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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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were, 'Mary Stuart and Rizzio,' 'Charles V. at
St. Yuste,' ' Cromwell before the Battle of Dunbar.'
From Berlin he went to Munich, where he pro-
duced several works of a mythical and allegorical
nature. He visited Italy from time to time on
short journeys, and so supplied himself with ma-
terial for fresh pictures. He painted in the Arcades
of the Munich Ho£-garten. In 1847 he was elected
professor of the Munich Academy, which post he
held till his death, which took place at Munich in
1850. Works :

Card-players.

Pope Paul III. before Luther's

Portrait.
The Deluge; unfinished, owing

to the artist's death.

SCHORPP, Michel, a German painter of the
15th century, known only by a print in the 'Biblio-
theque Nationale ' of Paris. It is a Madonna in
the Byzantine manner, and bears the following
inscription: Michel Slwrpp, maelerzu Vim, 1496.

SCHORQUENS, Jan, a Dutch engraver, who
resided at Madrid about the year 1620. He was
an excellent engraver of title-pages, of which he
executed many for Spanish books from 1618 to
1630. Some are signed J. van Schorqitens,
fecit, in Madrid. His best plate is a View of
Lisbon in the official report of the coronation of
Phillip III.

SCHOTANUS, PiETER, a Dutch painter of the
17th century, who probably practised as an ama-
teur at Leeuwarden. He painted village fetes,
battles, and kindred subjects.

SCHOTEL, Christina, the daughter of Johann
Christianus Schotel, was born at Dordrecht in 1818.
She was taught by her father and by her brother
Petrus, and painted flowers, fruit, and still-life.
She died at Aardenburg in 1854.

SCHOTEL, Johann Christianus, a distinguished
marine painter, was born at Dort in 1787. He
was a scholar of A. Meulemans, and subsequently
of Martin Schouman. At the conclusion of his
pupilage he devoted himself to the study of nature,
for which purpose he would, like Backhuysen,
go to sea in an open boat. From 1814 to 1817
he worked in concert with Martin Schouman, on
two pictures representing the retreat of the French
from Dort, and the bombardment of Algiers.
Schotel received honours from his own sovereign



Berlin. National Gallery.



Munich. JV. Pinakothek.



Schotel



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Schroder



and other crowned heads, and was a member of
several academies and societies of arts. His pic-
tures were at one time eagerly sought after. He
died at Dort the 2l8t of December, 1838.

SCHOTEL, Peteus Johann, bom at Dort in 1808,
a son and pupil of Johann Christianus Schotel, in
whose fooisteps he followed. His best picture is
'The Anchorage near Texel in stormy weather.'
He died at Dresden in 1866.

SCHOTT, August, born at Giessen in 1811,
studied first under Diicor^e, and afterwards at the
Stadei Institute, in Frankfort, and at the Munich
Academy. He made several pencil drawings, and
painted small historical pictures, but afterwaids
became a follower of Overbeck and Steirile, several
of whose pictures -he reproduced in lithography.
He died in 1843.

SCHOUMAN, Aart, a Dutch painter and en-
graver, bom at Dort in 1710, was a painter of some
merit, particularly of birds, which he painted in
the manner of Hondekoeter and Weeninx. He
also painted landscapes with animals, portraits,
small historical pictures, and subjects from the
poets, especially from Ovid's ' Metamorphoses. ' He
was a good draughtsman and colourist, and at one
titne engraved on crystal. His rather poor mezzo-
tints are after Gerard Dou, Schalcken, Paul Potter,
Trans Hals, &c. He resided constantly at the
Hague, where he died in 1792.

SCHODMAN, Mabtinus, marine painter, born at
Dort in 1770, first studied under Versteeg, and then
under his uncle, Aart Sohouman. He excelled in
the representation of ships, and of still and troubled
waters. His chief pictures are, 'The Bombard-
ment of Algiers,' "The Departure of the French
•from Dort,' painted in conjunction with Schotel.
He died in 1853. His son Isaac, born at Dordrecht
in 1801, was his pupil, and painted genre pictures
and marine subjects.

SCHOYBN, C., a Norwegian landscape painter,
who studied under Eckersburg and Yude, and
practised in Germany. He died while still young
in 1870.

SCHRAMM, Johann Heinrioh, bom at Teschen,
in Austrian Silesia, made pencil-portraits of Thor-
waldsen, Mendelssohn, Andersen, Metternich, Cor-
nelius, Grimm, and others. He died at Vienna in
1865.

SCHRAMM, Johann Michael, bom at Sulzbach,
in Bavaria, in 1772, was first a gold worker, and
then went to Munich in 1793, where he practised
miniature painting and engraving. In 1801 he
went to the Academy at Vienna, and studied for
■three years, after which he returned and settled at
Munich, where he died in 1835.

SCHKAUDOLPH, Johann von^ born at Oberts-
dorf, in Algau, in 1808, received his first instruction
at the Munich Academy, principally under Cornelius
and Schlotthauer. He helped the latter with the
frescoes of the Glyptothek, and then with his
scenes from the history of Moses in the church of
All Saints. In 1844 he went to Rome, and on his
return was commissioned to decorate the cathedral
-at Spires. He died at Munich in 1879. Of his
j)ictufes we may name :

Unnich. Finakothek. St. Agnes with the lamb.

„ „ The Virgin and Child.

„ „ linth and Naomi.

„ „ The Ascension of Christ.

„ „ The Miraculous Draught of

Fishes.

„ „ Adoration of the Kings.

„ „ Worship of the Virgin.



Munich. Finakothek. Christ healing the Sick.

„ „ Christ nailed to the Cross.

SCHREIBER, MoEnz, was working at Leipsic
from 1539 to 1556, in collaboration with one
Hhinmch Schmidt, a painter whose name occurs
between 1501 and 1541, in the town archives.
Schreiber appears to have been the better artist of
the pair.

SCHREUEL, Johann Christian Albreoht,
draughtsman and painter, bom at Maestricht in
177.S, was an officer in the Dutch service, but gave
up his profession for the practice of art. He
studied at Berlin, and afterwards at Dresden, with
Griissi, under whose guidance he became a good
miniaturist, and painted portraits of many dis-
tinguished persons. He also occupied himself
much in making copies from the pictures in the
Dresden Gallery.

SCHRIECK, Otto Marcellis van. called Sndf-
felaisr, a Dutch painter, born at Amsterdam in
1613. It is not known by whom he was instructed,
but he acquired considerable celebrity by his excel-
lence in a very singular branch of art. He painted
reptiles, insects, and curious plants, which he de-
signed with surprising fidelity, and finished with
extraordinary care. He resided some time in Paris,
and afterwards visited Florence, where his talents
were distinguished by the Grand Duke, Naples, and
Rome, where he passed several years. He painted
entirely from nature, to which end he is said to
have kept a kind of museum of serpents, vipers,
rare insects, and other curiosities. His pictures
are found in the choicest collections in Holland.
There is a good example of his art in the National
Gallery. He died at Amsterdam in 1673.

SCHRODER, Friedrich, was bom at Hesse Cassel
in 1768, and was a scholar of Klauber, an engraver of
Augsburg. He confined himself chiefly to land-
scapes, and engraved several after Swanevelt,
Vemet, La Hire, Karel du Jardin, and Bemmel, in
the manner of Woollett. He also assisted in the
backgrounds ' and ornamental parts of plates in
which the figures were executed by other artists,
among which were the ' Sabines ' by Massard, and
' Henry IV. 's Entry into Paris ' by Tosclfi.

SCHRODER, Georq Engelhard, a Swedish
painter, born at Stockholm in 1684. He died in
1750.

SCHRODER, Hans, a German engraver, who
flourished about the year 1600. He engraved some
plates of ornamental foliage, &c.

SCHRODER, Johann Heinrich, born at Meinin-
gen in 1757, learned his art of Tischbein in Cassel,
and practised as a portrait painter. He worked
in Hanover and Brunswick, and then travelled
through the Netherlands and England, where he
painted several members of the Royal Family.
On his return he painted a portrait of Frederick
William 11., King of Prussia. He died at Meinin-
gen in 1812.

SCHRO DER, Karl, painter, was born at Bruns-
wick in 1802. Prom 1817 to 1824 he attended the
Academy Schools at Dresden, and then settled for
a time at Munich. On his return to his native
town he became known chiefly as a painter of
humorous genre pictures, many of which were
further popularized by lithographs.

SCHRODER, Karl, engraver, bom in 1761, at
Brunswick, where, after studying in Augsburg and
Paris, he settled down and engraved many plates,
chiefly after pictures in the now dispersed Salz-
dahlum collection, such as :

477



Schrfidter



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABY OF



Schulz



Abraham's Sacrifice ; after Lievens,
The Marriage Contract ; after Jan Steen.
The Young Man in the Cloak ; after Eoninch.
Young "Woman of Salzburg ; after Peayie.

He etched a few plates.

SCHRODTER, Adolf, born in Schwedt in 1805.
In 1820 he entered the studio of Professor Buck-
bom, the engraver ; in 1829 he went to Diisseldorf,
and studied under W. von Sohadow ; in 1831 he
began to paint, and in 1855 was made professor to
the Polytechnic at Carlsruhe, which post he re-
signed in 1872. He died at Carlsruhe in 1875.
He produced many book illustrations, and the
Berlin National Gallery contains examples of his
painting.

SCHROTER, JoHANN Pbiedmoh, engraver, born
at Leipsic in 1770, was a pupil of Bauee. In 1813
be was appointed engraver to the Leipsic Uni-
versity. He executed some plates after Rembrandt,
but his works were chiefly anatomical. He died at
Leipsic in 1836.

SCHROTER, JoHANN Friedeioh KaelKonstan-
TIN, painter, born at Schkeuditz, between Halle
and Leipsic, in 1795. In 1811 he went to the
Drawing School at Leipsic, and in 1817 to Dresden,
where he entered the atelier of Professor Poohrnann.
In 1819 he returned to Leipsic, where he earned his
living by portrait-painting, which, however, he
eventually abandoned, on the advice of Schnorr, for
genre. In 1826 he settled at Berlin, wliere he
died in 1835. His principal pictures are:

Mother and Daughter Spinning.

The Sermon.

The Music Teacher. (National Gallery, Berlin)

The Village School.

The Sale of a Painter's Effects.

SGHTSCHEDRIN , Semen Fedoeowitscii,
painter, a native of St. Petersburg, who after study-
ing at the Academy went to Ital}', and on his re-
turn became painter to Catherine II. He painted
Italian landscapes. He died in 1804.

SGHTSCHEDRIN, Silvester Fedorowitsoh,
painter, born at SL Petersburg in 1791, received
his early training at the Academy under Iwanoff
and WorobiefF, and then studied in Germany and
Italy. He showed a great talent for landscape.
In the Hermitage at St. Petersburg are ' The
Colosseum,' and the ' Lake of Nemi,' by him. He
died at Sorrento in 1830.

SCHUBART, CHRiSTOPnER, a German painter of
the 17th century, a native of Ingolstadt. He prac-
tised principally at Munich, but is said to have
painted a portrait of Queen Anne of England.

SCHUBART, PiETER, (Schubert,) was a native
of Germany, but resided at Venice about the year
1696. Professor Christ ascribes to him the engrav-
ings marked with the letters P. S. d. E., which he
interprets, ' Peter Schubert de Ehrenberg.'

SCHUBERT, JoHANN David, painter and en-
graver, born at Dresden in 1761, studied there
under Hutin and Klass, and became in 1781
painter at the porcelain works at Meissen. In
1800 he became professor of historical painting,
and alternate director of the Dresden Academy.
He executed many etchings for books. He died
at Dresden in 1822.

SCHUBLER, A. 6. J., a German engraver, who
resided at Nuremberg about the year 1626. He
was chiefly employed in engraving portraits for the
booksellers, which are very indifferently executed.
He engraved part of the plates for a work entitled

478



'Icones Bibliopolarum et Typographorum,' pub-
lished at Aldorf and Nuremberg in 1626.

SCHUCHLIN, Hans, painter, flourished at Ulra
in the 15th century, was a contemporary of Martin
Schongauer, and seems to have come, like him,
under the influence of Roger van der Weyden.
His best works are his altar pictures at Tief enbronn,
near Calw, in Wurtemberg, inscribed, Gemacht zu
Ulra vo Hansisse Schiichlin Maler, MCCCC.LXIX.
The drawings for the wood-cuts in the Ulm Bible
of 1470 are ascribed to him. He has been con-
fused with the painter called by Eisenraann the
Master of Sigmaringen, the author of an altar-piece
in the possession of the Prince of Hohenzollem-
Sigmaringen, in whose catalogue it is ascribed to
one ''Schiihlein."

SCHULER, Charles Louis, engraver, bom at
Strasburg in 1784-5, studied in Paris, and worked
first at Strasburg, engraving small plates for
almanacks, and other fugitive publications. He
afterwards settled at Carlsruhe, where he executed
a number of more ambitious plates, such as 'The
Assumption of the Virgin,' after Guido ; a ' Holy
Family,' after Raphael. His son and pupil, Edouard,
also practised as an engraver at Strasburg.

SCHULER, Theophil, bom at Strasburg in 1821,
studied in Paris and Munich. He was a pupil of
Drolling and Paul Delaroche. In 1848 he executed
the illustrations for Arnold's 'Whit Monday,' and
at the same time painted for the Museum at Colraar
his great allegory ' The Chariot of Death.' He
made many pencil drawings for the illustrated
magazines, and for the works of Jules Verne,
Victor Hugo, and ' Erckmann-Chatrian.' He died
in 1878.

SCHULTEN, Arnold, a landscape painter of
the Diisseldorf school, born in 1809, entered the
Diisseldorf Academy in 1822, and in 1849 estab-
lished his own atelier. His earlier landscapes are
of German scenery, but his later ones of Switzer.
land, Bavaria, and Italy. He died in 1874.

SCHULTHESS, Karl, painter, was bom at
Neuchatel in 1775. He taught himself drawing,
and then gave lessons in his native place. After
practising there for a time, he worked for some
years in Dresden and Paris. He finally settled in
Nencha,lel, and taught drawing at the municipal
school.

SCHULTZ, Daniel (Sohultz), painter and
etcher, born at Dantzio about 1620, studied in Paris
and Breslau, and painted many portraits. Three
etchings of animals are assigned to Schultz. He
died in 1686.

SCHULTZ, JoHANN Karl, architectural and
landscape painter, born atDantzicin 1801, received
his first instruction from Breysig in the Academy
of that city. In 1820 he went to Berlin, where he
studied under Hummel, and in 1823 to Munich,
where from a personal acquaintance with Quaglio
he learned much, and where he also painted his
first pictures, the Cathedrals of Meissen and Ratis-
bon. In 1824 he went to Italy, and his ' Interior
of Milan Cathedral ' made his reputation. In 1832
be was appointed Professor of Drawing and Director
to the Art School at Dantzio. He etched several
plates. He died at Dantzic in 1873.

SCHULTZE, Franziska, a flower painter, born
at Weimar in 1805. She modelled herself on
Huysum, Seghers, Mignon, and De Heem. She
died at Weimar in 1864.

SCHULZ, Karl Friedrich, genre and landscape
painter, born at Selohow in 1796, was the son of a



Schulz



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Schunuann



baker. He served in the campaigns of 1814 and
1815, and then applied himself to art at the Academy
of Berlin. In 1821 he travelled through Holland,
France, and England, and copied some of Van
Eyck's works for the IBerlin Museum. For a tihort
time he was a teacher at the Berlin Academy.
His ' Cuxhaven,' ' Storm at Cahiis,' and 'Poachers,'
are in the Berlin National Gallery. He was called
'Jagd Sohulz,' from his hunting pictures. He
died in 1866.

SOHULZ, Leopold, painter, born at Vienna in
1804, studied in Vienna, Munich, and Rome where
he painted a portrait of Gregory XVI. On his
return he painted scenes from Homer and Theo-
critus in the new palace at Munich. In 1837 he
painted the Martyrdom of St. Florian for the church
of that saint. He died in Heiligenstadt, near
Vienna, in 1873.

SCHULZE, Christian Gottfried, was. born at
Dresden in 1749, and learned the rudiments of de-
sign from Charles Rutin. After being tauglit en-
graving by Giuseppe Caraerata, he went to Paris,
where he profited by the lessons of J. G. Wille,
and other eminent engravers. On his return to
Saxony he engraved several portraits and other
subjects, particularly some of the plates in the
' Dresden Gallery.' He died in 1819.

SCHUMACHER, Karl Georg Christian,
painter, born at Doberan in 1797. After receiving
some slight instruction from Suhrlandt, he studied
at Dresden and in Ita!y. On his return to Ger-
many he painted at Schwerin some frescoes in the
Government House, which were afterwards de-
stroyed by fire. He was appointed court-painter
at Schwerin, but was obliged to relinquish his
profession in 1863, when he became totally blind.
He etched six plates, and executed three lithographs.

SCHUMANN, JoHANN Gottlob, was born at
Dresden in 1761. He engraved several landscapes
in a neat, spirited style. He resided some time in
London, where he worked in conjunction with W.
Byrne. The following are his chief plates :

A Landscape ; after Huysdael,

A View in Saxony ; after Klengel.

Two Landscapes with animals ; after the same.

A Landscape, Morning; after Both; engraved conjointly

with W. Byrne.
A View of Windsor Castle ; after Hodges ; the same.
Scene from Oberon ; after Koch.

He died at Dresden in 1810.

SCHUMANN, Karl Franz Jakob, painter, born
at Berlin in 1767, studied first under Frisoh, but
afterwards travelled in Italy. In 1801 he was
appointed Professor of Anatomy to the Berlin
Academy. He died in 1827.

SCHUMER, JoHANN, a German engraver, prac-
tising at Prague in the 18th century. He is known
only by five plates of animals.

SCHUPPEN, H. VAN. This name (or its mono-
gram, H. V. S., the H and V joined, the S on the
bar of H) appears on landscapes engraved after
Giovanni Maggi.

SCHUPPEN, Jakob van, (ScnpPEN,) born in
Paris in 1670, son of Pieter van Schuppen, studied
under Largillifere, whose style he adopted. His
productions as a portrait and historical painter
gained him a reputation at Vienna, where he became
court-painter and Director of the Academy which
he had helped to found. There are portraits by
him in the Belvedere at Vienna, the Museum at
Amsterdam, and the Liechtenstein Gallery. He
died in Vienna in 1751.



SCHUPPEN, Pieter van, a Flemish designer
and engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1623. After
working for a time in his native city, he went to
Paris, where he became a pupil of Nanteuil, and
hence was generally known as ' le petit Nanteuil.'
His design is correct, and he handled the burin
with firmness and dexterity. He engraved por-
traits, some from his own designs, and historical
subjects after various masters. He died in Paris
in 1702. Nagler gives a list of 119 plates by him ;
the following are among the best :

Louis XIV. ; after C. Le Brun. 1662.

The Cardinal d'Bste. 1662.

The Cardinal de Mazarin ; after Mignard.

The ChancBllor Siguier ; after C. Le Brun.

Fran90i5 Villani, Bishop of Toumay ; after L. Franqois.

Francois M. le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois ; after Le

Fibre.
Louis le Pelletier, President of the Parliament; after

de LargUliere.
Frans Vander Meulen, Painter ; aftiT the same.
The ' Madonna della Sedia ; ' after Raphael. 1661.
The Holy Family, with St. John, who holds a pigeon ;

after Set. Bourdon.
The Holy Family ; after Gaspar de Crajyer.
St. Sebastian, with an augel drawing out the arrow ;

after Vandyck.
King David ; after Ph. de Champagne.

Some of his portraits appeared in Perranlt's
' Hommes Iliustres.'

SCHURIG, Karl Wilhelm, bom at Leipsic in
1818, studied there, and in Dresden under Bonde-
mann, after which he spent some time in Italy,
and then returned to Dresden, where in 1857 he
was elected Professor to the Academy. His prin-
cipal pictures are : a. ' Resurrection,' in the church
at Eppendorf ; ' Siegfried and Chrimhild ' ; ' The
Emperor Albrecht and the Swiss Envoys ' ; and, in
the Gallery at Dresden, ' The Bishop of Spires taking
Persecuted Jews under his Protection.' His draw-
ings from the old masters were much esteemed,
among them are :

Madonna di San Sisto ; after Raphael.
Heads from the St. Cecilia ; after the same.
Madonna with Child ; after Correggio.
' La Notte ' ; after the same.

He died at Dresden in 1874.

SCHURTZ, Cornelius Nicholas, an indifferent
German engraver, who resided at Nuremberg about
the year 1670. He was living in 1689. He en-
graved portraits of celebrated physicians, and small
emblematical subjects ; his prints are marked with
his name at full length, or with the letters G. N. S.,
sometimes in a monogram.

SCHUEMANN, Anna Maria, born at Cologne
in 1607, from her cradle displayed extraordinary
talents. She is said to have been able to read
when she was only three years old, and at seven
had made great proficiency in Latin, which she
had acquired from occasionally overhearing her
brothers' lessons with their tutor. Her father pro-
cured her the means of acquiring a fuller know-
ledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, which became
so familiar to her, that she not only wrote but spoke
them with fluency and correctness, and mastered
a great variety of accomplishments besides. But
her inclusion here is justified by her powers as an
artist. She painted her own portrait, and those of
several of her friends, and sculptured several busts,
some of which have been preserved. She etched
and engraved some plates, among which is a portrait
of herself, signed Anna Maria Schurmans an.

479



Schuschardt



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIOXARY OF



Schwarz



CFlai. xxxni. cd.io.cxl. a. m. s. fee., and inscribed

with these verses :

Cemitis hie picta nostras in imagine vnltas :
Si negat Ars formam, gratia vestra dabit.

At a somewhat advanced age she embraced the
opinions of Labbada, and f ollow-ed him to Altona,
but after his death she returned to Holland, and
settled at Wiewert, near Leeuwarden, where she
died in 1678. There is a portrait of her, by
Lievens, in the National Gallery.

SCHUSCHABDT, Chbistias, a German painter,
was for a time Director of the Free School of
Design at Weimar, where he died in 1870.

SCHDSTER, JoHAXN JIabtix, bom at Nurem-
berg about 1667, was Director of the Xuremberg
Academy, where he died in 1738.

SCHCT, Cop.yELis, was bom at Antwerp in 1597,
and was a disciple, at least, of Rubens, although
it is not certain what the exact relation between
them was. lie painted much in the Antweip
churchea Of his altar-pieces, the best are his
' Nativity ' and ' Assumption of the Virgin ' in the
church of the J<s:iits; a 'Dead Christ, with the
Virgin and SL John,' in St. Jacques, which has
sometimes been mistaken for a work of Vandyck ;
the ' Martyrdom of St. George,' in the cathedral,
and the ' Martyrdom of St. James,' in the Musetun
at Brussels. He also painted subjects from history
and classic fable. He is said to have visited his
brother, Pieter Schut, at Madrid, and to have
painted a picture on the staircase of the imperial
college, representing St. Francis Xa%-ier baptizing
the Indians. Schut frequently painted figures
within tlie garlands of Seghers ; he also etched a
considerable number of plates from his own designs.
Schut died at Antiverp in 1655. Vandyck painted
his portrait among the eminent artists of his country.

SCHUT, COESELIS, the younger, the son of Peter
Schut, an engineer in the Spanish service, was bom
at Antwerp, and was partly instructed by his uncle.
Cornelis Schut, the elder ; he afterwards went with
his father to Spain and practised at SeWUe. He
was one of the founders of the Academy in that
city, and contributed liberally to its support. Of
his ability and character Bermudez speaks in eulo-
gistic terms. Some of his pictures are to be found
at Seville, and it is said that his drawings resemble
th-'se of Murillo, and frequently pass for such. He
died at SeWlle in 1676.

Si JHUTKR. This man engraved, about the year
17G0, a portrait of Rembrandt, then in the collec-
tion of the Marquis Geriiii, now no. 60 in the Pitti
Gallery.

SCHUTER, Dax. See Saitkb.

SCHUTZ, JoHAXS Geoeg, painter, bom at Frank-
fort in 1755, son and pupil of Christian Georg
Schiitz I. He went in 1776 to the Academy at
Diisseldorf, and afterwards to Rome. On his re-
turn he paintfd historical and genre pictures and
landscapes. He died in 1813.

SCHDTZ, (or Schtz,) Karl, bom at Vienna in
1746, was an architect, but also practised drawing
and engraving. In conjunction with Ziegler and
Jantscha he engraved a series of views of Vienna,
and, by himself, various landscapes and military



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