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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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objects that would attract a stranger in England ;
there is, therefore, little doubt as to his having been
here. He died in 1678.

SCHELTEMA, Taoo, born at Harlingen in 1760,
distinguished himself as a portrait painter. He
formed himself on Van Dyck. After visiting Diis-
seldorf he went to Saxony, where he painted many
portraits, but afterwards returned to his own country,
and resided alternately at Amsterdam and Rotter-
dam. He painted the portraits of the founders and
directors of the Batavian Society, and numerous
family pictures. He died in 1837.

SCHELVEB, August Franz, genre and battle
painter, born at Osnaburg in 1805, was first a
pupil of Neelmeyer, and then, with assistance from
VOL. II. h h

his native town, went to Munich for improvement.
In 1833 he produced his picture of the Battle of
Hanau, but hunting scenes, horse-market scenes,
and battles constitute the principal part of his works.
He died at Munich in 1844. In the Munich Pina-
kothek is a picture by him of a Tyrolese wagon
coming up a rocky pass.

SCHENAU, (Sohonau,) Johann Eleazab. See

SGHENCK, PiETBR, was born at Elberfeld in
1645, but studied drawing at Amsterdam. As an
engraver he commenced with some topographical
works, in which he was assisted by Gerard Valcke,
who afterwards taught him mezzotint, in which
process be engraved a large number of portraits.
In 1683-4 they became partners, and it is difficult
thenceforward to distinguish their numerous pub-
lications from theiractual performances. Augustus
II., Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, named
Sclienck engraver to his court. Schenck died at
Amsterdam about 1716. A long list of his prints
is given by Nagler. There is a good collection in
the British Museum.

SCHENDEL, Bernard, bom at Haarlem in
1634, was a scholar of Hendrik Mommers. He
painted conversations and merry-maldngs, and was
a good draughtsman and colourist. The probable
date of his death was about 1693.

SCHENDEL, Petrus van, painter, born at Ter-
heyden, near Breda, in North Brabant, in 1806,
worked at the Antwerp Academy from 1822 to
1828, under Van Bree. Wiertz, Leys, and Geerts
were his fellow-pupils. He then returned to Hol-
land, living successively in Amsterdam, Rotterdam,
where he painted portraits, and the Hague. Thence
he went to Brussels in 1845. He produced several
Market Scenes, with effects of light, as ' Evening
Market at Antwerp,' and ' The Fishmarket,' both in
the National Gallery at Berlin; ' Market by Moon-
light,' in the Pinakothek at Munich. He also painted
a few subjects from sacred and profane history and
portraits. He died at Brussels in 1870.

SCHENK, C. Wilhelm, engraver, born at Leipsic
about 1785, worked at the Academy, and engraved
portraits and historical subjects for books. He
went afterwards to Brunswick. He has left a small
plate from Leonardo da Vinci's ' Last Supper.'

SCHENK, S. P. See Tlllemans.

SCHENKEE, S. Nikolaus, engraver, bom at
Geneva in 1760, went in 1779 to Paris, and began
his independent work with some plates after Schall.
His principal work was the ' Madonna di Foligno,'
after Raphael. Other plates are a portrait of
Henry IV. of France, at the age of fifteen, and one
of Wieland, after Kiigelgen. He died in 1822.

SCHERM, LoEENZ, engraver, born in the Rhine
provinces about 1690, went to Amsterdam, and
worked there from 1720 to 1735. His works are
mainly architectural, but he also engraved a few
landscapes with figures.

SCHERMIER, Cornelis, a Flemish decorative
painter, who in the 16th century worked for the
church of S. Gudule at Brussels.

SCHERTL, Joseph, landscape painter, was born
at Augsburg in 1810. He began his studies with a
lithographer in his own city, and then, in 1832,
went to Munich, and studied landscape under Fohr
and Morgenstern. He is principally known by his
pictures of the neighbourhood of Munich. He died
at Munich in 1869.

SCHETKY, John Alexander, a brother of John
Christian Schetky, was bom at Edinburgh in 1785.





He was educated for the medical profession, and
was appointed Assistant-Surgeon to tiie 3rd Dra-
goon Guards, and with his regiment joined the
army in the Peninsula. He was attaclied to the
7th Division under Lord Dalhousie, and served till
the end of the war. During this time all his spare
moments were taken up with drawing from nature,
and he sent home a number of sketches illustrative
of the scenery in the Pyrenees, which showed a
decided originality and much imagination. His
artistic power was afterwards devoted principally to
the delineation of external and internal pathology,
and after his appointment to the General Hospital at
Port Pitt, Chatham, he contributed many valuable
drawings to the Museum of Morbid Anatomy estab-
lished by Sir James M'Grigor. He was promoted
to the post of Deputy Inspector of Hospitals on
the coast of Africa, and died oflE Cape Coast Castle
in 1824.

SCHETKY, John Christian, born at Edinburgh
in 1778, was a pupil of Nasmyth, and devoted him-
self to marine painting in the style of Vandevelde.
He held the appointment of Professor of Civil
Drawing at the Royal Military College at Great
Marlow, the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth,
and the East India College at Addisoombe, success-
ively, during a period of forty-seven years. He
was appointed painter in water-colours to William,
Duke of Clarence, and was marine painter to George
IV., William IV., and Queen Victoria respectively.
His painting of marine subjects is respectable, and
his accuracy in minute details of naval architecture
unsurpassed. His principal works are : ' The Battle
ofi Cape La Hogue ; ' ' The Endymion Frij)ate,
Admiral Sir Charles Paget, relieving a French Man-
of-War ashore on a rock-bound coast ; ' ' The Battle
of Trafalgar ; ' and ' The Sinking of the Royal
George.' The last-named is row in the National
Gallery. Schetky died in London in 1874.

SCHEUBEL, JoHANN Joseph (I), painter, born
at Ratisbon about 1675, was painter to the Prince
Bishop, at whose expense he was sent to Venice.
On his return he painted altar-pictures for the
church of St. Stephen at Bamberg, (a ' Stoning of
Stephen,' a ' Descent from the Cross,' &c.) an altar-
piece for the Jakobskirche, and a ceiling for the
Gangolfskirche. He died at Ratisbon in 1778.

SCHEUBEL, JoHANN Joseph (II), painter, son
■ of Johann Sclieubel, born at Bamberg about 1720,
was pupil of Georg Desmar^es, and travelled at the
Bishop's expense through Prance and Italy. On
his return he was appointed court painter. The
Bishop sent him to Paris in 1776, where he painted
four allegorical scenes in the Hotel de Ville. In
1778 he returned to Bamberg, and died there in 1783.

SCHEUCHZER, Wilhelm, painter, born at
Zurich in 1803, was a pupil of Heinrioh Maurer.
He travelled in Switzerland, and then from 1826 to
1829 worked in the Black Forest on pictures for
the Prince of Fiirstenberg. His landscapes were
much valued for their truthfulness to nature and
the freshness of their colouiing. He died at
Munich in 1866.

SCHEUPPBLIN. See Schahfehn.

SCHEVENHUYSEN, Anthony, a Dutch en-
graver, who flourished about the year 1695. He
engraved the trades of Holland in a set of one
hundred small plates.

SCHEYNDEL, (Scheindel,) George van, a
Dutch engraver, who resided at Rotterdam about
the year 1635. He engraved several plates in a
style resembling that of Callot. His landscapes


are filled with figures correctly drawn, and touched
with spirit. He was a contemporary of William
van Buytenweg, after whom he engraved some
plates. We have, among others, the following
prints by him :

The Funeral Procession of William the Silent ; in four

A pair of Landscapes, with Peasants amusing themselves.

The Tooth-drawer.

A Village Festival, with Boors fighting.

Ditto, with a Quack-Doctor.

A Winter-piece, with Skaters on the ice.

A Landscape, with a Waterfall.

A Landscape, with a Bridge.

A set of four Views of a Castle, one with a Windmill.

A set of twelve Landscapes, with Dutch inscriptions.

A set of twelve plates of European costames.

Twelve plates of Dutch costumes.
Scheyndel was at work as late as 1660.

SCHIANTBSCHI, Domenico, an Italian painter
of the 18th century. He was a pupil of the Bibieni,
and practised at Borgo San Sepolcro, where he
painted decorative perspectives in palazzi.

SCHIAVO, Paolo, was a pupil of Masolino da
Panicale, whose style he is said to have imitated.
His ' Madonna and Child with a St. John the Baptist
and another Saint,' now much damaged, may still
be seen on the wall of the Canto di Nelli, at

SCHIAVONE, Andeea. See Meldolla.

SCHIAVONE, Geegobio, a Dalmatian living in
the 15th century, was a pupil of Squarcione. He
was employed in the decorations of the Eremitani
Chapel, Padua, and painted the ' Enthroned Virgin
and Child,' now in the Berlin Gallery, while the
side panels of this altar-piece, with the figures of
St. Louis and St. Anthony of Padua, are in the
Canons' sacristy at Padua. The National Gallery,
London, has two pictures by him, a ' Madonna and
Child, enthroned, with Saints,' and a ' Madonna and
Infant Christ.' Schiavone was fond of proclaiming
himself the disciple of Squarcione in his signatures.
He flourished from about 1440 to 1470.

SCHIAVONE, LncA, a decorative painter, who
flourished at Milan about 1450. He excelled in
designing eiribroidery for ecclesiastics.

SCHIAVONETTI, LniGl, engraver, born at Bas-
sano in 1765, was the son of a stationer, and from
his infancy displayed a taste for drawing. Before
he was thirteen he had made some progress with-
out the help of a master, when he was placed
under the tuition of Qiulio Golini, by whom he was
taught for three years, at the end of which his
master died. He now turned his thoughts to en-
graving. A copy of a ' Holy Family,' in line, from
a print engraved by Barto Corri, after Carlo Maratti,
gained him immediate employment from Count
Remaudini. The works of Bartolozzi were then in
vogue at Bassano, and Schiavoinetti imitated several
with great success. Some of his copies were
shown to Bartolozzi by one Testoloni, as his own,
but when Schiavonetti himself came to England,
the deception was exposed, and Bartolozzi received
him into his house. After working for some time
under Bartolozzi, he set up for himself, and prac-
tised with much success until his death, which
happened in June, 1810, in London.

The following are among Schiavonetti's principal
works :

Events in the life of Louis XVI. ; four plates ; after

The cartoon of Pisa ; after Michel-Angelo Suonarroti.
Portrait of Vandyct, in the character of Paris.
The Mater Dolorosa ; after Vandyck.




The Landing of the British Troops in Egypt ; after

A set of etchings for Blair's Grave ; after Blake,

The Canterbury Pilgrimage ; after Stothard.

Dead Christ ; after Vandyck.

Portrait of Berchem ; after Rembrandt.

The Death of General Wolfe, engraved from a gem by
Marchant, in the original unpublished Museum "Wors-
leyanum. There is a copy in the smaller edition.

Death of Virgiuia ; after Tresham.

Marriage at Cana ; after Pellegrim.

Death of Tippo Sahib ; after Singleton.

Queen Elizabeth ; after Westall.

Portrait of the Duke of York ; after Baydell.

Queen of Prussia and her sister ; after Tischbein.

Portrait of W. Blake ; after T. Philips.

Plates in ' The Italian School of Design,' published by
Ottley. Also, in Ckamherlaine's collection of repro-
ductions of Italian drawings ; and ' Specimens of
Ancient Sculpture,' published by the Society of

SCHIAVONETTI, Niccolo, was the younger
brother of Luigi Schiavonetti, and executed some
plates in the style of that artist, though he worked
chiefly in conjunction with him, helping him espe-
cially in the ' Tippo Sahib ' and the ' Canterbury
Pilgrims.' He did not long survive his brother,
but died in London in 1813.

SCHIAVONI, Felice, a painter, born at Trieste
in 1803, was a son and pupil of Natale Schiavoni,
whom he followed to Vienna and Milan. He
settled at Venice in 1830, where he painted historical
and mythological suI)jeot=!. His best works are his
' Descent from the Cross ' and ' Raphael painting
the Fomarina.' He died in 1868.

SCHIAVONI, Natale, an eminent painter and
distinguished engraver, was bom at Chioggia in
1777. He studied engraving under Raffael Mor-
glien, at Florence, but in 1797 went to Venice,
and studied under Maggioto. His first important
work was a ' St. Francis ' for the church of that
saint in Chioggia ; he then for a time painted
miniature portraits. From 1802 to 1816 he lived
in Trieste, and in which latter year he painted
portraits of the Emperor and Empress of Austria.
In 1825 he went to Milan, and divided his attention
pretty evenly between painting and engraving.
In 1841 he painted a large altar-piece for St. An-
tonio in Trieste, and afterwards a tine ' Magdalene,'
now in the Belvedere, at Vienna. He painted
many 'Bathing Venuses,' in which he could display
his skill in the nude ; he made a copy of Titian's
' Assumption,' now in Russia ; and produced with
the help of his sons a large ' Adoration of the
Magi.' His celebrity as an engraver is chiefly
owing to his splendid plates after Titian's ' As-
sumption of the Virgin,' and ' The Entombment.'
There is also a portrait of the Marquis Manfredini,
which is considered a chef-d'oeuvre. About 1840
he became a Professor of the Venetian Academy.
He died in Venice in 1858.

SCHICK, Gottlieb, an historical portrait and
landscape painter, was born at Stiittgart in 1779.
In 1798 he went to Paris, and commenced his
artistic studies in the atelier of David. In 1802 he
returned to Stiittgart, but soon went on to Rome.
He had some imagination, and his pictures are in
many instances distinguished by simplicity and
purity of sentiment. 'Tlie Sacrifice of Noah,'
' David playing before Saul,' and ' Apollo with
the Shepherds,' the last in the palace at Stiittgart,
are among his best works. There is a fine ' Eve
at the Fountain,' by hirn in the Wallraf-Richartz
Mnseum, Cologne. He excelled in portraiture, and
painted- several members of the Humboldt family,

H H 3

and other distinguished persons. His landscapes
are of the heroic kind, enriched with subjects from
the poets. Schick was one of the founders of
modern German art. He died at Stiittgart in

SCHIDONE, (ScHEDONE,) Bartolommeo, painter,
was bom at Modena in 1560. Although he is
generally allowed to have been brought up under
the Carracei, his works exhibit little resemblance
to their style. He rather appears to have formed
himself on the study, of Raphael and Correggio,
but his style has a sharpness, severity, and dryness
which is peculiar to him. Schidone had already
gained some reputation at Modena, when Duke
Ranucoio took him under his protection. He
painted several pictures for his patron, and these,
with many other works of art in the possession of
the Duke of Modena, afterwards came into the col-
lection of the King of Naples. In the Palazzo
Pubblico, at Modena, he painted the history of
Coriolanus, and seven emblematical figures, in
which he emulated Correggio ; and in the cathedral
a 'St. Geminiano resuscitating a dead Child,' which
used often to be taken for a production of that
master. His works are extremely rare ; in con-
sequence, it is said, of his propensity for gaming,
in which he wasted his substance and time. His
death is said to have been occasioned by distress
of mind, caused by losing in one night more than
he was able to pay. It took place in 1616, at

Darmstadt. Gallery, St. John.

Dresden. Gallery. Flight into Egypt.

Florence. Piiti Palace. Holy Family.
„ JJfflzi, HolyFamily.

Glasgow. Gallery. Cupid with an Hour-glass.

London. Bridy^^aUr | ^he Virgin teaching Christ.

Modena. Cathedral. St. Gemignano.

„ Municipio. Coriolanus and his mother. .

„ Gallery. St. Jerome.

„ „ St. John the Baptist.

„ „ The Dinner at Simon's House.

Naples. Museum. The Holy Family.

„ „ Charity.

„ „ St. Sebastian succoured by St.


„ „ The Tribute-money.

,, „ Christ presented to the People.

„ „ The Massacre of the Innocents.

» „ Cupid.

n „ Several Portraits.

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family.

„ „ Christ borne to the Tomb.

„ „ The Entombment.

Parma. Museum. The Last Supper.

„ „ A Pieta.

Venice. Academy,,: Descent from the Cross.

Vienna. Belvedere. The Disciples at Emmaus.

„ „ The Entombment.

SCHIERTZ, August Ferdinand, painter, born at
Leipsio in 1804, began in 1880 to study art, aijd
painted genre, historical, and religious pictures.
His best works are : ' Mortality,' in the Museum at
Leipsic ; an ' Adoration of the Kings,' in the church
of Bosenstadt ; the ' Descent of the Holy Ghost,'
for the church at Podelwitz. He was much em-
ployed in the restoration of old pictures. He died
at Niederfahre, near Meissen, in 1878.

SCHIESL, Ferdinand, engraver, born at Munich
in 1775, was a pupil of Mettenleiter. He drew
caricatures and engraved vignettes for books. He
died in 1820.

SCHIFFER, Anton, landscape painter, was born
at Gratz in 1811. He was a student of the Aca-
demy at Vienna. His best works are : 'A Mountain





Panorama,' and 'View of the Muhlsturzlior'ner,
near Berchtesgaden ; ' ' View from the Sohafberg,
near Isehl ; ' ' View of the Sohueeberg, in Lower
Austria.' He died in 1876.

SCHILBACH, J — Heinrich, landscape painter,
was born at Barohfeld in 1798. He studied at
Darmstadt, and, in. 182.S travelled in Italy, making
many sketches, which furnished him with motives
for finished oil-pictures. In 1828 he was appointed
court scene-painter at Darmstadt. Among his best
known landscapes are, a ' View of Mayence,' a ' View
of Rome/ and two studies of Roman scenery in
the Thorwaldsen Museum at Copenhagen. He has
left a considerable number of etchings.

SCHILCHER, ANa'ON von, engraver and painter,
■was born at Mindelheim in 1796. He studied at
Munich, and entering the Bavarian army went with
General Heydegger to Greece. He drew and
painted military and genre pictures. He died at
Paros in 1828.

German painter, a native of Oppenheim. He was
a contemporary of ' Master Wilhelm,' and about
1382 was engaged to paint the high altar of
Frankfort cathedral.

SCHILDKROTE (The Turtle). See Danks.

SCHILGEN, Philipp Anton, painter, born at
Osnaburgh in 1793, studied at Dilsseldorf under
Cornelius, with whom he went to Munich in 1825.
He executed some scenes from the Tragedies of
^schylus, in the Palace, after drawings by Schwan-
thaler. In the Munich New Pinakothek hangs his
' Rape of Helen,' painted in oil after a cartoon by
Cornelius. He died in Munich in 1857.

SCHILLER, Johann Felix von, landscape
painter, born at Breslau in 1806, was educated for
the legal profession, but afterwards devoted him-
self to art, which he studied at Munich, and made
the beauties of the Bavarian highlands his theme.
He died at Munich in 1852.

SCHILLING, Geoea, born at Unterthingau, in
Suabia, in 1785. He painted ten landscapes, deal-
ing with scenes in Greek life, in the palace at
Munich. They are after drawings in water-colour
by Rottmann. Schilling died at Unterthingau in

SCHILLING, Hans, a German illuminator and
calligraphist of the 16th century, known by a
rhymed paraphrase of the Bible in 50,000 verses,
■which he enriched with 516 grotesquely designed
but finely coloured miniatures. He was a native
of Hagenau.

SCHILT, Louis PiEEEE, born in Paris, Septem-
ber 11, 1790, was one of the most celebrated of the
painters upon Sevres porcelain. His father ■was a
vivandier of the republican army, and Sohilt was
brought up entirely by his mother, ■who appren-
ticed him at the age of fourteen to the china-
painter Constant. His master treated him kindly,
putting him into the way of earning small sums
for himself by painting on common pottery, and
eventually he passed into the atelier of Lefevre.
He here attracted the attention of the painter Paris,
who advised him to devote himself entirely to
flower-painting, and in accordance with this counsel
he began to attend Jussieu's courses at the Museum,
■with the result that he became an accomplished
botanist. In 1822 he obtained employment at the
royal manufactory at Sevres, and worked there
■with equal assiduity and success until his death in
1859. Nine years previously he had been made
a Knight of the Legion of Honour at the solicita-


tion of Paul DelarooTie. He published the follow-
ing series of lithographs : 'The Months,' 'Flowers
and Fruit,' 'The Porcelain Designer.'

SCHIMON, Ferdinand, painter, born at Pesth
in 1797, was first a singer and actor, and then, after
studying art at Munich, came out as a portrait
painter. He worked at the Loggie of the Old Pina-
oothek after Cornelius' designs. Most of his works
are in the Villa Rosenstein, near Stiittgart. He
died at Munich in 1852.

SCHINDLER, Albeet, born at Bngelsberg, in
Silesia, August 19, 1805, studied under Pendi at
the Vienna Academy, and became a genre painter
of much merit. His ' Dying Pilgrim ' is in the
possession of the Emperor of Austria. He died
at Vienna in 1861.

SCHINDLER, Johann Joseph, painter, born at
St. Polten in 1777, studied at the Academy at
Vienna, and then became professor of drawing at
the Normal School of St. Anna in that city. He
painted the altar-piece in St. Michael's church at
Vienna, and also engraved several plates. He
died at Vienna in 1836.

SCHINDLER, Karl, painter, born in 1822, was
a pupil of Fendi. He died at Laab, near Vienna^
in 1842.

SCHINKEL, Karl Feiedrich, the famous Ger-
man architect, born March 13, 1781, at Neuruppin,
began his career in the early years of the 19th
century, as a painter. He had been trained
in the Academy of Architecture at Berlin, but
time and circumstance seemed peculiarly un-
favourable to the art in which he was afterwards
to achieve distinction. In 1803 he travelled
in Italy, painting landscapes, copying historical
pictures, and making drawings of costumes, and
devoting much time to the study of ancient
monuments. On his return to Germany he pro-
duced a number of landscapes with buildings,
and machines such as a ' Panorama of Palermo,'
and the 'Seven Wonders of the World.' Later,
when his fame as an architect was established,
he furnished designs for the paintings in the
vestibule of the Berlin Museum, and continued
from time to time to paint landscapes and his-
torical pictures, and projects for theatrical scenery.
He published a few lithographs and etchings, and
numberless illustrations to books on architecture.
He died at Berlin, October 9, 1841. In the
National Gallery of Berlin there are seventeen of
his pictures.

SCHINNA6L, Max Joseph, born at Burghausen,
in Bavaria, in 1694, was a pupil of his step-father,
Joseph Kammgrloher. He painted wild scenery,
with figures by Janneck and Aigen. The galleries
at Vienna and Aug.sburg possess pictures by him.
He died at Vienna in 1761.

SCHINZ, Johann Georg, painter, born at Zurich
in 1794, was a pupil of Gessner, and painted
Swiss landscapes. He died in 1845.

SCHINZ, Johann Kaspak, born at Zurich in
1798, painted biblical pictures. He died in 1832.

SCHIOPPI. See Alabardi.

SCHIRMER, Feiedrich Wilhelm, landscape
painter, born at Berlin in 1802, was apprenticed
at the age of fifteen to the Royal Porcelain Manu-
factory, and worked at the same time in the Berlin
Academy. From 1823 he devoted himself entirely
to art, travelling in Germany and visiting Italy. In
1839 he was appointed teacher, and in 1840 pro-
fessor, in the Berlin Academy. In 1845 he revisited
Italy, and in 1860 painted the walls of the Egyptian




and Grecian divisions in the Berlin New Museum.
In 1863 he again went to Italy, though he was
sufiEering at the time from ill-health, and he died
at Rome in 1865. Examples of his work are to be
seen in the National Gallery, Berlin.

painter, born at Jiilich in 1807, learned drawing
from an engineer, and became a bookbinder,
which was -the trade of his father. In 1826 he
became a student in the Academy at Diisseldorf,
and attended the studio of Schadow. In 1827 he
founded a class, out of which a new school of land-
scape painting arose. In 1834 he began to travel,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 122 of 201)