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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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character. According to Aretino, Savoldo was
still living in 1548.

Berlin, Gallery. Venetian Girl.

Brescia. S. Barnabas. Nativity.

Florence. Ufflzi. The Transfiguration.

Hampton Court. Infant Christ adored by

London. Nat, Gallery. Mary Magdalene on her way

to the Sepulchre.
Milan. JHrera. Glory of the Virgin.

Paris. Louvre. Two Portraits.

Turin. Gallery. The Nativity.

Venice. Academy. St. Peter and St. Paul.

Vienna. Belvedere. The Entombment.

SAVOLINI, CEiSTOlfORO, painter, of the Bolognese
school, a native of Cento, and a pupil of Cristoforo
Serra. He painted a good picture of the patron
saint for the church of S. Colombia, at Rimini. He
was still living in 1678.

SAVONA, II Prbte di. See Guidobono.

SAVONANZI, Emilio, a nobleman of Bologna,
born in 1580, who attached himself to painting
when nearly arrived at manhood. He had many
masters ; among them Lodovico Carracci, Guido,
Guercino, and Algardi, the sculptor. He resided
at Ancona, and at Camerino, where he died in
1660, His principal work is 'The Marriage of St.
Catharine ' at Camerino.





SAVORELLI, Gaetano, painter and draughls-
maii, flourished at Rome from 1760 to 1775. He
is chiefly known as having made drawings from
Giovanni da TS dine's grotteschiin the Loggia of the
Vatican, from which Giovanni Ottaviani engraved.

SAVORELLI, Sebastiano, a priest of Porli and
pupil of Cignani. He was practising in 1690, and
painted for the churches of ITorli and its neigh-

SAVOYE, Daniel, portrait painter and etcher,
was born at Grenoble in 1644, and is said to have
been a pupil of Sebastien Bourdon. His signature,
D. S. sc, is found on a r'iposo, in which the Virgin
is seated near a fountain attended by three angels.
Some small etchings of soldiers, and of costumes
of the time of Louis XIII., bear the san^e initials.
In the Dresden Gallery there is a portrait of the
artist's wife by himself. He died at Erlangen in

SAVOYEN, Caeel van, was born at Antwerp in
1619, and painted many subjects from Ovid in a
small size ; he was fond of painting the nude,
but his drawing was not equal to his colour. He
died, at Antwerp in 1669 (? 1680).

SAXON, James, portrait painter, a native of
Manchester, exhibited at the Academy, 1795, and
then went to Edinburgh ; he returned in 1805 to
London, but afterwards spent some prolific years
in St. Petersburg. On his return he took up liis
residence at Glasgow, but finally came to London,
where he died in 1816 or 1817. His portrait of Sir
W. Scott, holding a large dog, has been engraved.

SAXTON, Christophek, a native of Yorkshire
and a domestic in the service of Thomas Sekeford,
Esq., Master of Requests, is remembered for his
complete set of maps of the counties of England
and Wales, many of which he engraved himself,
while in others he was assisted by R. Hogenberg,
Augustine Ryther, and other engravers. Master
Ryther bore the expense of the series, which was
published in 1579, and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth.

SAY, William, an eminent engiaver in mezzo-
tint, was born at Lakenham, near Norwich, in
1768. He was left an orphan at the age of five
years, and was brought up by a maternal aunt.
Although he showed an early inclination for art,
he did not practise it as a profession till his arrival
in London, when he had attained his twenty-first
year, and was married. He put himself under the
direction of James Ward, at that time chiefly an
engraver, and under his instruction produced his
first plate. He was indefatigable in the art, and
in 1807 he was appointed engraver to the Duke of
Gloucester. He engraved about 330 plates, a few
after the old masters, but the majority after modern
painters. Among them we may name the Dilettanti
Society, after Sir J. Reynolds (2) ; several for
Turner's River Scenery; sixteen plates for the
' Liber Studiorum ' ; two of ' Brigands,' after East-
lake ; ' Joseph and his Brethren,' after Northcote ;
and Hilton's ' Raising of Lazarus.' Many of his
plates remained unpublished at the time of his death,
which occurred on the 24th of August, 1834. The
British Museum possesses a complete set of his

SAYER, James, a political caricaturist, was
born at Yarmouth in 1748. He commenced life as
a clerk in an attorney's office, but came to London
in 1780. His works, which are about a hundred in
number, were in favour of Pitt and against Fox, and
it is said that the latter declared Sayer's pencil had
done him more harm than all the attacks he had


had to face in Parliament. Pitt gave him a clerk-
ship in the Court of Exchequer, and in time he
became Marshal of the Court, Receiver of the Six-
penny duties, and one of the Cursitors. On Pitt's
death he published his 'Elijah's Mantle,' which
was at one time ascribed to Canning. He died in
London in 1823.

SAYTER. See Seutee.

SAYVE, (or Saive,) Jean Baptiste de, called
Jean db Namoe, from his birthplace. The earliest
known works by him dated from the year 1576.
He was for a time painter to the Municipality of
his native town, which he left for Brussels, where,
in 1590, he was painter to the Duke of Parma.
Shortly afterwards he returned to Namur, and
finally settled at Mechlin, where he was largely
employed by the Guilds, and where he died in
1624. Works :

Mechlin. Church ofNotre | Martyrdom of S. Cathariue.

„ „ Baptism of Christ.

Namur. Cercle Arch'olo- } mu t i j. c n t

„,/„,« f ""^ Judgment of Cambyses.

„ „ Portraits of the 'Echevins'


His son, Jean Baptiste, also practised painting.

SAZJEPIN, NicoLAi Konstantinowitch, a Rus-
sian amateur of great promise, whose 'Nun in the
Choir of a Church' excited much attention at
Petersburg in 1853. He was the colonel of a
Russian Engineer Battalion, and fell at the taking
of Sebastopol, in 1865.

SBARBI, Antonio, a Cremonese painter, was
first a scholar of Bernasconi at Milan, and after-
wards studied at Bologna under Lorenzo Pasinelli.
He was invited to Piacenza by the Duke Ranucci
Farncse, for whom he painted many pictures. He
distinguished himself by his representation of
animals. He died at Milan early in the 18th

SBINKO DA TROTINA, a miniaturist of Prague
in the 14th century.

SCABARI, NiccoLO, painter, born at Vicenza
in 1735, painted in the style of the Bassani. His
works are to be found in the churches of Vicenza,
Padua, and Verona. He died in 1802.

SCACCIANI, Camillo, called Carbone, an ItaUan
painter of the Roman school, who flourished to-
wards the close of the 18th century. He was a
native of Pesaro, where there is a 'S. Andrea
Avellino ' by him in the Duomo.

SCACCIATI, Andrea, an Italian designer and
engraver, born at Florence about the year 1726,
was a pupil of Schweykhard. In 1766 he pub-
lished, jointly with Stefano Mulinari, a set of forty-
one plates in aquatint, from drawings by distin-
guished masters in the collection of the Uffizi.

SCACCIATI, Andrea, was born at Florence in
1642, and was first a scholar of Mario Balassi, but
he afterwards studied under Lorenzo Lippi. He
painted animals, flowers, and fruit, and was patron-
ized by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, He was still
living at Florence in 1704.

SCAGLIA, Girolamo, a native of Lucca and
painter of the Florentine school, was sometimes
called II Parmigianino. In 1672 he was at work
in Pisa.

SCAIARIO, Antonio, a painter of Bassano, one
of the later disciples of the school of the Bas-
sani, was the pupil and son-in-law of Giambatista




da Ponte. In allusion to his birth and training,
he occasionally signed his works Antonio da Ponte,
and Antonio Bassano. He died in 1640.

SCALABRINO, Lo, a scholar of Sodoma, showed
great poetical invention in painting grottesche. As
a disciple of Bazzi he would rank among the
Sienese painters ; but he was accustomed to sign
himself Scalabrinus Pistoriensis, so that Pistoja
seems to have been his birthplace.

SCALBERG, Pibeke, a French painter and en-
graver, who resided in Paris about the year 1638.
Of his work as a painter little is known, but he
has left a few etchings, some from his own designs,
others from well-known pictures, e. g. :

Venus and Cupid ; signed and dated. 1638.

The Botombment of Christ ; after Raphael.

The Battle of Constantiue ; after the same.

Diana and her Nymphs ; after Domenichino.

Robert-Dumesnil, torn, iii., has ascribed forty-seven
prints to Scalberg, who is said to have worked as
late as 1660.

SCALBERGE, (or Scallb Berge,) Frederic, a
Flemish engraver, who flourished from 1623 to
1636, as appears by the dates on his plates. This
engraver, who signed his name sometimes Scal-
berge, and sometimes Scalle Berge, must not be
confounded with Pierre Scalberg.

SCALIGERI, Babtolo, a native of Padua, was
born about 1605, but settled at Venice, and was a
scholar of Alessandro Varotari. Several altar-pieces
by him are still preserved in Venice, among which
that in the church of Corpus Domini is perhaps the
best. The date of his decease is not recorded.

SCALIGERI, Lucia, niece of Bartolo Scaligeri,
was boin at Venice in 1637. She distinguished
herself by literary and linguistic powers, and was
an excellent musician. In art she was a pupil of
Alessandro Varotari, and painted several pictures
for the churches of Venice. She died in 1700.

SCALVATI, Antonio, painter, was born at
Bologna in 1599, and was a scholar of Tommaso
Lauretti. He accompanied his master to Rome, and
assisted him in the Sala di Constantino. Scalvati
was employed by Sixtus V. in the library of the
Vatican, and excelled in portraiture, painting
Pope Clement VIII., and many personages of his
time. He died in 1622.

SCAMINOSSI, (SoHiAMONOSsi, Sciaminossi,)
Raphael, a native of Borgo S. Sepolcro, born about
1670, was a scholar of Raffaellino dal Colle. He
painted history with success, but is more known as
an engraver than as a painter. He sometimes used
a monogram composed of the letters R. A. S. F.

thus vQ^ • He was still living in 1620. Among

his plates we may name :

Tile Virgin and Child ; inscribed Eaphael Schaminossius

Pictor,4-c. 1613.
St. Francis preaching in the Desert ; also from his ovm

design. 1604.
A set of fourteen plates entitled Mysteria rosarii

Beata Maria Virginis. 1609.
The Sibyls; a set of upright plates; from his own

The Stoning of Stephen ; after Luea Cambiaso.
A RipoBo ; after Federigo Baroccio.

SCANDRETT, Thomas, architectural draughts-
man, born at Worcester in 1797. In 1825 he ex-
hibited two portraits at the Academy, and was an
occasional exhibitor of architectural drawings. He
died in 1870.

SCANNABECCHI, Filippo, called Lipro di Dal-
MASIO, and also LiPPO. dalle Madonnb, from the

numerous pictures he painted of the Virgin and
Child, was one of the earliest painters of the
Bolognese school. He was the son of Dalmasio
Scannabecchi, who painted at Bologjia early in the
14th century. There is an example of his art in
the gallery at Bologna. Lippo is said to have been
a pupil of Vitale da Bologna, and to have practised
from 1376 to 1410. His pictures are now exceed-
ingly scarce, though Malvasia says that a family
used not to he considered wealthy at Bologna unless
it possessed one of his Madonnas. The dates of his
birth and death are alike unknown, but he made
his will in 1410. In the National Gullery, London,
there is a ' Madonna and Child in Glory,' signed
Idppus Dalmasii pinxit. It is a very poor pro-


SCANNARDI D'AVERARA, a painter practising
at Bergamo towards the close of the 16th century.
No record of his life and works has survived, but
we learn from an ancient deed preserved at Bergamo,
that in 1477 he was working as partner with Troso
da Monza. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle sug-
gest that the fragments of frescoes detached from
the ruins of Santa Maria delle Grazie, and deposited
in the Bishop's palace at Bergamo, may have been
a product of this collaboration.

SCANNAVINI, M. Ahbelis, (Scannavesi,) was
born at Ferrara in 1655. He was first a scholar
of Francesco Ferrari but afterwards visited
Bologna, where he studied for some time under
Carlo Cignani, of whom he became one of the most
distinguished disciples. His most considerable
work is in the refectory of the Dominicans, at
Ferrara. It represents the Life of St. Dominic, in
fourteen pictures. There are many pictures by
Scannavini in the churches at Ferrara, among others
tlie 'Annunciation,' in the church of S. Stefano ;
' S. Tommaso di Villanova distributing Alms to the
Poor,' at the Agostiniani Scalzi ; and ' S. Brigida
fainting before a Crucifix, supported by an Angel,'
in S. Maria della Grazio. He died at Ferrara in

SCARAMUCCIA, Giovanni Antonio, a painter
of Perugia, born 1580, was a pupil of RonoalH, but
imitated the manner of the Carracci, and painted a
large number of pictures for churches in Perugia,
where they still exist. They are now very dark.

SCARAMUCCIA, LuiGi Pellegrini, called II
Perugino, was born at Perugia in 1616. He was
the son of Giovanni Antonio Scaramucoia, by whom
he was instructed in the elements of design ; but
he afterwards frequented the school of Guido, and
is said to have also studied under Gueroino. He
painted several pictures for the public edifices of
Perugia, Milan, and Bologna. He died at Milan in
1680. Works :

Bologna. Pal. PulUico. Coronation of Charles V.
Milan. Ch. of San Marco. St. Barbara.
Perugia. Ch. of the Filip- ) ^j^^ presentation in the Temple.
pzm. )

We have a few etchings by this artist, in which
he seems to have imitated Guido. They are :
Christ crowned with Thorns ; after Titian.
St. Benedict praying ; after Lad. Carracci.
Venus and Adonis ; after An. Carracci.
The Virgin ; after the same.

SCARPACCIA. See Carpaccio, Vittore.

SCARSELLA, Ippolito, called Lo Scarsellino,
painter, was born at Ferrara in the year 1561. He
was the son of Sigismondo Scarsella, from whom
he received his first instruction, but he afterwards





visited Venice, where he became the scholar of
Giacomo Bassano, and studied the works of Paolo
Veronese. Prom Venice he went to Bologna, and
afterwards to Parma. On his return to Ferrara,
he was employed in painting pictures for the
churches, and there is scarcely a public building in
the city which does not possess some of his works.
Soarsellino died at Ferrara in 1620. Pictures :

Dresden, Gallery. Flight into Egypt.

„ ,, The Virgin and Child.

Ferrara. S. Maria Nuova. The Annunciation.

„ „ The Visitation.

„ „ The Assumption.

„ „ Marriage at Cana.

„ CostaUli Gallery. Virgin and Child.

„ Count Mazza. The Last Supper.

„ Finacoteca, The Marriage at Cana.

„ S. Benedetto. The Assumption.

„ S. Faolo. Frescoes.


Florence. Vffizi. Judgment of Piiiis.

„ „ Virgin and Child.

Madrid. Museum. Virgin and Child.

SCARSELLA, Sigismondo, called Mondino,
painter, was born at Ferrara in 1530, and was
educated for three years in the school of Paolo
Veronese, of whose style he was a constant, though
not a very successful, follower. There are many
works by him in the public edifices at Ferrara, in
which city he died in 1614. His chief picture is
the ' Martyrdom of St. Catharine ' in the Costabili.

SCARSELLO, Gieolamo, painter and engraver,
a Bolognese, and pupil of Geesi, was practising
about 1660. He worked for a time at Milan, and
subsequently at Turin, about 1670.

SCHAAL, Louis Jacques Nicolas, painter and
engraver, was born in Paris, February l.S, 1800.
He was a pupil of Daguerre and of Lethiere, and
entered the feole des Beaux Arts in 1816. He ex-
hibited frequently at the Salon between 1824 and
1853, and was also the author of various treatises
on industrial art and design, of a ' Treatise on Land-
scape,' illustrated with twenty-four lithographs
(1824), and of a ' Project for the Regeneration of
the Western Empire by means of the Fine Arts,'
with eight engravings (1859).

SCHACHMANN, Karl Adolph Gottlieb,
(Gotti.ob, Gottfried,) Feeiherk von, painter and
etcher, was born at the Schloss Hermsdorf in Saxony,
and travelled much in Norway and Sweden. His
pictures are to be found in Saxony. He died on
the estate of Konigshayn in 1789.

SCHADE, Rudolph Christian, draughtsman
and painter, born at Hamburg shout 1760, studied
successively under Tisohbein, Ehrenreich, and Juel
of Copenhagen, and practised portrait-painting at
Berlin, Dresden, and Hamburg. Many of his por-
traits have been engraved. He died at Hamburg
on May 16, 1811.

SCliADGW, WiLHELM Friedrich von, son of
Johann Gottfried Schadow, the architect, was born
at Berlin in 1789. He studied under his father and
Weitsch, and later under Schirm. In 1810 he went
with his brother Rudolph to Rome, and joined the
' Nazarenes,' and in 1814 became a Roman Catholic.
In 1819 he became a Professor in the Academy at
Berlin, and acquired great reputation as a teacher.
In 1826 he was appointed to succeed Peter von
Cornelius as Director of the Diisseldorf Academy,
wliither his pupils, J. Hiibner, Hildebrandt, Sohn,
and K. F. Lessing, accompanied him. He success-
fully reorganized the Academy, and in 1829 founded
the Art Union of Westphalia. From 1836 onwards

he was the object of many attacks, being accused
of professional intolerance, and of favouring religious
art to the exclusion of other aenres. In 1840 he
revisited Rome on account of his health, and in
1859 he resigned his position. Gifted with more
taste than originality, and with more technical
power than poetic sentiment, he paid great attention
to the finish of his pictures. His portraits are
among his best works. In 1842 he was created
honorary Doctor of Philosophy of the University of
Bonn, and in 1843 he was ennobled. He was a
Member of the Berlin Academy, and of the Insti-
tute of France. While engaged on his last work
he was attacked by amaurosis and became blind.
In spite of a successful operation he painted no
more. He died at Diisseldorf in 1802. His principal
works are :

Ansbaoh. Cathedral. A Christ.

Berlin. IVat. Gallery. Christ on the Read to Emmaus.
„ „ Half-length portrait of a

„ „ Portrait group of Thorwald-

sen, 'Wilhelm, and Rudolf
„ Theatre. A Bacchanal.

„ The Werder Church. The Four Evangelists.
Diilmen, West- Parish ) ,t i tv i

phaiia. CWd.P'^''"^D°'"™^^-

Frankfort. Museum. The Wise and Foolish Virgins.

Hanover. Market Church. Christ on the Mount of Olives.
Munich. Pinalcothik. The Holy Family.
Rome. Casa Bartoldi. Joseph's Bloody Coat. {Fresco?)
„ „ Joseph in Prison. {Tlo.)

Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell, an allegory ; his last work.

SCHAEKEN, Wilhelmds, painter, born at
Weerd in 1754, was a pupil of Borrekens, aiid the
master of van Bree. He spent two years in Italy
after a previous sojourn of twelve years in Antwerp.
His principal pictures are a ' Virgin,' and a 'Dead
Christ lying in the Grave.' He died at Antwerp
in 1830.

SCHAERER, H. L., engraved several small
landscapes, which he marked either with this

cypher, ^^. , or with his name, thus, H. L.

Schaerer sculp. On a few plates he gives the
inilials of his Christian names as A. L. His chief
prints a_re copies of Sachtleven and J. Saenredam.

SCHAFFER, Adalbert, painter, born at Gross
Karoly in Hungary in 1815, received his education
in Vienna, and painted still-life, silver-plate, wine-
glasses, ,&c. He died at Diisseldorf in 1871.

SCHAFFER, Eugen Eduard, engraver, born at
Frankfort in 1802, entered the Stadel Institute,
where he studied under Ulmer. He afterwards
worked at Munich and Diisseldorf. Under Cor-
nelius, he engraved his Dante's 'Paradise,' and
the portrait of Niebuhr. In 1826 he returned to
Munich, and in 1839 was appointed teacher of en-
graving at the S:adel Institute. In 1844 he went
to Florence and engraved the 'Madonna della Sedia.'
Between 1852 and 1856 he was in Rome, but re-
turned to Frankfort, where he died in 1871. Of his
plates we may name :

The Madonna della Sedia ; after Raphael.

Tlie Madonna del' Gran Duca ; after the same.

The Lower World ; after Cornelius.

The Judgment of Paris ; aftm- the same.

llomeo and Juliet ; after the same.

The Rape of Helen ; after the same.

Two scenes from Shakespeare's ' Tempest ' ; after

Euphrosyne ; after Steinle.

Genevieve ; after Steinbriick.

The Erl Konig ; after Neher.




The latroductioD of Christianiby ; after Veit.
Poetry ; after Maphael {left unfinished).
MadoDna di Terranuova ; after the same (ditlo).
Sacred and Profane Love ; after Titian (ditto).

graver on wood, who executed the cuts for a Bible,
printed at Wittemberg in 1545. He marked his
prints witli the initials M. S. on a tablet. By
some he has been supposed to be identical with
Matthads Grunewald.

SCHAFFNER, Martin, a painter of Ulra, who
flourished ia that city, as appears by the records
from 1508 to 1535. He painted historical subjects
and portraits, and ranks among the good German
masters of the period. Some of his best pictures
are in the gallery at Sohleissheim. His figures are
noble, yet delicate, full of feeling and expression
in the lieads, but somewhat defective in colour.
Several of his marks and dates are given by Brulliot.
His monogram is an M with an S imposed on it, or
the letters MSMZV, interpreted Martin Schaffiier
Mahler zu Vim, as on the ' Adoration of the Magi,'
formerly in the Wallerstein collection, but now
in that of the King of Bavaria. His dates are
said to range from 1490 to 1521 SchafEner's works
were formerly attributed to Martin Schongauer,
on account of tlie monogram MS. Chief works :

^"Ssburg, \ %aea.e.% from the Passion.

Schleissheim. J

London. ■S"*;^^!"" } C"'"'* C''"^* '^^™"S *° ^l"^'
Munich, Gallery. The Annunciation.

„ „ The Presentation in the

„ „ The Descent of the Holy Ghost.

„ „ The Death of the Virgin.

(These pictures, which form
Schaffner's masterpiece, were
originally organ doors in the
convent of "Wettenhausen,
near Ulm.)
„ „ Two Portraits.

Kuremherg. Germanic \ a H^-niece'
Museum, j -^-"^"^ P'^'^'^'
„ Moritz-CavcUe. Adoration of the Magi.
Stuttgart. Mus. of An- \ Four large pictures, dated 1510

tiquities. j to 1519.
Ulm. Great Church, Saints and the families of

Christ's ancestry.
Vienna. Gallery/. Several Pictures.

SCHAFLER, (Schafflek, Scheffler,) Chris-
TorH Thomas, painter, was born at Augsburg about
1700. He was of tlie Roman Catholic faith, and
became for a time a lay-brother of the Order of
Jesus, but returned to a secular life. He painted
in oil and in fresco many pictures for churches,
amongst which we may mention his ' Death of St.
Benedict,' in the church formerly belonging to the
Convent at Eital ; and works in the monastery of
S. Ulrich at Augsburg, in the Capucliin church at
Eichstadt, in the old chapel at Ratisbon, and in tlie
" Congregations-Saal " at Ingolstadt. He made
many designs for book illustrations. He died at
Augsburg in 1766.

SCHAGEN, GiLr.is van, a Dutch painter, born
at Alkmaar in 1616. He was first instructed in
art by Solomon van Ravestein, but was afterwards
a scholar of Pieter Verbeek. When he was twent}'-
one years of age he went to Dantzic, where he
resided some time, and painted pictures of Dutch
kitchens and conversations, in imitation of the style
of Ostade. He also painted portraits with success,
both at Dantzic and Elbing ; among them was a
portrait of Stanislaus, Kmg of Poland. After an
absence of three years, he returned to Holland,

but his restless disposition led him to visit France,
where he was employed in copying the works of
the best Italian and Flemish painters, for which he
possessed a particular talent. On his return to
Alkmaar he painted a picture of Admiral van
Tromp's victory over the Spanish fleet. He lias
left one etching, a cottage scene, with an old man.
Tiiere is a picture ascribed to him in the Bridgewater
Gallery. Hedied at Alkmaar in 1G68.

SOHAUFELIN, Hans, the son of Hans Leon-
hard Schaufelin, left Nbrdlingen in 1542, and settled
in Freiburg. To Hans are now attributed many of
the weaker works formerly assigned to the father.
He died in 1682.

SCHAUFELIN, Hans Leonhahd, (Scheufpelin,
ScHAUFFELEiN, SuHEYFFELiN,) bom at Nuremberg
in 1490, was the pupil of Albrecht Diirer, of whose
style he caught many of the beauties. He had a

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 120 of 201)