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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Haarlem. Pavilion. The Schoolmaster.

Ghent. Academy. A young Boy preparing Break-


LE ROYER, Jean and Aubin Olivier, were
brothers, who lived in the middle of the 16th cen-
tury, and were both in the service of Henry II. of
France, the one as a printer, the other as a
medallist. Both were skilful engravers on wood,
and jointly executed the figures for the ' Livre de
Perspective,' by Jean Cousin, printed and published
by Jean Le Royer, in 1560. These geometrical
figures are very beautiful, and consist of about
sixty illustrations. Jean availed himself of his
knowledge of drawing to embellish the works that
he printed ; so that the greater part of the fleurons,
vignettes, and ornamental letters, whether on metal
or on wood, employed in his editions, are his own
work. In 1553 he obtained letters patent, in which
he is designated "Printer in ordinary to the King,
and especially in mathematics." Jean Le Royer
flourished until 1681.

LERPINI^RE, Daniel, though from his name
apparently of French extraction, was born in Eng-
land about 1745, and was a pupil of F. Vivares.
He followed the style of his master, using both
graver and point. He worked in London, where
he died in 1785. He engraved several landscapes,
among which are the following :

A Landscape, with the Flight into Egypt ; after Claude

The Companion, with St. George and the Dragon ; after

the same.
A Landscape, with the Israelites worshipping the

Golden Calf ; after the same.

A Sea-piece, a Oalm ; after Vernet.
The Companion, a Storm ; after the same.
Two Italian Landscapes ; after John Taylor.
Two Landscapes, with Cattle ; after Ouyp.
A Landscape, Evening ; after Pynacker.
Six Views of Sea-fights, &o. ; after R. Paton.

LESCOT-HAUDBBOURG, Hoetbnse Victoire,
_a French genre and portrait painter, was born in
'Paris in 1784. She studied under Lethiere, whom
she followed to Rome, on his appointment as
Director of the French School in that city. Her
works first appeared at the Salon in 1810, and in
1820 she married M. Haudebourg, an architect.
She died in Paris in 1845. Amongst her works
are :

Kissing the Feet of the Statue

of St. Peter. 1812.
Confirmation. 1814.
Besangon. Museum. Portrait of the Architect Paris.

Dijon. Museum. Old Man and Children. 1819.

LESLIE, Charles Robert, a subject painter,
was born in London in 1794, of American
parents, who soon after returned to Philadelphia.
In 1808 he was bound apprentice to a bookseller,
but, desiring to become an artist, in 1811 he sailed
for England, where he entered the schools of
the Royal Academy in 1813, and obtained two
silver medals. Amongst his instructors were
Benjamin West and Washington Allston. His
first picture was ' Saul and the Witch of Endor,'
which was bought by Sir John Leicester, after-
wards Lord De Tabley, for 100 guineas, in 1817.
The same year saw his first exhibited work, ' Mur-
der.' At this period he- produced several historical
works, and he also practised as a portrait painter.
It was not till after a visit to the continent in 1817
that he settled down to the class of works —
humorous genre subjects from the standard
authors — on which his reputation rests. His pro-
gress then was rapid. In 1821 he was elected an
Associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1825 his
prospects were sufficiently assured to admit of his
marrying. In the following year he became a full
member of the Academy. With the exception of
one year, 1833, when he was induced to go to
America as teacher ol: drawing at tlie West Point
Military Academy, the remainder of his life was
spent in England. From 1847 to 1852 he held the
Professorship of Painting in the Royal Academy,
and he published the substance of his lectures as
a ' Handbook for Young Painters.' This was not
his only literary venture. He published in 1845
' Memoirs of Constable,' and his materials for a life
of Reynolds were posthumously brought out by
Tom Taylor, who also edited his autobiography.
He died in London in 1869. The following are
some of his principal works :

Bowood. Marquis of \ Sir Roger de Coverley going to
Zansdowne. j Church.
„ „ Sir Roger de Coverley and the

„ „ Rebecca in her Dungeon.

Cassiobury. Earl of 1 Don Quixote, the Duchess, and
Essex. } Sancho.
„ „ Don Quixote and Dorothea.

„ „ Portrait of Miss Stephens,

afterwards Countess of Essex.
Eaton Hall. Dukeof),^, „ -n m iom

WestminsJ. j ^^^ Grosvenor Family. 1832.

London. JJuckingliam \ The Queen receiving the Sacra-
Palace. \ ment after the Coronatioa.
J 1843.
„ „ Christening of the Princess

,, „ Scene from ' Comus.'



Le Sueur

London. Nat. OalUry. My TJncle Toby and 'Widow
Wadman. 1831.
It n Sancho Panza in the Apartment

of the Duchess. 1844.
„ S(mth Kensing- > TJie Taming of the Shrew.

ton Muaemn. J 1832.
„ I, My Uncle Toby and Widow

Wadman. 1832.
„ „ Autolycus. 1836.

„ „ Florizel and Perdita. 1837.

„ „ The Dinner at Mr. Page's House

(' Merry Wives of Windsor ').
„ „ Who can this be? 1839.

„ ., Who can this be from ? 1839.

„ » Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme.

„ „ Le Malade Imaginaire. 1843.

„ „ Les Femmes Savantes. 1845.

„ Nat. Port. Gall. Lord Holland.
„ Holland House. The Library at Holhmd House.
Petworth . Lord Lecon- ) Sancho Panza in the Apartment
jUld. / of the Duchess. 1824.
„ J, Catharine and Petruchio.

„ ,, Lady Carlisle carrying the par-

don to her Father in Prison.
„ „ Charles II. at Tillietudlem.

„ „ Gulliver's Introduction to the

Queen of Brobdingnag.
Woburn. Abbey. Lady Jane Grey prevailed on

to accept the Crown. 1827.
LESSING, Kakl Eeiedbich, a German historical
and landscape painter, the grandnephew of the
poet, was born at Breslau in 1808. He was originally
intended for an architect, but, evincing a love of
painting, he received his first instruction from
Eosel and Dahling, at Berlin. In 1827 he went
with Schadow to Diisseldorf, where he speedily
became famous both for his masterly landscapes
and his historic paintings. The latter show a strong
Protestant feeling ; three of his masterpieces being
scenes inspired by the history of Hus, the Re-
former. In 1858 Lessing was appointed Director
of the Gallery of Carlsruhe, a post which he held
till his death in that city in 1880. The following
are his principal works :
Berlin. National Gall. Eitterburg. 1828.

„ „ View in the Eifel Mountains.

„ „ A Hussite Preaching. 1836.

„ „ A Chapel in a Wood. 1839.

„ „ View on the Havel. 1841.

„ „ Hus at the Funeral Pyre. 1850.

,1 „ Defence of the Pass, 1851.

„ „ Stormy Landscape. 1875.

Carlsruhe. Gallery. Discussion of Luther and Eck

at Leipsic.
Darmstadt. Gallery. Evening Landscape. 1837.
Dresden. Gallery. Landscape in the character of

the ' Teufelsmauer,' near
Blankenburg. 1877.
Diisseldorf. Gallery. Peasants defending a Height.
Frankfort. Stadel Inst. Landscape. 1835.

„ „ Ezzelin IV. in prison after the

Battle of Cassano, 1259.
„ „ Oaks of a Thousand Years.

„ „ Landscape. 1839.

„ „ Hus before the Council at

Constance. 1842.
Heltdorf. Castle. Scene from the Life of Bar-

Leipsic. Gallery. Convent in Snow. 1828.

LESSOEE, !16mile Adbeet, a French genre
painter, and a native of Paris, was a pupil of
Hersent and of Ingres, and exhibited at the Salon
between 1831 and 1869. He also designed for
the Sfevres manufactory, and afterwards for the
Wedgwoods. He died in 1876.

LE STRANGE, Hamon, an amateur, was born
at Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk, in 1815. As a labour
of love he undertook to paint the nave of Ely
Cathedral, but died suddenly in London in 1862,
after which his work was carried on by Mr. Gambier

LE SUEUR, EasTACHE, a French historical
painter, was born of humble parentage in Paris in
1616. Hewas one ofthe many celebrated artists who
received instruction from Vouet, and his progress
was such that he was selected by his master to
assist him in various works. Although he did not
visit Italy, he lost no opportunity of studying the
works of the great Italian masters which found
their way to France. The style of Raphael greatly
attracted him, and the works of his fellow-country-
man, Nicolas Poussin, also had an important
influence in the development of his art. In 1640
he became a member of the guild of master-
painters, and painted for them a -picture of ' Sf.
Paul expelling Evil Spirits at Ephesus.' He quitted
this confraternity, however, on the formation of
the French Academy, of which he was one of the
twelve original members. The position which he
early achieved among French artists rendered him
the chief competitor of Le Brun, when the latter
settled in Paris after his return from Italy. Many
stories of their rivalry are extant, not altogether
to the credit of Le Brun, if they may be trusted.

Le Sueur was much engaged in decorative
works. He was one ofthe numerous band of French
artists who worked at the hotel of the President
Lambert de Thorigny in the He de la Cit6. A^
the Louvre, he decorated the apartments of the
King and of the Queen-Mother. His greatest work
in this line was the series of paintings in the
cloisters of the Chartreuse at Paris, illustrating the
life of St. Bruno, the founder of the order. These
were afterwards sold by the community to Louis
XVI., and are now in the Louvre. So great is the
number of his productions, that, however un-
wearied his industry, he could not possibly have
found time during his short career to execute them
without assistance. This help he obtained from
his brothers, Pierre, Philippe, and Antoine, and
his brother-in-law, Thomas Gouss^. The elder
Patel also is said to have inserted the landscape
backgrounds in his compositions.

Concerning the life of the painter, many tales
have obtained currency. Such are the accounts
of his narrow means, of his melancholy at the
loss of his wife, of his being left childless, and
of his subsequent retreat among the Carthusians,
where he is said to have died. These fictions
have, however, been dispelled by recent research.
He died in Paris in 1655, at the early age of
thirty-eight. For many years his art was not
duly appreciated, owing to its eclipse by the
pretentious works of his rival Le Brun. His
reputation has, however, recovered. He is now
justly considered to hold a place in the front
rank amongst the artists of his country, and he
has sometimes been styled the French Raphael.
This position he owes to his gracefulness, and
freedom from affectation. Another merit is the
originality of his ideas, although founded on the
best traditions of the great masters. The follow-
ing is a list of his works in the chief European
galleries :

Berlin. Gallery. St. Bruno.

Bordeaux. Museum. Urania.

Caen. Museum. Sacrifice of Manoah.


Le Sueur

Cherbourg. Museum.

Dijon. Palais de Justice.
Frankfort. Stdchl Inst.















Fetersburg. Hermitage,




Our Lord teaching.
Divine Justice.
The Crucifixion.
Death of St. Bruno.
Thanksgiving of Tobit's

Martyrdom of St. Gervais

and St. Protais.
Presentation in the Temple.
Tobit's "Wedding Night.
Christ in the House of

St. Louis of France at Mass.
The Birth of Aurora.
The Burial of Christ.
The Life of St. Bruno. (22

History of Cupid. (6 pic-
The Muses. (5 pictures.)
The Descent from the Cross.
St. Paul preaching at Bphe-

Moses exposed by his Mother.
Nativity of the Virgin.
The Virgin and St. Anne in

the Temple.
The Presentation-
Death of the Virgin.
Martyrdom of St. Stephen.
Darius Hystaspes at the

Tomb of Nitocris.
Sacrifice of Manoah.
St. Sebastian.
The Mass of St. Martin,
Christ with Martha

St. Louis healing the Sick.
Espousal of tlip Virgin.
Death of Cupid.
Joseph and Potiphar's "Wife.
Massacre of the Innocents.

0. J. D.

LB SUEUR, Nicolas, the son of Pierre Le Sueur
the younger, was born in Paris in 1690. He ex-
celled as an engraver on wood, and was the most
eminent of his family. He executed, chiefly in
chiaroscuro, several fine cuts for the Crozat Collec-
tion, from the works of the great masters, especi-
ally Goltzius. He also engraved, in a very tasteful
style, the ornaments which embellish the edition
of La Fontaine's Fables, from the designs of
Bachelier. He died in Paris in 1764. Some of his
works are signed N. L. S., others with a monogram.
The following cuts were executed by him for the
Crozat Collection :

Fishermen drawing their Nets ; after Giulio Romano,

The Mass ; after Folidoro da Caravaygio.

The Egyptians overwhelmed in the Eed Sea ; after

G. F. Fenni, called II Fattore.
Christ with the Apostles ; after Raffaello dal Colle.
The Man and the Lion ; after BaZdassare Feruzzi.
The Death of St. Francis Xavier; after Lodovico

The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after G. B. Zenardi,
The Annunciation ; after G, Morandi.
The Virgin appearing to St. Philip Neri; after L.

The Virgin on a Throne, surrounded by Saints ; after

F. Fietri,

LE SUEUR, PiEKEE, the elder, a French en-
graver on wood, was born at Kouen in 1636, and

Vienna. Academy.

„ Ziecktenstein Gallery.
„ Czernin Coll.

,, Count Harrach.

was a disciple of Du Bellay. Among other prints,
he executed a woodcut, representing ' Judith,' after
Van Sichera. He generally used a monogram

composed of the letters P. L. S., thus, ^^ . He

died at Rouen in 1716.

LE SUEUR, Pierre, the younger, the son of
the elder artist of the same names, was bom at
Rouen in 1669, and was instructed in drawing
and engraving on wood by his father. He
engraved many figures and vignettes, and some
devout subjects and Biblical prints ; and Papillon
mentions an emblematical subject by him, called
' Alpha and Omega,' in which the Christian Religion
is represented by a naked figure, and Idolati-y
concealed by a veil. He died in 1750. He usually
marked his prints with the initials P. L. 8., or a,
monogram composed of the same. Among his
other works were cuts for the following books :

The Fables of ^sop. 1678.

Ozanam's ' Cours de MathSmatiques.' 1693.

Erasmus's ' Eloge de la FoUe.' 1745.

LE SUEUR, Vincent, the brother of Pierre Le
Sueur the younger, was born at Rouen in 1668. After
being instructed in the principles of the art by his
father, he was sent to Paris, where he became a
pupil of Jean Papillon. He distinguished himself
as an engraver on wood, and Papillon mentions as
his best print 'The Soldier's Farewell,' engraved
in 1702. He executed several cuts in chiaroscuro,
among which is ' Mercury and Prometheus,' after
P. Farinato. He marked his prints with the
initials V. L. 8.

LE SUISSE, — , is mentioned by Papillon as an
engraver on wood, who, among other prints, exe-
cuted a large cut, representing the Turkish army
arranged in order of battle, at the bottom of which
is an eulogy in praise of the artist. He is probably
the same as Christoph Slimmer.

LETELLIER, Chaelbs Fkanqois, a French
engraver, was bom in Paris in 1743, and died in
1800. He was a pupil of Franpois Boucher, and
engraved several plates, representing conversations,
&c., after the French and other masters.

LETELLIER, Jean, a French portrait and his-
torical painter, was born at Rouen in 1614. He was
the nephew and pupil of Nicolas Poussin, and owed
much to his teaching. His heads of the Virgin are
full of candour and grace. Later in life he adopted
a more careful finish than his early works display.
He was the master of Jacques Restout, and for a
time painter and secretary to the prior of the abbey
of Moneel, near Vitry, on the Marne. He painted
the ' Death of St. Alexis ' for the church at Grave-
lines, and a ' Holy Family ' and the ' Miracles per-
formed at the Tomb of St. Augustine,' both in the
church dedicated to that saint at Rouen, are works
of great' merit. He died in 1676. Many of his
pictures are at Rouen.
LETH, Hendmk db. See De Leth.
LBTHBRIUGB, Walter Stephens, a miniature
painter, was born at Charlton in Devonshire in
1771. His father was a fanner, who apprenticed
him to a house painter, but he afterwards became
assistant to a travelling artist, and after visiting the
principal cities in England and Scotland, he settled
in London. He then became a student of the
Royal Academy, where he exhibited from 1801
to 1829. In April 1830 he removed from London
to Stonehouse, where he died in 1831. In the
National Portrait Gallery are portraits of Bishop
Horsley and Dr. John Wolcot (' Peter Pindar').

LETHIERE, Gtjillaume Guillon, a French his-
torical painter, was born of Creole parents at Sainte-
Anne, in the island of Guadeloupe, in 1760, hut
came to France wlien young, and received a good
general education. The knowledge of the classics



Le Vasseur

he thus obtaiued proved valuable to him in the
phase of French art contemporaneous with the
Revolution. His art training was obtained in the
studio of Doyen. Although he only succeeded in
obtaining the second prize by his version of the
'Canaaaitish Woman 'in 1784, he was by special
favour allowed to proceed to Rome to complete his
studies. After a stay of four years in Italy, he
returned to Paris, and settled down to the practice
of his art. His reputation was first made by the
designs, exhibited in 1795 and 1801, for his 'Vir-
ginius' and ' Brutus.' The actual pictures were not
completed by him until many years after. He had
the good fortune "to find a patron in Lucien Bona-
parte, whom he accompanied on his embassy to
Spain. There he remained two years, selecting
pictures from the Spanish collections to enrich the
French galleries. Subsequently, he succeeded
Suv6e as Director of the French School at Rome,
which office he held for the exceptionally long
period of ten yeai'S, and his authority was wielded
to the great advantage of French art. Returning
to Paris in 1817, he opened a studio, and pupils
flocked to him so rapidly that their numbers
rivalled even those in the studio of Gros. In 1818
he was elected a member of the Institute, and also
became a professor in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
He died in Paris in 1832. At one period of his
career, Lethiere's reputation stood so high that he
was considered the rival of the great David ; but in
the rapid rise of the Romantic school, his fame,
like tliat of many other classicists, was quickly
obscured. Amongst his chief works are :

.fflneas aud Dido. 1819.
The Woraau taken in Adultery.
Louis IX. visiting the Plague-
stricken at Carthage.
Death of Virginia. 1828.
Brutus condemning his Son to

death. 1812.
The Magdalen.
The Peace of Leoben. 1805.

LETTBRINI. See Littebini.
LEU, De. See De Leeuw.
LEULLIER, Louis F^ux, a French landscape
painter, was born in Paris in 1811, and died in
1882. He was a pupil of Baron Gros, and has left
a picture of the ' Inundation of the Loire,' which
is in the Lille Museum.

LEUPBNIUS, J., (or Ledpen,) was a Dutch
landscape painter and engraver, by whom there
are a few slight etchings, retouched with the
graver. They represent views in Holland, and
appear to be the works of a painter. He was a
pupil of Rembrandt, and flourished from about
1660 to 1677, probably at Utrecht.
LEUR, NiooLAUs VAN DEE. See Van der Lehe.
LEUTZE, Emandel, a German historical painter,
was born at the village of Emingen, near Reut-
lingen in Wiirtemberg, in 1816. He went when
a child to Philadelphia, where he was instructed
by John A. Smith, a portrait painter. In 1841
he returned to Europe, and pursued his studies at
Diisseldorf under Lessing ; but as he did not hold
with the views of that Academy, he established an
atelier of his own. In 1842 he visited Munich,
Venice, and Rome, and returned in 1845 to Diissel-
dorf, where he executed a considerable number of
paintings. He obtained in 1850 the gold medal at
Berlin for his ' Washington crossing the Delaware,'
now in the Kunsthalle at Bremen. After having
been in America in 1851, and again in 1859, he







St. Sock.

established himself there in 1863, and died at
Washington in 1868. The following is a list of
his chief productions in chronological order :

Hagar and Ishmael.

The Indian gazing at the Setting Sun.

Columbus before the Council of Salamanca. 1841.
(Jrt Union of Diisseldorf.)

The third Eeturn of Columbus from America.

Raleigh taking leave of his "Wife.

Cromwell at the Death-bed of his Daughter.

The Lauding of the Norsemen in America.

John Knox admonishing Mary Stuart.

Ealeigh spreading his Cloak before Queen Elizabeth.

English Iconoclasts.

Torquemada and the Embassy of the Jews.

The Reception of Columbus at Court.

Waiihington crossing the Delaware. 1850. (His chef-

'Washington at the Battle of Monmouth. 1852-54.

The Rose 'of the Alhambra.

Cromwell visiting Milton.

The last Evening of Charles I.

Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. 1858.

The Voyagre of the Artist in the Lagunes.

Frederick the Great before his Mother.

The Maid of Saragossa.

Lafayette in Prison.

Elizabeth in Prison.

The first Lauding of Columbus in America.

The first Mass of Mary Stuart in Scotland.

Cromwell searching the State Papers.

The Triumph of the Cross.

Lady Godiva.

The Advance of Civilization to the "West. (Frf^sco in
the Capitol at Wa^hinyton.)

Portraits of President Liucoba, General Grant, 'Washing-
ton, &c.

LEUX, Feanz von. See Ldyx von Luxenstein.

LEVACHEZ, Chaeles FEANgois Gabeiel, was
a French engraver and publisher, who flourished
at the close of the 18th century and the commence-
ment of the 19th, He executed in aquatint the
portraits of the ' Tableaux historiques de la
Revolution Pran9aise,' beneath which are memor-
able scenes by Duplessi-Bertaux. He also engraved
an equestrian portrait of Napoleon I., after Carle

LE VASSEUR, Jean Chaeles, a French line
engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1734. He was a
pupil of Daulie and Beauvarlet, and has engraved
chiefly after the works of the modern French
painters. He became an academician in 1771, and
died in Paris in 1816. Among other prints by him
are the following :

The Triumph of Venus ; after Boucher.

The Death of Adonis ; after the same.

The Continence of Scipio ; after Le Maine.

Diana and Endyraion; after J. B. van Loo. (His

reception work for the Academy.)
Apollo and Daphne ; after Luca Giordano.
The Triumph of Galatea ; after J. F. de Troy.
Diana and Actseon ; after the same.
The Rape of Proserpine ; after the same.
The Parting of Hector and Andromache ; after Restout.
Alexander and his Physician ; after the same.
Tarquin and Lucretia ; after A. Peters.
The Milk-maid ; after J. B. Greuze.
Thais, or the Beautiful Penitent ; after the same.
The Step-Mother ; after the same.
The 'Widow and the Curate ; after the same.
The 'Will destroyed ; after the same.
The Curious Lovers ; after Etienne Auhry.
Paternal Love ; after the same.
Leonardo da Vinci expiring in the arms of Francis I. ;

after Menageot.
Holy Family ; after E. Mengs.
Cardinal de Luynes.

Jean Restout, painter ; after J. B. Uestont.
The Pleasures of the Satyrs ; after Foelenhorch.





LEVATI, Giuseppe, an architectural painter,
was born at Concorezz.o, near Milan, in 1739. He
worked first under a decorator, and afterwards
applied himself to the study of the works of
Barocci, Palladio, Serlio, and especially the per-
spectives of Barbaro and Zanotti. In 1802 he
was elected director of the school of perspective
at Milan. He also executed architectural subjects
and landscapes in pencil, pen-and-ink, and water-
colour. He died in 1828. His chief works are
decorations in the house of the Marquis Litta at
Lainate ; in the residence of Count Borromeo, and
the archducal palace at Milan ; and in the palace
at Monza.

LEVEAU, Jean Jacques Ande^, a French
engraver, was born at Rouen in 1729. He went
■when young to Paris, whei'e he became a pupil of
J. P. Le Bas, in whose style he has engraved several
plates. He died in 1785. Among his works are
the following :

Two Yiews iu Flanders, by mooaligM ; after Van der

Eomau Shepherds ; after Mtttay.

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