Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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rich imagination, much true feeling, an intelligent
appreciation of drapery, and much taste in exe-
cution. In 1507 he designed two wood-engravings
for Ulrich Pindter's ' Speculum passionis.' He
a!so drew the illustrations to the ' Theuerdanck ' of
the Emperor Maximilian, and made twenty designs
for a ' Hochzeittanz.' In 1515 he was made burgher
of the town of Nordlingen, and, on visiting
Nuremberg, was recalled to Nordlingen by the
magistrates. He died at Nuremberg in 1540. Of
his works we may name :

The Siege of Bethulia ; a fresco in the Town-hall of

A Last Supper ; in XTlm Cathedral.

The Dead Christ ; in the Cathedral at Nuremberg.

A Descent from the Cross ; in St. George's Church,

Coronation of the Virgin (in 16 panels, with 291 figures) ;
.in the Church at Anliausen.

Death of the Virgin ; in Munich FijiakotheJc.

The Virgin dying receives a Palm of Victory from an
Angel ; in the same.

The Coronation of the Virgin ; in the same.

Christ on the Sea of Galilee saving St. Peter ; in the

Christ crowned with Thorns ; in the same.

Christ on the Cross ; in the same.

Christ on the Mount of Olives ; in the same.

The Visitation ; National Gallery, Dublin.

The Last Supper ; Berlin Museum.

Noli me Tangere ; Cassel Gallery.

Portrait in the possession of the Duke of North-

Schaufelin did not etch himself. He frequently
marked his works with a monogram composed of
his initials and a shovel, a rebus on his name.

SCHALCH, JoHANN Jacob, a landscape painter,
was born at Schaffhausen in 1723, and was a
scholar of Schnaezltir, and of an artist of the name
of Hamilton, at Augsburg. He visited Holland
and England, and died in 1770.

SCHALCKE. See Van der Sohaloke.

SCHALCKEN, Godfribd, was born at Dordrecht
in 1643. His father was rector of the college at
Dordrecht, and desired to bring him up to literary
pursuits, but becoming alive to the boy's dis-
position for painting, he placed him in the studio
of Samuel van Hoogstraten, whence he migrated
to that of Gerard Douw, under whom he acquired
delicacy of finish and some skill in light and shade.
He remained with Douw until he had established
a certain reputation by painting small pictures of
domestic scenes, chiefly candle-lights. He after-
wards attempted to expand his style by the study
of Rembrandt, but soon returned to his early manner.

To give the most natural efEect to his candle-
light pieces, he is said to have adopted the follow-





Amsterdam. E. Museum.








ing system : he placed the object he intended to
paint in a dark room, with a candle, and looking
through a small hole, painted by day what he saw
by candle-light. His small portraits were very
popular, and he had painted the principal families
at Dordrecht, when he was encouraged, by the
extraordinary success of Kneller, to visit England.
Here, however, Ids success was small. There was
no room for him. His manners, too, were against
him, and many stories of his boorishness are told
by the old writers. On his return to Holland he
settled at the Hague, where he continued to practise
his art with success, until his death in 1706. The
chief merit of Schalcken consists in the neatness
of his finishing, and the perfect intelligence of his
chiaro-scuro. His touch is mellow, but too fused,
and his colour warm and golden. Works :

Portrait of 'William III. of

Every one to his Fancy.
The Smoker. {And four more.)
The Two Ages. 1673.
Child Angling.
Children melting wax.
Artist examining a bust of

Venus by candle-light.
Old "Woman reading ; life-size.
Three Pictures of Girls with

Woman in Bed, putting out

the candle.
A Ijady at her Toilet by candle-
Portrait of "WiUiam III. [And

three others.)
Lesbia weighing Jewels against

her Sparrow.
Old Woman scouring a pan.
The Duet.
Soldier giving Money to a

Woman (candle-light).
Ceres at the Peasant's Cottage.
Interior with Figures. {A

Man reading by candle-light.
The Five Wise and Five Foolish

Virgins. 1700.
A Holy Family.
The Penitent Magdalen.
One Girl trying to blow out the

candle of another.
A Holy Family.
Ceres in search of Proserpine.

{And two more)
The Barber.
Old Man reading.

His sister and pupil, Makia, practised at Dor-

SCHALCKEN, Jakob nephew and pupil of God-
fried Schalcken, painted in the same style, so that
his works have been mistaken for those of his

SCHALK, Heinbioh, a miniature painter of some
repute, born at Frankfort in 1792, died at Carlsruhe
in 1834.

SCHALL, Joseph, draughtsman and miniaturist,
was practising at Breslau from 1810 to 1820. He
worked principally in Indian ink, chalk, and pen
and ink.

SCHALLEB, Anton, an elder brother of Johann
Nepomuk Schaller, the sculptor, was born at Vienna
in 1772. He was for some time a painter on por-
celain, but afterwards took to oil, and became pro-
fessor of anatomy in the Academy at Vienna.
He painted good miniature portraits. He died at
Vienna in 1844.


London. Nat. Gallery.

„ Dulwich "Gal.

„ Buckingham Pal.





Petersburg. Hermitage.
Vienna. Gallery.

SCHALLER, Eduaed, painter, son of Anton
Schaller, was born at Vienna in 1802, and attended
the Academy in that city. He travelled much, but
was domiciled at Vienna, where he died in 1848.

SCHALLHAS, Carl Philipp, landscape painter
and engraver, bom in Presburg in 1767, was a
pupil at the Vienna Academy, of which, in 1792, he
was appointed professor of landscape painting. He
died at Vienna in 1797.

SCHALTZ, Daniel, a German painter and en-
graver, born at Dantzio, died in 1686. He excelled
in portraits, and in the painting of animals.

SCHAPFF, JoEG, according to Heineken, exe-
cuted the outs for a block-book on Chiromancy by
Hartlieb, with the date 1448 upon it. In his ' Idea
for a complete Collection of Prints,' Heineken has
given a copy of one of these cuts, and nothing could
be more rude. The name of the engraver was
inscribed on one of the leaves, at the bottom, 3otg
Scl)apff fn ■augafiourg. Zani says he was still at
work in 1473.

SHARPER, (or Shaper,) Johann, a German
painter, native of Harburg, who settled in 1640 at
Nuremberg, where he devoted himself principally
to painting upon glass, ornamenting goblets, jugs,
and bowls with small landscapes, battle-scenes, or
coats-of-arms, which he executed with much
delicacy and finish. Examples are to be seen in
the collections of Berlin and Dresden. He died at
Nuremberg in 1670.

SCHABER, Johann Jakob, born at Schaffhausen
in 1676, was a portrait painter, who practised also
as an architect and modeller. He died in 1746.

SCHARF, George, senior, was born in 1788 at
Mainburg, near Munich, and was the first success-
ful practitioner of lithography in England. He
studied in Paris and Antwerp. In 1815 he was
attached to the British army throughout the
Waterloo campaign, and in 1816 came to London.
There he was soon largely engaged in making
drawings for scientific works, and for the Trans-
actions of the Geological Society. His travels in
Belgium and France also afforded subjects for
several drawings, and he painted pictures of a
'Sitting of Parliament' and 'The Lord Mayor's
Banquet.' Scharf became a member of the Insti-
tute of Painters in Water-Colours in 1834, but re-
signed two years later. There is a drawing of the
Society's gallery in Bond Street, by him, at South
Kensington. He was the father of Mr. George
Scharf, C.B., Director of the National Portrait
Galleiy. Scharf died in London in 1860.

SCHARF, Johann, born at Vienna, July 13th,
1722, was a botanical draughtsman and painter of
great talent, who began life as a scullery boy in a
convent. His taste for design manifesting itself, he
managed to obtain work as a painter of wall-papers.
In this position he attracted the attention of the
botanist Jacquin, who took him into his service as
a flower-painter. His unceasing application so in-
jured his health that he fell into a consumption, of
which he died at Vienna, October 5th, 1794.

SCHARNAGEL, Franz Sebastian, painter, born
at Bamberg in 1791, was a pupil of Sensburg, and
afterwards of Geibel and Dorn. In 1811 he painted
at the Academy of Munich, but returned to Bam-
berg in 1815, and died there in 1831. His chief
work is the ' Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.'

SCHATEN, Hubert, an engraver who resided
at Copenhagen, and engraved several portraits
during the latter half of the 17th century, between
1675 and 1694.




SCHATTENHOPER, Amalie yon, nde Baadek,
burn at Erding, in Bavaria, in 1763, was a pupil of
Doriier, in Munich, where she settled as a painter in
crayons. She also etched. She died at Munich in

SCHAUBROEK, Pietee, (Schoebkoek,) painter,
born at Antwerp in 1542, was a pupil and imitator
of Jan Brueghel. He died at Antwerp in 1605.

Brunswick. Gallery. John the Baptist preaching.

Burning of Troy.




View in a Village,
.^neas and Anchises.

SCHAUPUS, a German painter and etcher, who
flourished at Dresden in the 18th century. He was
a pupil of J. E. Sohonau, and painted miniatures.
He also engraved some plates after Vandyck,
Mengs, and Solimena.

SCHAUR, Philip. This name is appended to an
etching of a bearded old man in spectacles, mending
a pen, with an hour-glass and books before him.

SCHEBOUYEPF, Wassilti KonsMiTSCii, painter,
born at Cronstadt, in 1777, was a pupil of the
St. Petersburg Academy. In 180.3 he went to
Rome, where he painted a ' Decapitation of John
the Baptist.' In 1807 he returned to St. Peters-
burg, and became Professor of Historical Painting,
and afterwards Director, of the St. Petersburg
Academy. His ' St. Basil the Great,' ' St. Gregory,'
and ' St. John Chrysostom,' are in the cathedral
at Kasan ; his 'St. John in the Wilderness,' 'As-
sumption of the Virgin,' and ' The Patriot Igolkine,'
in the Hermitage. He died in 1855.

SCHEDLER, Johann Georq, (Schaedlee,) painter
and etcher, was born at Constance in 1777. He
devoted himself first to miniature painting, but
afterwards took to landscapes in gouache. He
settled at Innsbruck, where he died in 1845.

SGHEDONE. See Schidone.

SCHEDRIN. See Sohtschedbik.

SCHEELE NEEL. See Molbnaer, Coenblis.

SCHEERES, Hendeik Jan, an obscure Dutch
painter, the pupil of Van Hove, was born at the
Hague in 1829, and died in 1864.

SCHEPPER, Aenold, the son of Henri Scheffer,
was born in Paris, and studied under his father
and Picot. Prom 1859 to 1870 he exhibited occa-
sionally at the Salon, chiefly scenes from French
history. In the Museum at Besanjon there is a
' Puneral Procession in honour of the Duke of
Guise,' by him. He died during a visit to Venice,
in 1873, while still young.

SCHEFFER, Aey, painter, born at Dordrecht on
the 12th February, 1795, was the son of Johann
Baptist Sohetfer, an artist of German extraction,
settled in Holland, and practising as court-painter
at Amsterdam ; and of his wife, Coenelia Lamme,
of Dordrecht, also ai\ artist. Ary and his brother
Hendrik received their first instruction from their
father, and Ary is said to have shown a precocious
talent, and to have exhibited a picture when only
twelve years old. In 1810 he sent a portrait to
the Amsterdam Exhibition. In the following year
his father died, and Cornelia Scheffer, a woman of
nmch energy and strength of character, resolved
to take her three sons to Paris to complete their
education. Settling in the French capital, she
placed both Ary and Hendrik with Pierre Gu^rin as
pupils ; and in 1816 Ary gained the chief prize for
painting at Antwerp, the subject of his picture
being ' Abraham and the Three Angels.' Ary soon
began to be favourably known in Paris as an indus-
trious painter of small genre pictures, of which

his ' Soldier's Widow,' 'Sailor's Family,' 'Sister of
Mercy,' ' Orphans in the Churchyard,' are examples.
These became widely popular by means of litho-
graphs. A few more ambitious works dating from
this early period are : ' Death of St. Louis ' (1817),
'Socrates and Alcibiades' (1818), 'The Surrender
of the Burghers of Calais' (1819). The year 1822
was a marked one in his career, his reputation
being greatly enhanced by a picture then exhibited,
' The Shades of Prancesca da Rimini and her Lover
appearing to Dante and Virgil ; ' and in this same
year he painted the ' St. Louis visiting his plague-
stricken Soldiers,' for the church of St. Frangois
d'Assise, in Paris.

His early works, though painted in the French
manner, show a strong leaning towards the pathetic
and emotional vein which was the characteristic
note of his mature art. In his second period Ary
ScheSer sought inspiration from the greater poets
and from the Scriptures. Typical examples in both
styles are the 'Beatrice 'and 'Prancesca da Rimini,'
exhibited at the Salon of 1835; and the 'Christ
bearing His Cross,' ' Christ the Consoler,' and ' Ruth
and Naomi.' Like David, Scheffer combined witli
his artistic pursuits an enthusiastic interest in
politics, and was a warm partisan of the Orleans
family. Introduced to them by Gdrard in 1826, he
became drawing-master to the children of Louis
Philippe, and his professional relations with them
soon developed into an affectionate intimacy, the
Princess Marie in particular being greatly attached
to him. In 1830, when the events of the Revolution
placed Louis Philippe on the throne, Scheffer rode
to Neuilly in company with Thiers to tell the Prince
h3 was king. Faithful to him in misfortune,
Scheffer was also with him when the outbreak of
1848 forced him from the Tuileries.

A journey through the Netherlands in 1829 to
study Rembrandt and the Flemish masters had a
certain influence upon Schefier's later manner.
To this belong the works suggested by Goethe's
' Faust,' and many others inspired by the poems of
Byron, Burger, Schiller, Dante, &c. For the his-
torical gallery at Versailles he painted several
pictures, which will be found mentioned below.
At the death, in 1839, of his mother, to whom he
was greatly attached, he made his first and only
essay in sculpture. Desiring that no other than
himself should undertake the monument to her
memory, he designed and carried out in marble a
full-length figure for her tomb, but the result is
interesting- only as evidence of filial affection.

Scheffer, who was an officer of the Legion of
Honour, commanded a battalion of the National
Guard during the disturbances of June, 1848, and
his services were recognized by an offer of the
cross of a commander, which, however, he declined.
His political activity brought him into contact
with all opinions and classes, and he is said to
have been a man of much culture and intelligence,
and of great kindliness and benevolence of dis-
position. His open-handed generosity prevented
him from amassing a fortune, and in spite of the
large sums which he received for some of his pic-
tures, at his death he left no savings. In his
political career he was singularly sincere and
upright in conviction and ain-.s. As an artist he
cannot be said to take a high rank, though few
modern painters have enjoyed a greater degree of
present popularity. His drawing is correct, and
his taste refined and elevated, but his merit lies
rather in poetry of sentiment and in a certain





devotional fervour, than in individuality of treat-
ment or artistic handling, while as a colourist
his shortcomings are very marked. He died at
Argenteuil, near Paris, on the 16th June, 1858.
The following are among the better examples of his

work ;


Lille. Museum.

' The Dead ride fast.'

London, iVai. Gallery.

SS. Augustine and Monica.

Portrait of Mrs.Eobert Holland.

" Nat. Fart. Gall.

Portrait of Charles Dickeus.

Marseilles. Museum.

Mary Magdalen.

Montpellier. „

A Philosopher.

Nantes. „

The Charitable Child.

Paris. Louvre.

Bberbard of Wiirtemberg.

" "

The Death of G^ricault.

The Vow of the Suliot Women.

Eotterdam. Gallery.

Eberhard of ■VYiirtemberg eut-

ti.ig the cloth.


Eberhard mouruiug his son


Three sketches.

Versailles. Gallery.

Gaston de Foix fonnd dead

after Kavenna. 1824.

The Battle of Tolbiac.

») "

Charlemagne dictating his

Ordinances. 1829.

l» »5

Charlemagne receiving the

submission of Wittekind,
„ „ Philip Augustus entering Paris.

,, „ St. Louis entrusts the Regency

to the Queen.
„ „ The Entry of Charles VII. into

„ „ Entry of Louis XII. into

„ „ Louis Philippe receiving the

1st Begiment of Hus.sars.
Dante and Beatrice. {Mr. Hemming.)
Faust's Vision of Margaret.
Margaret in the Church.

Portraits of Lamartine ; Lamenuais ; Madame Guizot,
senr. ; his Mother ; Charles Gounod ; Franklin ;
Madame Taglioni ; Himself.

SCHEFFER, Hendrik, painter, brother of Ary
Scheifer, born at the Hague in 1798, was also a
pupil of Gu^rin. He was not without merit, though
far behind his brother. His drawing was incorrect,
and his colour cold. His principal work was a
' Charlotte Corday,' and we may also mention :

An Inundation in Rome. I Joan of Arc.

Hermann and Dorothea. | Madame Roland.

Preaching after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

The Battle of Monte Cassel. ( Versailles.)

He died in Paris in 1861.

SCHEFFER, Johann Baptist, painter and
etcher, born at Cassel in 1773, a pupil of Tisch-
bein, went early to Holland, where at Dort he
married Cornelia Lamme and became the father of
Ary Scheffer. He produced several large historical
works, and some portraits ; among the latter that
of King Louis of Holland. He died at Amsterdam
in 1809.

Evangelist, painter, born at Vienna in 1795, became
a pupil of the Academy. His talents, however,
attracted the attention of the Graf Franz von Salm-
Eeifferscheidt, prince-bishop of Gurk, who sup-
plied him with the means to go to Italy. In 1817
he painted the portrait of Pope Pius VII., who
created him a Knight of the Order of Christ. On
his return to Vienna he painted a ' St. Cecilia ' for
Prince Albert of Saohsen-Teschen, and then re-
turned to Rome. There he produced his master-
piece, 'The Dying Cecilia, supported by two
Angels,' now in the Vienna Gallery. He died at
Vienna in 1822.


SCHEFFER, Jean Gabriel, painter, bom at
Geneva in 1797, was a pirpil of Regnault, and prac-
tised for many years in Paris, exhibiting occasion-
ally at the Salon. Among his works there shown
were : ' The Good Samuritim,' ' Woman of Albano,'
' Conjugating the Verb to Love ' (in ten tableaux).
He also published a number of lithographs, forming
various series, under the following names : ' Les
Grisettes,' ' Ce qu'on dit et ce qu'on pense,' 'Le
Diable Boiteux a Paris.' He last appeared at the
Salon in 1846.

SCHEFFER, Paul, a German painter, who is
mentioned by De' Domenici as having painted
pictures for the church of San Severino at Naples,
in 1560.

SCHEFFERS, N., a Dutch historical painter,
born at Utrecht. He came to England when still
young to practise his art, and had at first to submit
to much disappointment and hardship. Later he.
gained the notice of the painter Verrio, who em«
ployed him as his assistant.

SCHEFFLER. See Schafleb.

SOU EGA, Fbanz Anpreas, die-cutter and en-
giaver, is better known by his medals and portraits
in relief than by his pictures. He was born at
Neustadt in Carniola in 1710. The son of a gun-
maker, he for a time followed his father's trade, in
which he gave evidence of artistic talent by the
skill with which he engraved his guns. Late in
life he painted portraits in pastel, some of which
he himself engraved. He became blind in 1780,
and died at Munich on Dec. 6, 1787.

SCHEGGIA. See Gdidi, Tommaso.

SCHEIE, Cheis'J'IAn Friedrich, painter, bom at
Worms in 1737, was a pupil of Seekatz, whose style
he copied. After travelling through Prance, he
settled at Hamburg. He painted small pictures
in oils and water-colours, principally fire efiects.
He died in the workhouse at Hamburg in 1810.

SCHEINDEL. See Scheyndel.

SCHEINS, Karl Ludwig, painter, was bom at
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1808. He studied at DUsseldorf
under Schirmer, and painted mostly woodland and
mountain scenes. He died at Diisseldorf in 1879.

SCHEITZ, Andreas, (Scheotz,) son of Matthias
Scheitz, painter and etcher, was born at Hamburg
in 1665. He followed the style of his father. He
was painter to the Court of Hanover, where he died.

SCHEITZ, Matthias, was born at Hamburg
about the year 1645, and was a follower of Philips
Wouwerman, whose style he afterwards abandoned
for that of David Teniers. He designed a series of
Scriptural illustrations, which were engraved by J.
de Visscher and others, and published at Luneburg
in 1672. He died about 1700. He etched fourteen
plates from his own designs, in a bold, free style,
among which the following may be named :

The Four Seasons, symbolized by the Sports of Children ;

iu fourplates ; M. i!ic}ieit:,fec. 1671.
Two Iiandscapes. with figures danciug.
An old Man playing on the Violin, and a AVoman singing

before the door of a Cottage.
The Spectacle Merchant.

There are pictures by him at Pommersfeld,
Schwerin, Brunswick, and Cassel.

SCHEL, Sebastian, a German painter, of the
school of Diirer. Amongst his woiks was the
decoration of tlie ' Paradise Hall,' in the rojal
palace at Innspruck. An altar-piece by him in the
same city bears the following inscription : " Se-
bastian Schel, painter of Innspruck, made this
picture by the help of God." He died in 1654,




SCHELBER. See Schfxvek.

SCHELDE. See Van j>er Schelde.

SCHELPHOUT, Andreas, landscape painter,
bom at the Hague in 1787, received his first in-
struction from the scene painter Breckenheymer,
and in 1815, with his 'Winter Landscape ' now in
the Amsterdam Museum, first made himself a name.
He painted the natural scenery of Holland, and his
works are numerous. He was a Member of the
Academies of Amsterdam, Brussels, Ghent, and the
Hague, He died at the Hague in 1870.- The
Amsterdam Museum possesses a large collection of
his works.

SCHELLENBEEG, Johann Rudolph, a Swiss
designer and engraver, born at Basle in 1740.
He was the son of J. U. Schellenberg. Among
other plates, he engraved several for Lavater, and
from the designs of Chodowiecki ; also some of the
portraits and ornamental prints for the ' Lives of the
Swiss Painters,' by J. 0. Fuessli. He also engraved
a large number of plates for works on entomology.
He died at Toss near Winterthur in 1806.

SCHELLENBERG, Johann Uleich, born at
Winterthur in 1709, was a pupil first of a house-
painter and then of Huber in Berne. He superin-
tended a Drawing-school in Winterthur and painted
portraits and landscapes. He was the master of
Anton Graff. He died at Winterthur in 1770.

SGHELLENBBRGER, Johann Jacob, a German
engraver, who flourished about the year 1660. He
engraved some of the plates for Priorato's ' History
of the Emneror Leopold.' He was living in 1674.

SGHELLINCKS, Daniel, the brother of Willem
Schellincks, was bom at Amsterdam in 1638 (?), and
painted landscapes and seaports with some success.
He died in 1701. Several good chalk drawings by
him are to be seen in the Albertina Collection,

SCHELLINCKS, Willem, (Schelungs, Schel-
LiNKS,) was bom at Amsterdam in 1632, and, from
the style of his pictures, is supposed to have been
a scholar of Jan Lingelbach. He travelled through
England, France, Switzerland, and Italy. He
painted landscapes and sea-ports, with figures.
The sunny effect in some of his pictures reminds
us of Karel du Jardin ; his animals are well drawn,
and his groups well composed. On the embark-
ation of Charles II. for England, at the Restoration,
Schellincks painted a large picture of the scene for
the family of Witsen. It contained a vast number
of well-grouped figures. He painted the burning
of the English Fleet in the Medway, and was also
much employed in inserting figures in the pictures
of Wynants and Heusch. The works of Schellincks
are to be found at St. Petersburg, Copenhagen,
Frankfort, and Augsburg. He made drawings of
Stonehenge, as it then existed, and of several other

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 121 of 201)