Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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SICHELBEIN, Johann Fbiedeich, an obscure
painter and engraver, was born in 1648, at Mem-
mingen, Bavaria, where he died in 1719.

SICHEM, VAN. Much confusion exists as to the
life and works of the engravers of this name. No
less than four Sichems have been enumerated as
engravers or draughtsmen on wood, namely, Chris-
topher the elder, Christopher the younger, Comelis
and Carl. Nagler is of opinion that Cornells
and Christopher the younger are identical. Some
writers have turned their name into Vichem,
through the V being the largest letter in the mono-
gram they used.

SICHEM, Christopher van, the elder, appears
to have been born, perhaps at Delft, about the
middle of the 16th century, and seems to have
practised at Basle, Strasburg, and Augsburg. A
book illustrated witli his cuts, ' Die 13 Orte der
loblichen Eidgenossenschaft,' was published at Basle
in 1573. The 180 cuts in Miiller von Marpurck's
' Contrafacturen weitberiihmter Kriegshelden,'
Basle, 1577, are signed with Sichem's monogram.
The Strasburg Livy of 1590 ; a ' Beschreibung der
Kunst des Fechtens,' published at Augsburg by
Joachim Meyer in 1600, and a Josephus, Stras-
burg, 1601, were also illustrated by this Sichera.
This Sichem may be the author of the following
portraits, on copper :

The Emperor Charles V. ; inscribed Carolus Qidntus
Imperator, ^c. Ch. v. Sichem, sculp, et exc.

Queen Elizabeth ; inscribed Elisaheta D. G. Anglia, SfC.
Ch. V. Sichem, fecit.

Eobert Dudley, Earl of Leicester; C. van Sichem, sc.

et exc.
Francois Valesius, Duke of Alencjon ; the same iriscrip-

A set of twelve Historical subjects ; Christ, van Sichem,

fecit. CWoodouts.)

SICHEM, Christopher van, the younger, and
Carl. What relation these were to the other
Sichems it is impossible to say, but they appear to
have been contemporary with Cornelis, and all three
may well have been the sons of the elder Chris-
topher. There is but little distinction between
their works or the monograms they used. The
following prints are attributable to Carl, who seems
to have made up his monogram of the initials
K. V. 8. :
A numerous set of Portraits of the principal Reformers
of the Church, published at Arubeim in 1609 ; en-
titled ' Iconica Hseresiarcharum.'
A set of whole-length Portraits of the Counts of Holland

and Zealand.
SICHEM, Cornelis van, was probably born at
Delft about 1580. He was at work in Amster-
dam in the early years of the 17th century, and
is supposed to have been a disciple of Hendrik
Goltzius, several of whose designs he engraved on
wood. He also worked after Matham and Bloe-
mart. His prints are pretty numerous. Like those
of two other Sichems, they are signed with the

monogram annexed Q^, There can be little

doubt as to his authorship of the following prints :

Esther before Ahasuerus ; after L. de Leyden.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Ah. Bloemaert,

The Circumcision ; after S. Goltzius.

Judith with the Head of Holof ernes ; after the same.

St. Cecilia ; after the same.

A set of four plates, Judith, David, Samson, and Sisera ;

after the same.
The Four Evangelists.

SICKLING, Lazarus Gottlieb, engraver, born
at Nuremberg in 1812, was a pupil of Karl Mayer
and Albrecht Reindel, but in 1832 entered the
atelier of Frommel, at Carlsrulie. In 1834 he
went to Munich, Paris, and London. For nearly
two years he worked atthe " Gallery of Versailles."
In 1839 he returned to Nuremberg, and afterwards
went to Leipsic. His excellent engraving after
Graffs portrait of Lessing, led to the publication
of a series of German portraits. He died at Leipsic
in 1863.

SICILIANI, Giovanni Bernardino (Roderigo).
See Rodriguez.

SICIOLANTE, GiROLAMO da, painter, was born at
Sermoneta in 1504, and is generally called Giro-
lamo da Sermoneta. He was at first a pupil of
Leonarda da Pistoja, and then of Perino del Vaga,
whom he assisted in his works in the Castle of S.
Angelo. He was employed by Gregory XIII. in
the decorations of the Sala Regia in the Vatican,
where he painted in fresco Pepin, king of France,
giving Ravenna to the Church, after making
Astolfo, king of the Longobardi, prisoner. Other
frescoes are in San Luigi dei Franceschi. He was
one of the best artists of the Roman Decadence.
He died in 1550. Works :

Ancona. S. Bartolommeo. Virgin Enthroned, with St.
Bartholomew and other
Berlin. Count Hacrynsld's 1 . pjgiA

Gallery. ]
Eome. S. Maria Maggiore. Martyrdom of St. Catherine.
„ Ara Cmli. The Transfiguration.

S. M. delta Pace. The Nativity.





^'"'- %?;rjf>^« Crucifixion.
„ iS, Luigi. Baptism of Clovis.

SICKINGER, GEitGOlEE, a Swiss painter, prac-
tising at tiie close of the 16th century. The de-
tails of his life are unknown, save that he appears
to have married one Elizabeth Theitrich, at Soleure,
in 1595. Recent discoveries have established that
he is the same with the unknown artist mentioned
by Nagler and Fiissli as having used for signature
of his works the following monogram : G. +. S.
At the confraternity of St. Luke at Soleure there
are some pen-aTid-ink drawings by him, and in the
Albertina at Vienna some engravings on wood.
It is probable that~he made designs for the glass-
workers of his period.

SICULO, Jacopo, son-in-law of Lo Spagna, lived
in tlie early part of the 16th century. He is said
to have received a commission for the decoration
of the Cappella Eruli, now the Baptistery, of the
cathedral at Spoleto. His earliest authenticated
production is a large domed panel in the parish
church of S. IVIamigliano. It is dated 1538, and
shows the influence of Raphael. Frescoes by Siculo
exist in the Palazzo and in the church of S. Niccolo
at Spoleto.

SIEBENBURGEN, Jacob. See Corona. -

SIEBERT, Adolph, a deaf and dumb painter,
born at Halberstadt in 1806, entered in 1822 Wach's
atelier at Berlin, and in 1830 with his 'Jupiter and
Mercurius at the House of Philemon and Baucis,'
gained the Academy prize and the Italian Stipen-
dium. He died young at Rome in 1832.

SIEGEN, LuDwiQ VON, (or Sibgen von Sechtbn,)
an oflScerin the service of the Landgrave of Hesse-
Cassel, who is now credited with the invention of
mezzotint, which invention he communicated to
Prince Rupert, by whom it was brought to England.
He was born in Holland in 1609, his mother being of
that country, but bis father of an ancient and noble
German family. He went to Germany in 1620 to
receive his first education ; returned to Holland in
1626, and remained there till 1687, when heen(ei-ed
the service of the Landgrave of Hesse. Whether
his services were civil or military is not quite clear,
but he had the title of lieutenant-colonel. In 1641
he again returned to Holland, and employed that
and part of the following j'ear in the execution of
his first engraving, which he produced at Amster-
dam in August, 1642. Siegen died in the military
service of the Duke of Wolfenbiittel about the
year 1680. The following are his best known plates :

1. Bust portrait of Amelia Elisabeth, Landgravine of
Hesse, with a dedication, dated 1642, signed L a S.
H. 17 iu., 'W. 12J. The second state of the plate has
the date 1643.

2. Eleonora Gonzaga, wife of the Bmperor Ferdinand
III., called by others the Queen of Bohemia. On the
lower left-hand corner, G. Hondthorst pinxit anno, and
on the opposite corner, L. a Siegen inventor fecit, 1643.

3. Portrait of the Prince of Orange, inscribed Guilhel-
mus D. G. Princeps auriacus comes NassavisB, etc.,
MDCXLiiii., in one row of capital letters at the bottom.
Signed near the top, G. Honthorst pinxit. Z. d Siegen
inventor fecit, 1644.

4. Portrait of the Princess of Orange, inscribed Augusta
Maria Caroli M. B. Reg. fllia Guilhelmi Priuc. Aur.
Sponsa. In the lower left corner, Hondthorst pinxit.
L. a Siegen inv. et fecit.

5. The Emperor Ferdinand III., in an oval, on the upper
part of which is inscribed. Bom. Imperator semper
Aug. et Boh. Hex. and on the lower part, Lud. Siegen
in Sechten ex ... . pinxit novoq. a se iuvento modo
sculpsit Auuo Domini 1654. On the left at bottom
L V S in a monogram, and opposite the date 1654.


6. St. Bruno, a whole-length figure kneeling, turned
towards the right, an open book before him. At the
bottom are six verses ; on the left of the verses D'nia
suis Patronis, &c.; on the right. In honorem S" Brun-
nonis, &c. L a Sjn S. An. 1654.

7. The Holy Family, after Annihale Carracci. Dedi-
cated to Prince Leopold of Austria. At the bottom,
Ludw. a Siegen humilissime offert — Annib. Caratii
pinx. Lower down, Lodovicq a S. nopo suo modo lusit.
In the second state of the plate it is dedicated to
Cardinal Mazarin. and has the date 1657.

The finest existing collection of the works of
Siegen and other early mezzotinters is in the
British Museum.

SIEGERT, August, a painter of Breslau, studied
first at the Berlin Academy, and afterwards under
David in Paris. He began as a historical painter,
but afterwards painted landscapes, into which he
introduced groups of historical figures. He was also
a successful painter of portraits and of dioramas.

SIENA, Berna da (or Baena). See Barna.

SIENA, Gdido da, one of the earliest of the
Sienese painters. The name, Guido de Senis, appears
upon a ' Virgin Enthroned ' over an altar in the
church of San Domenico at Siena. It is inscribed
with the year 1221, and upon this the Sienese have
long based their claim to priority over the Floren-
tines in the revival of art. Now, however, it is
believed that the date in question has been tampered
with, and that it should read 1281. In style this
Madonna is thoroughly Byzantine, although in
arrangement it bears a very strong resemblance
to the great Cimabue in Santa Maria Novella at
Florence. Several panels in the Siena Gallery are
doubtfully ascribed to Guido.

SIENA, Lorenzo da. See Lorenzo di Pieteo.

SIENA, Marco da. See Pino.

SIENA, Matted (or Matteino da). See Matted.

SIENA, Matted di Gidvani da. See Matted di

SIENA, MiNUCCiD DA. See Minhccid.

SIENA, Sand da. See Sang di Pieteo.

SIENA, SiMONE da. See Martini.

SIENA, Ugolind da. See Uqdlino da Siena.

SIERRA, Feancisco Perez, is reckoned a Spanish
painter, though born at Naples in 1627, and in-
structed in art by Aniello Falcone, the master of
Salvator Rosa. His father, a native of Gibraltar,
was an officer in the Neapolitan army, and married
a daughter of the governor of Calabria. While a
student. Sierra was appointed page to one Don
Diego de la Torre, whom he followed to Madrid.
There he entered the school of Juan de Toledo,
His patron, Don Diego, employed him in copying
pictui-es by Spagnoletto ; and in painting a series
of Saints for a chapel he had founded at Madrid.
Later in life Sierra was appointed manager of the
Spanish prisons, and gave up art, except that he
painted flower-pieces for his amusement, some of
which found their way into the Buenretiro. He
died in 1709.

SIEURAC, FRANgcis Joseph Juste, miniature
painter, born in 1781, at Cadiz, of French parents.
He studied at the Academy of Toulouse, and under
Augustin. and exhibited miniatures at the Salon.
He died at Soreze, near Totdouse, about 1832.
Amongst his miniatures were portraits of Lord
Byron, Sir Walter Scott, Thomas Moore, and the
Duchesse de Berri.

SIEURAC, Henri, painter, was the son and
pupil of Francois Joseph, and was born in Paris,
August 15, 1823. He studied for a time under
Paul Delaroche, and exhibited at the Salon from




1848 until his death, which took place in Paris,
December 1863. The following are his best known
works :

Aix. Museum. The Triumph of Fabius.

Chalon-sur-Saoue. „ The Birth of Bacchus.

Dijon. „ Faith, Hope, and Charity.

Toulouse. „ The Renasoeuce (an allegory).

SIEVIER, Robert William, engraver, born in
London in 1794, studied engraving with Young
a\d Scriven, and afterwards worked in the Academy
schools. He engraved the portraits of Lord Ellen-
borough, after Lawrence; Lady Jane Giey, after
Holbein; 'The Importunate Author,' after New-
ton, and several plates after Etty. His study
in anatomy andmodelHng led him about 1823 to
desert engraving for sculpture, in which latter art
he achieved both distinction and popularity. Much
of his energy was devoted to science, and in 1840
he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He
died in London in 1865.

SIGALON, Xaviek, painter, born at Uz^s in
1788, learned his art from one Monrose, a pupil of
David, and in the Nismes school of design. He
acquired the means to go to Paris by painting
saints for the churches of Nismes. He arrived in
the capital in 1817, and studied under Guerin and
Souchot. His first pictures were ' The Young
Courtezan,' now in the Louvre, 'Locusta,' ' Athaliah,'
and 'The Vision of St. Jerome.' A 'Baptism of
Christ' met with such a fire of criticism that he
retired to Nismes, where he devoted himself to
portrait painting and giving drawing lessons. On
Thiers becoming minister, Sigalon was commis-
sioned to copy the 'Last Judgment' of Michel-
angelo in the Sistine Chapel. From 1833 to 1837
he was constantly engaged on this work, which,
when seen, revived his reputation at home. But
after a short visit to Paris, he returned to Rome,
where he died of cholera the same year, in 1837.

SIGMUND III., King of the Poles, born in 1566,
was not only a lover of the arts, but also a good
artist. He painted an ' Allegory of the Foundation
of a Jesuit Monastery,' which he gave to his
daughter Anna on her marriage with the Count
Palatine, Philip Wilhelm. The picture found its
way to the Diisseldorf Gallery, and thence to
Schleissheim, where it was long called a Tintoretto.
He also painted a ' Mater Dolorosa,' now in the
Augsburg Gallery. He died in 1632.

SIGNORACCIO, Bernardo and Paolo. See Del


SIGNORELLI, Francesco, the nephew of Luca
Signorelli, assisted his uncle in the frescoes in the
Chiesa di Gesu at Cortona. His own style is hard
and cold, and deficient in perspective. There
is a ' Standard ' by him in the Sacristy of S. Gio-
vanni Decollato at Citta di Castello; also a 'Con-
ception' in the choir of S. Francesco at Gubbio.

SIGNORELLI, Luca, painter, born at Cortona
about 1441, was the son of Egidio di Ventura Sig-
norelli, and pupil of Pietro de' Franceschi, with
whom he worked in Arezzo in 1472, and in Citta di
Castello in 1474. He then went to Florence, but
in 1478 was invited by Pope Julius II. to Rome,
where he painted two subjects from the life of
Moses in the Sistine Chapel. In 1484 he was again
in Perugia, and painting an altar-piece still in the
chapel of St. Onofrio, in the Cathedral. In 1488
he was made a citizen of Citta di Castello and a
magistrate of Cortona, in which capacity he served
for the rest of his long life. In 1497 he painted
eight frescoes in the convent of Monte Oliveto,


south of Siena, representing scenes from the life
of St. Benedict, which are specially interesting on
account of traits which recall Leonardo. His great
work, however, is the series in the chapel of the
Madonna di San Brizio in the cathedral of Orvieto,
painted after 1499, in which year the first contract
for them was signed. In painting them he was
assisted by his pupil Girolarao Genga. Togetlier
with those of Fra Angelioo (from whose design
Signorelli painted, on the south side of the vaulted
roof, the apo3tles and angels with the signs of the
Passion), Luca's frescoes form a cycle of subjects
belonging to the Last Judgment, 'Antichrist,'
'The Resurrection of the Dead,' 'Hell,' and 'Para-
dise;' below, on a dado, are represented the poets
of classical and biblical antiquity, in circular pic-
tures, surrounded by numerous allegorical and
mythological paintings and grotteschi in mono-
chrome. In the 'Antichrist,' Luca has introduced
portraits of himself and Fra Angelico. These
frescoes were the first in Italy in which the nude
figure was prominent. A comparison with those
of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, shows how
much the latter was influenced by Signorelii's ex-
ample, which, by the impulse it gave to the study
of the nude, makes an epoch in the history of art.
Signorelli spent his later years at Cortona, where
he died in 1523. He signs his name in various
ways. 'A Dead Christ,' in the cathedral of
Cortona, is signed Lucas .fficiDii Signorelli Cor-
TONENSIS MDII ; some frescoes in the Pandolfo-
Petrucci Palace, Siena, are inscribed AOYKAI!
O KOPITIOS EnoiEI ; the form Lucas Coritius
appears on a picture in the National Gallery.
Arcevia. iS. Medardo. A Madonna.

Arezzo. Gallery. An Altar-piece.

Berlin. Museum. The School of Pan.

„ „ Two Groups of Saints.

Borgo S. Sepolcro. & An- \ The Mourning over tlie Body

tonio Abhate. j of Christ.
Citta da Castello. <S. JDome- 1 A Martyrdom of S. Sebas-
nico. J tiau.
„ S. Cecilia. A Madonna with Saints.

„ „ A Madonna Enthroned.

„ Pal, Mancini. An Altar-piece.
Cortona. Cathedral. Pieta.

„ The Last Sapper.

„ „ The Descent from the Cross.

„ „ The Incredulity of St.

„ „ A Lunette with a Madonna.

„ Ch. di. Gesu. Adoration of the Shepherds.

„ Compania di S.\A. panel with the dead Christ

Niccolo. j" and the Virgin.
„ S. Domenico. A Madonna with Saints.

Florence. Academy. A Madonna.

„ Uffizi. A Madonna.

„ „ Two Prophets.

„ Fitti Pal. A Madonna.

„ Corsini Pal. A Madonna.

„ Torrigiani Pal. Male Portrait.

Fojano. Collegiate Chapel. Coronation of the Virgin.
London. National Gal. Triumph of Chastity.
„ „ The Circumcision.

„ „ The Nativity.

Loretto. Frescoes in the Church.

Milan. Brera. The Scourging of Christ.

„ „ The Virgin Suckling the

Infant Christ.
Paris. Louvre. Birth of the Virgin.

„ „ Adoration of the Magi.

Perugia. Cathedral. Madonna Enthroned.

Rome. S. Gregorio. St. Michael and the

Siena. Academy, .^neas flying from Troy.

„ „ Eausom of Prisoners.





Siena. S. Domenico. Adoration of the Child.

„ Pandolfo Petnieei Pal. Frescoes, some fragments
of which are in England,
among them the ' Triumph
of Chastity,' in the National
Urbino. FarocMadi ) Christ on the Cross.

Spirito Santo, j
Volterra. Cathedral. The Annunciation.

„ S. Francesco. Virgin, Saints, and Angels.

SIGEILLI, B., an Italian engraver, who flour-
ished about the year 1760. He engraved some of
the plates in the " Gerini Gallery."

SILLET, James, flower painter, bom at Norwich
in 1764, studied in the schools of the Royal
Academy. About 1804 he went to King's Lynn,
but in 1810 returned to Norwich, where he died
in 1840. He chiefly excelled in miniature, but he
also painted still-life and theatrical scenery, and
illustrated Richard's ' History of Lynn.'

■SILLIG, Geoes VlOTOE, painter and etcher, was
born in 1806, at Dresden, where he practised for
many years, painting and etching military scenes.

SILO, Adam, a marine painter, draughtsman,
and decorator, was born at Amsterdam in 1670.
He was skilled in mechanics, and Peter the Great
engaged him to teach five young Russians ship-
building. He painted marine pieces for the Czar,
in which the drawing of the vessels was good.
Nine etchings of skiffs, fishing-boats, and other
vessels, signed A. Silo inv. et feet., are extant.
It is said that Silo lived to the age of 90.

DB, Duchess of Huescar and Arcos, born December
14, 1760, at Madrid, was a clever amateur painter
and modeller, and was also known as a writer of
lyric and dramatic poetry. In 1766 she was made
honorary member of the Academy of San Fernando,
and later was appointed honorary director. She
was three times married, lastly to the Duke of
Arcos, and died in 1784.

SILVA, Domingo Jos^ da, a Portuguese die-
cutter and medallist, of the early part of the 1 9th
century, was also an engraver of some note. He
was a pupil of Bartolozzi, at .Lisbon, in 1814, and
professor at the Lisbon Academy in 1836.

SILVA, Heneiquez JosjS de a Portuguese painter,
who was practising about 1800. He held the post
of Director of the Academy of Painting at Bio

SILVESTRE, (Sylvester,) a Scoto-French family
of artists, flourished in France from about the be-
ginning of the 17th century. Tlie following table
shows the relationship of its members :
Gilles(1590?— ).

Fran?nls (1620 ?— ).

larM (1621— 1C91).

Charles Francois Louis the elder Alexandre Louis the younger
(1667-1738?). (1669—1740). (1672- ). (1676-1760).

Nicholas Charles (1698— 1767). Suzanne Elisabeth (1694— ).

Jacques Augustin (1719—1809).

Augnstin Francois (1762—1851).

SILVESTRE, Alexandre, the third son of
Israel Silvestre, was born in 1672. He etched
some landscapes after Louis Silvestre, his brother,
which are not without merit.

SILVESTRE, Augustin Feanqois, Baron de,
painter and draughtsman, the son of Jacques
Augustin, and the last representative of the
family, was born in Paris, December 7th, 1762.
He studied under his father, and in Rome, hoping
to succeed to the office of drawing-master to the
royal children, which had been held by members


of his family for a century and a half. On his
return from Italy, however, he found that the post
had been abolished, and in compensation, he was
in 1782 appointed assistant-librarian to Monsieur
(afterwards Louis XVIIL)- From this time he
abandoned painting, and devoted himself entirely
to scientific pursuits. He was employed under
both the Republic and the Empire, and yet was
re-installed as librarian and reader to Louis
XVIIL at the Restoration, receiving the title of
baron. After the Revolution of 1830 he retired
into private life, and died in Paris in September,

SILVESTRE, Charles FRANgois de, painter, en-
graver, and draughtsman, was the eldest son of
Israel Silvestre, and was born in Paris, April 11,
1667. He was the pupil of his father, of Charles
Lebrun, and of J. Parrocel, but finished his studies
in Italy. On the death of his father in 1691, he
succeeded to the office of drawing-master to the
French royal children, and to the apartments which
had been occupied by Israel in the Gallery of
the Louvre. He was ennobled by Augustus III.
of Poland. He married Suzanne Thuret, the
niece of Jacques Thuret, a famous clock-maker of
the day, and died in Paris about 1738. He en-
graved many landscapes and historical subjects
after his own designs and those of his youngest

SILVESTRE, GiLLES, the first of the painters
of the Silvestre family. Of Scottish origin, the name
being originally Sylvester, they had settled in
Lorraine at the beginning of the 16th century.
Gilles, who was born at Nancy about 1590, married
Elizabeth Henriet, daughter of Claude Henriet,
painter to the Duke of Lorraine, and then, although
no longer a youth, determined to devote himself
to painting. His son FRANgois, born at Nancy
about 1620, was his father's pupil, and a draughts-
man and engraver of landscapes.

SILVESTRE, Israel, an eminent French en-
graver and son of Gilles Silvestre, was horn at
Nancy, in Lorraine, in 1621. He was the nephew
of Israel Henriet, by whom he is supposed to have
been instructed. He formed his style on Delia
Bella and Callot, and appears to have been imi-
tated in his turn by Sebastian Le Clerc. He
designed, etched, and engraved a great number
of landscapes and views, decorating them with
small figures, correctly drawn, and touched with
uncommon spirit. His merit recommended him to
Louis XIV., who employed -him in designing and
engraving views of royal palaces, public festivals,
and the places Louis had conquered. He was ap-
pointed drawing-master to the Dauphin, and was
made a member of the Academy. He went twice
to Italy, where he found many subjects. His
•plates amount to upwards of one thousand. He
died in Paris in 1691. His daughter Scsannb,
who was married to the painter Le Moine, engraved
a few plates. The following are among Israel's
best works :

A set of twenty-one Views in Italy and France, repre-
senting edifices, ruins, and landscapes, with inscrip-
tions in French.

A set of thirteen Views in Kome and the environs ; in-
scribed Faites par Israel Silvestre, et viises en lumiere
par Israel Henriet.

Twelve Views of gardens and fountains ; entitled A Icune
vedute de Giardini e Fontane di Roma e di TivoU, ^c.,
with descriptions in Italian.

Four Views in the Kingdom of Naples, in the form of



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 130 of 201)