.

SANTO, Girolamo, (Sordo,) called Gieolamo di
Padova, an artist of the 16th century, who painted
the facade of the Cornaro Palace, several frescoes
in S. Francesco, and, with Parentino, scenes from
the life of St. Benedict in S. Giustina, all at Padua.
A curious picture of a genealogical tree in the
Santo is also ascribed to him. Of his life little is
known, but his existence can be traced as late as

SANTO PERANDA, was born at Venice in 1566.
According to Ridolfi, he was first a scholar of
Palraa Giovine, and afterwards of Leonardo Corona,
of Murano. He executed several considerable works
for the Ducal palace at Venice and for the Dukes
of Mirandola and Modena. There is a picture by
him in the Ducal palace representing the defeat of
the Turks by the Venetians. His 'Descent from
the Cross ' is in the church of S. Procolo. He died
in 1638.

SANTO EINALDI, called II Tromba, a painter
of battles, landscapes, and architecture, born at


Saatos Cruz



Florence about 1620, was a pupil of Furini. Though
eminent in hia day, little is known of his history;
he is supposed to have died in 1676.

SANTOS CRUZ, a Spanish painter, who worlfed
on the high altar of Avila cathedral, with Pedro
Bernigtiete,from 1475 to 1499.

SANTOS, Jdan, a fresco painter, flourished at
Cadiz in 1662. He was much employed in paint-
ing standards for the Spanish navy. It is also
recorded that he painted little pictures to please
certain ladies of Andalusia, which may occasionally
be found in very private cabinets.

SANTO ZA60, or ZASO. See Zago.

SANTVOOHT, Dirk van, supposed to be the
son of Anthonis Santvoort, an obscure engraver,
painted history portraits somewhat in the manner of
Rembrandt. He was practising in 1635 ; there are
prints after him by Jonas Suyderhoef and Theodore
Matham. A picture by hiin in the Louvre repre-
sents ' Christ and the Two Disciples at Emmaus ; '
but his chief excellence was in portraiture, as is
shown in the group of four ladies in the Workhouse
at Amsterdam. The date of his death is unknown.
FiiSBli mentions a certain S. van Santvoort as
practising in Holland in the 18th century.

SANTVOORT, Pibtee, a painter of Haarlem.
The only record of him now extant is the registra-
tion of his death in 1681, but a landscape in the
manner of J. Van Aken has been attributed to him,
and has been engraved.

SANUTO, or SANNUTUS, GinLio, an Italian
engraver, was born at Venice about the year 1530.
His prints are executed in a coarse, heavy style,
with single strokes, without any hatching, and
have a certain resemblance to wood-cuts : among
them we may name :

Venus and Adonis ; after Titian.

The Marriage of the Virgin; after Maphael; with the

engraver's mark.
The monstrous Child, signed Jul. iSannutus Venet Fac.

The birth of this monstrous child took place at Venice

in 1540 : the mother was a German.
Two winged Genii in the air supporting a globe, on

which stands Cupid discharging an arrow to the left

of the print ; no name of engraver.
Dance of Bacchanals in a wood; signed JxTLroa San-


Apollo and Marsyas, after Correggio, with the Parnassus,
aft&i^ Bapliael, in three sheets.

SAN VITO. See Amalteo, Pomponio.

SANZIO, Raffaello, commonly called Raphael,
was the second son and third child of Giovanni
Santi and his wife Magia Ciarla. His name of
Sanzio is Italianized from Sanctius, which, in its
turn, was Latinized from the patronymic, Santi.
He was born at Urbino in 1483. There has been
much fruitless discussion as to the exact "day of
his birth. His death in 1520 took place on Good
Friday, which was March 26th or 28th ; and Vasari
says the same fast saw his birth, ' at three o'clock in
the night.' In the epitaph written for his tomb,
however, by Cardinal Bembo, it is distinctly declared
that he lived exactly thirty-seven years, and died
on his birthday (vix. annos xxxvii . . integros,
quo die natus est eo esse desiit). As Good Friday
in 1483 fell on the 6th of April, either Bembo or

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 117 of 201)