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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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died in 1847. Of his pictures we may name :

Cattle Shed. {South Kensington Museum.) 1842.

Gil Bias and Laura. (Do.)

Two Water-colour Drawings. (2)o.)

Boats at Dordrecht. (Scot. Nat. Gallery.)

The Twelfth of August. (Do.)

Solway Moss. (Do.)

Goat Herd's Cottage, &c. (Do.)

Hagar and Ishmael. (Bridgewater Gallery.)

A Dutch Family. (Bowood House.)

SINGHER, Hans, (or Jean,) was born at Heese-
Cassel about the year 1510. He painted landscapes,
with figures, in a free, bold manner, and chiefly re-
sided at Antwerp, where he was received into the
Academy in 1543. He was much employed in
painting cartoons for tapestry.

SINGLETON, Henry, an English historical
painter, was born in London in 1766. His father
died while he was yet an infant, and he was brought
up by his uncle, a miniature painter, by whom he
was instructed in drawing. He became a student
of the Royal Academy, and gained the gold medal
in 1788 ; the subject being ' Alexander's Feast'
On that occasion he was highly praised by Reynolds.
For more than fifty years he was a constant ex-
hibitor at the Royal Academy, but never arrived
at membership. His pictures are numerous, but
seldom exhibit much ability. " Propose a subject
to Singleton," said West, " and it will be on canvas
in five or six hours." As might have been expected,
work that cost so little was destined to a short
existence. Some of his drawings for books were
popular, as well as some sentimental scenes on a
larger scale. Among his best works were ' Christ
entering Jerusalem,' ' Chiist healing the Blind,'
' Coriolanus and his Mother,' ' Hannibal swearing
Enmity to the Romans,' ' Storming of Seringapatam,'
' Death of Tippoo Sahib,' and ' Surrender of Tippoo's
Sons as Plostages' ; all of which were engraved in
mezzotint, and were popular for a time. Two pic-




tures of his belonging to the National Gallery have
been deposited in the galleries of Leicester and
Coventry respectively. He painted also a series of
small pictures from Shakespeare. They show more
imagination and better colour than his larger works.
He occasionally painted portraits. Singleton died
in London in 1839. His sister, Sabah Singleton,
exhibited miniatures at the Academy from 1790 to
1820. Other miniature painters of the same name,
who exhibited about the same time, were probably
his relatives.


SINJEUR, GovERT, a painter of Rotterdam, who
painted in the manner of Philips Wouwerman, in
the 17th century.

SINT-JANS, Qeerit van. See Haarlem.

SINTRAMME, — , one of the earliest of the
miniaturists. He was a monk of St. Gall, and
practised in the beginning of the 10th century.

SINTZENICH, Hbinrich, (Sinzenich,) an en-
graver in the chalk and dotted manner, and in
mezzotint, was born at Mannheim in 1752. After re-
ceiving some elementary instruction in the academy
of that city, he was sent to England at the expense
of the Elector to complete his studies under Bar-
tolozzi, with whom he remained about four years.
On his return to his own country he was appointed
engraver to the court, and engraved many plates
in the English styles. He was a member of the
Academies of Munich and Berlin. He died at
Munich in 1812. Nagler has described fifty-four of
his principal plates. The best are :

Portrait of Rafael Mengs ; after himself.
Cassandra ; after Hickel.

SINTZENICH, Pieter, (Sinzenioh,) engraver,
brother of Heinrich Sintzenioh, was in London iu
1789. He engraved ' The Truce between the
Romans and Sabines,' after Raphael.

SIPMANN, Gerhard, (SiPPMANNr) painter, born
at Dusseldorf in 1790, was trained at the Diissel-
dorf Academy and at Munich, under Langer and
Cornelius. He painted at first portraits and his-
torical scenes in oil, but was afterwards employed
on arabesques for Cornelius, in the Glyptothek.
From 1823 onwards he occasionally painted land-
scapes. He died at Munich in 1860,

SIRANI, Elisabetta, the eldest daughter of
Giovanni Andrea Sirani, born at Bologna in 1638,
was instructed in art by her father. Her first
public commission appears to have been won in
1655, when she was seventeen years of age. She
was a clever imitator of Guido, and was already
famous, when she was poisoned by her servant
in 1665. In spite of her early death, she left
upwards of a hundred and fifty pictures. We may
name :

Bologna. Certosa. Baptism of Christ.

„ Pinacoteca. The Infant Christ, with S.

Anthony of Padua in Adora-
tion. And eight others.
Munich. Pinakothek. An Allegory.

Also pictures in the Palazzi Zampieri, Caprara,
Zambeccari at Bologna ; and the Palazzi Corsini
and Bolognetta at Rome. She also produced a few
good etchings ; among them the following :

The Virgin in the Clouds holding a Eosary, with the
infant Jesus ; from her own design^

The Virgin weeping, surrounded by Angels, and con-
templating the emblems of Christ's Passion ; Elisa-
betta Sirani, F. 1657.

The Holy Family ; after Raphael ; Elisaletha Sirani, sic
incisum exposuit.

The Mother of God; after the same.

St. Bustacius kneeling before a Crucifix; EHsabetha

Sirani, f. 1656,
The Decollation of St. John ; Elhta. Sirani, f. 1657.

SIRANI, Giovanni Andrea, bom at Bologna in
1610, was one of the favourite disciples of Guido
Reni. After the death of his master he was
employed to finish several of his works in the
churches at Bologna, particularly the large picture
of S. Brunone, at the Certosini. His first produc-
tions resemble the second stjde of Guido. He
afterwards adopted a more violent system of light
and shadow, approaching that of Michelangelo da
Caravaggio. He died in 1670. Works :

Bologna. S. Marino. The Crucifixion.

„ Certosa. The Feast at the House of

Simon the Pharisee.
„ S. Giorgio. Marriage of the Virgin.

„ Finaeoteca. Presentation in the Temple.

He etched a few original plates, which he usually
marked with the initials G. A. S. or I. A. S. ; among
them we may name :

Apollo and Marsyas ; oval.

Death of Lucrefcia.

SIRCEUS, Philippe. See Soye, Philippe.

SIRIES, Violante Beatrix, born at Florence in
1710, was taught pastel and water-colour by
Giovanna Fratellini. She afterwards went to
Paris, where she studied under Boucher and
Rigaud. Her talent was chiefly shown in portraits,
though she occasionally attempted historical sub-
jects, as well as flowers and fruit. On her return
to Florence from France, she was employed to
paint a large group of the Grand-Ducal Family.
Her own portrait is in the Uffizi. She died about

SISSON, — , an Irish portrait painter of the 18th
century. Burke speaks of having had his portrait
painted by him in miniature.

SIXDENIERS, Alexandre Vincent, engraver,
bom in Paris in 1795, worked under Villerey. He
won a considerable reputation, and was more than
once premiated at the Salon. He worked first in
line, afterwards in mezzotint. He was drowned in
the Seine, in Paris, in 1846. Plates :

Endymion ; after Girodet.

Charlotte Corday ; after Scheffer.

The Village Bride ; after Greuze.

Posting in the Desert; after Vernet.

Arab praying ; after the same.

Edward I. iu Scotland ; after Belaroche.

Napoleon and the King of Home ; after Steuben.

SJOLLEMA, Thierry Piebes, a Dutch painter of
landscapes and sea-pieces, born at Terbantsterohans
in 1760. His works are almost entirely confined to
Priesland. There are two pictures by him in the
museum at Leeuwarden. He died at Heerenwal in

SKELTON, Joseph, engraver, flourished e^rly
in the 19th century. He was a younger brother
of William Skelton, and studied in London. He
afterwards went to Paris, and worked from the
pictures at Versailles. His latest plates are dated
1850. Among the works he illustrated are ;

' The Antiquities of Bristol.'

' Cautabrigia Depicta.' 1809.

' Uxouia Antiqua Bestaurata.' 1823.

' Antiquities of Oxfordshire.' 1823.

'Pietas Oxopiensis.' 1828.

' Meyrick's Arms and Armour.' 1830.

' Chateau d'Eu illustrS.' 1844.

' Galeries bistoriques de Versailles.'

Girault's ' Beautis de la France.' 1850.





SKELTON, William, engraver, was born in
London in 1763. He belonged to a Yorkshire
branch of the Cumberland Skeltons. He was some
time pupil of James Basire and of William Sharp.
When he first set up for himself, his patrons were
Sir Richard Worsley and Charles Townley ; then
Boydell and Macklin ; and still later, the Dilettanti
Society, for whom some of his best engravings
were produced. At the close of his career he pub-
lished a series of royal portraits, from the time of
George III. down to the accession of Victoria,
which was commercially successful, and enabled
him to perform many acts of charity. Skelton
died in Upper Ebury Street in 1848.

SKILL, John F., water-colour painter, practised
in London, and was a member of the Institute.
He painted landscapes and sea-pieces, and oc-
casional figure studies. His works were character-
ized by much delicacj' and refinement, but failed to
attract popular attention, and the artist is said to
have died of a broken heart, March 8, 1881. His
'Sheep in a Turnip Field' and ' Walmer Castle'
are in the South Kensington Museum. Other works
are; 'Rising Tide,' ' By the Sea,' 'Thames Lock
in June,' ' Her First Ball'

SKILLMAN, William, an English engraver,
who flourished about the year 1666. , Among other
plates he engraved a view of Albemarle House,
and another of the Banqueting House, Whitehall.

SKIPPE, John, a native of Ledbury, was a
gentleman of education, and an amateur artist.
He engraved in chiaroscuro a number of subjects,
chiefly after the designs of Parmigiano, Correggio,
Raphael, and other masters of the Italian Sclaool,
which he publislied from about the year 1770 to
1812. It is supposed that he was a pupil of John
Baptist Jackson. The dates of his birth and death
are unknown.

SKIRVING, Archibald, painter, was born at
Haddington in 1749. He studied for some time in
Rome, and towards the close of the IBtli century
practised in London, working principally as a
portraitist in chalk and crayon, and also painting
miniatures in water-colours. At the beginning of
the 19th century he was established in Edinburgh,
where he became well known both by the excel-
lence of his art and the humorous eccentricity of
his character. He died in 1819. The portraits of
Professor Dugald Stewart and William Berry in
the National Portrait Gallery (Scotland) are by
him, also a portrait in the Scottish National Gallery.
Andrew Geddes etched Skirving's portrait.

SKJOLDEBRAND, a Swedish painter, who went
in 1799 with Acerbi to the North Cape, and on his
return published a work on his travels. In 1804
he also published a volume of views of the Troll-
hatfa Falls. He died in 1835.
. SKOOVGAAED, Peter Kkistian, a Danish
landscape painter, was born at Hammerbus, near
Ringsted, in 1817. He received his first teaching
from his mother, and then at the age of fifteen
entered the Copenhagen Academy. His first work,
a Moonlight Landscape, was purchased in 1836
by Christian VIII. He afterwards travelled to Rome
and Naples, studied Titian and Claude, but con-
tinued faithful to Danish scenery for his subjects.
In 1864 he became a member of the Academy at
Copenhagen, where he died in 1876.


genre painter, flourished in the 17th century. It

is supposed that he studied under Gerard Dou.

His pictures are not common ; there is one in the


Museum at Amsterdam, an interior with a woman
cutting bread, and two children praying. In 1645
hewas living in Amsterdam, but he is supposed to
have been a native of Middelberg, where he was
buried in November, 1664.

SLANGBNBURGH, Karel Jakob Baar van, an
obscure painter of portraits and interiors, was bom
at Leeuwarden in 1783. He died about 1850.


SLATER, Joseph, an English decorative and
landscape painter, practised early in the 18th
century. He was engaged on decorative work at
Mereworth Castle and at Stowe.

SLATER, J. W., a miniature painter of some
merit, who settled early in life in Ireland, and
practised with success in Dublin in the second half
of the 18th century. He subsequently returned to
England, and exhibited at the Academy in 1786
and 1787.

SLATER,!., an English engraver who flourished
about the year 1630. He engraved, among others,
a portrait of George Webbe, Bishop of Limerick.

SLAUGHTER, Stephen, portrait painter, was
practising in Ireland between 1730 and 1740. He
afterwards became keeper of the king's pictures,
and lived towards the close of his life at Ken-
sington, where he died in 1765. In the National
Portrait Gallery there is a 'Sir Hans Sloane'by
him, and at Blenheim Palace, portraits of the Hon.
J. and Lady G. Spencer. His sister was also an

SLEAP, Joseph Axe, water-colour painter, was
born in London, May 30, 1808. He was an artist
of much ability, but his life was embittered by a
perpetual struggle against poverty, which crippled
his powers. He was beginning to win his way to
fame and recognition, when he died at the age of
fifty-one, October 16, 1869. His ' St. Paul's, from
Paul's Wharf,' in the Glasgow Gallery, is a good
example of his work. There is also at South Ken-
sington a view of Lago Maggiore by him. His
works are little known, as he never contributed to
the principal London Exhibitions.

SLEMPOP. See Virschen, Theodoe.

SLINGELANDT, Pieteb Cornelisz van, born
at Leyden in 1640, was a pupil of Gerard Dou.
He followed the style of his master, and as far
as patience and polish are concerned, he may be
said to have equalled, if not surpassed, his in-
structor; but in character, chiaro-scuro, and design,
he is far inferior. Houbraken declares that he was
occupied three whole years on the family por-
trait of the Meermans, and that he was employed
a month in finishing a rufl^ He died in 1691. His
chief works are :

Amsterdam. Museum. Violin Player. Signed P.

V. Slingei-land fecit.

Dresden. Gallery. The Music Lesson.

„ „ A Singing Woman.

61a.sgow. Gallery. The Doctor's Visit.

„ ,. A Musical Party.

London . Bridgev'ater Hmise. Cooks with Partridges.

Munich. Pinakothek. A Tailor's Shop.

,, ,, A TVoman at a Window.

Paris. Louvre. The Meerman Family.

Petersburg. Hermitage. A Family Group

SLOANE, Michael, engraver, a pupil of Bar-
tolozzi, who practised up to the beginning of the
19th century, and engraved the 'Notte,' after Cor-
reggio, 'The Christening,' after Wheatley, and
other works.

SLUYTER, P., a Dutch engraver who flourished
about the year 1700. He was principally employed




in engraving frontispieces and other book orna-
ments for the publications of Peter Van der Aa.

SMAK-GRBGOOR, Gillis, painter of landscapes
and animals, was born at Dordrecht in 1770. He
was the nephew and pupil of the Van Strys, and
also studied under Versteeg and Van Leen. He
died in 1843.

SMALLWOOD, William Frome, architectural
draughtsman, born 1806, was the son of a hotel-
keeper in Covent Garden. He was a pupil of Cot-
tinghara, and exhibited a number of sketches at
the Royal Academy and at Suffolk Street from
1826 to 1834. Many of his drawings were repro-
duced in the 'Penny Magazine.' He died in

SMARGIASSO. See Ciafferi.

SMART, John, miniature painter, bom about
1740, was a pupil of the St. Martin's Lane Academy.
In 1783 he went to Ipswich, and exhibited
miniatures at the Academy up to 1788, when he
went to India, where he met with great success.
He returned to England after about five years, and
settled in London, where he died in 1811.

SMART, Samuel Paul, a painter of miniature
portraits, practising in London. He exhibited at
the Academy from 1769 to 1787.

SMEES, Jan, a Dutch landscape painter and
engraver, who flourished in the first quarter of the
18th century, and is supposed to have died in
1729. To judge of him by his five known etchings,
he must have painted in the manner of Jari Both.
These etchings consist of landscapes enriched with
figures, animals, buildings, and ruins ; and are
signed J. Smees in. et fecit.

SMETS, Cheistian, a Flemish painter of the
16th century, a native of Mechlin. He came to
France in 1550, and entered the service of Henri
d'Albret, grandfather of Henry IV.

SMEYERS, Gillis, (or ^gidius,) the elder, born
at Mechlin in 1636, was the son (?) and pupil of
Nicolas Smeyers. He also studied under J. Ver-
hoeven. He married Elizabeth Herregouts, daugh-
ter of the painter, David Herregouts, and had by
her three sons, Jakob {q.v.), Jan, and Justin. They
all became painters, and were members of the
Guild of St. Luke at Mechlin, but only Jakob has
left any trace in the history of art. In 1667
Gillis Smeyers was made free of the Guild of S.
Luke, and in 1682 he was acting as treasurer for
the society. He was the close friend of Lucas
Franchoys II., and finished an ' Assumption ' begun
by the latter. Smeyers died in 1710. Works :
Brussels. Museum. St. Norbert consecrating two

„ „ Death of St. Norbert.

Mechlin. Museum, The Deans of the Tailors' Guild

at Mechlin, 1695.
„ Church of S. John. The Benefits of the Holy

„ Seminary. The Eesurrection of Lazarus.

And other works at Mechlin.

SMEYERS, Gillis, (or ^gidius,) the younger,
painter, was the son of Jakob Smeyers, and was
born at Mechlin in 1694. His father wished him
to become a painter, but the young man himself
showed a preference for historical studies. At the
age of twenty-one, however, he decided for art as
a profession, and Started for Diisseldorf, under the
protection of the Baron de Loe. Here he studied
for three years under the painter Douven, of
Euremonde, but was recalled to Mechlin by the
necessities of his parents, who bad both become
blind. He maintained them in their infirmity.

working as a decorative painter when other com-
missions failed, and began also to utilize his
early literary studies, by writing articles for the
'Bibliotheca Belgioa,' and for Descamps' 'Lives
of Painters.' He was the author of a supple-
ment to Van Mander's ' Lives of Painters,' com-
piled a complete inventory of works of art at
Mechlin, with notices of Mechlin artists, and
wrote a Life of Rubens, the MS. of which he sold
in his old age. His talents and industry, how-
ever, failed to secure him against poverty, for
towards the close of his life, when attacked by
disease, he was obliged to sell his library to gain
admittance into the hospital at Mechlin, where he
died in 1774. The following of his works are to
be found at and near Mechlin :

Portrait of the Chanoiue de Laet. (Grand Seminary.)
Fall of the Angels.

History of S. Dominic. (Church ofS. Jiomiaut.)
Pentecost. (Convent of the Black Nuns.)
Allegorical Groups. (Convent of the Soeurs MaricoUes.)
Portrait of Cardinal d' Alsace de Bonssu. (Museum.)
The Deans of the Tailors' Guild in 1735. (Museum.)
Episode in the History of the Dominicans. (Museum.)
Portraits of Children. (Notre Dame, Hanstoyck.)
Several Pictures. (Church of Assclie.)

. SMEYERS, Jakob, painter, born at Mechlin in
1667, was the son of Gillis the elder. He was his
father's pupil, and entered the Guild of St. Luke
in 1688. He painted history and genre, but was
more successful with portraits. In the church of
S. Catherine at Mechlin there are a ' Temptation of
S. Anthony ' and a ' Holy Family ' by him, and in
the convent of the Black Nuns a picture of the
Sisters adoring the Trinity. He died at Mechlin
in 1732.

SMIBERT, John, (Smybbet,) born at Edin-
burgh about the year 1684, served his time with
a common house painter. He came to London,
where he was forced to content himself with work
for coach painters. He was afterwards employed
in copying for dealers. He studied for a time in Sir
James Thornhill's Academy, and then went to
Italy, where he spent three years in copying Titian,
Vandyck, and Rubens, and improved enough to be
largely employed on portraits after his return.
When he had thus surmounted his early difiioulties
he was tempted to embark in the scheme of the
Bishop of Cloyne, for the erection of a universal
college of arts and sciences in Bermuda. The
death of the King, his patron, put an end to the
Bishop's project, but Smibert, who had set sail,
had resolution enough to proceed, and settled at
Boston, in New England. There he married a
lady of fortune, and continued the practice of his
art, exercising great influence on American artists.
He died at Boston in 1751, leaving two children,
one of whom, Nathaniel, became an artist.

SMIES, Jakob, born at Amsterdam in 1765,
painted a few pictures, but was better known as a
drawing-master and illustrator of books. He died
in 1825.

SMIRKE, Richard, antiquarian draughtsman,
born in 1778, was the Ijrother of Sir Robert Smirke,
and was brought up an artist, studying in the
Academy schools, whi're he gained a gold medal
in 1799. Eventually be abandoned painting for
the study of antiquities, and became known as
an accurate draughtsman of such subjects. He
was much employed by the Society of Antiquaries,
and made for that body a series of facsimiles
from the ancient paintings in St. Stephen's Chapel,
Westminster. He died May 6, 1815.





SMIRKE, Robert, an excellent English painter
of humorous and sentimental subjects, was born
at Wigton in 1752. At the age of nineteen he
became a student at the Royal Academy, but did
not exhibit there till the year 1786 ; in 1792 he
was elected an associate, and in the same year an
academician. It is said that he painted arms on
coach panels ; so did Catton, whose name is among
the first forty of the Royal Academicians. His
pictures are numerous, and generally of small
dimensions, as they were mostly painted to illus-
trate plays, poems, or novels, and intended for
the engravers. Such compositions he carried out
mostly in monochrome, or with but very slight
indications of colour. His favourite subjects are
from Scripture, English history, Shakspeare, ' Don
Quixote,' the ' Arabian Nights,' &c. Those for the
story of 'The Hunchback,' engraved by Daniell,
are in his happiest manner. He continued to
practise his art till late in life. It is said that
his last works were the designs for the bas-reliefs
in front of the Oxford and Cambridge Club
House in Pall Mall, of which his sons were the
architects. He had formerly designed the bas-
reliefs for the Junior United Service Club, at the
corner of Charles Street and Regent Street, also
built under the same direction. Smirke died in
London in 1845. A series of illustrations to ' Don
Quixote' have been deposited by the National
Gallery authorities in the Museum of Stoke-upon-

SMIT, Andreas, a Dutch painter of marine
subjects, lived about the middle of the 17th century.
There is a good sea-piece by him in the Berlin
Gallery. There was also an Arnold Smit, who
lived about the same period, and painted land-
scapes and sea-pieces. His large pictures of marine
subjects resemble the darkest of Backhuysen. There
is a sea-piece signed A. Smit, in the Copenhagen
Gallery, attributed to him. Perhaps the two men
are identical.

SMITH, Ankek, an excellent engraver of small
plates in line for books, was born in London in
1759. He received his education at the Merchant
Taylors' School, and was afterwards articled to his
uncle, an eminent conveyancer. He soon quitted
him, however, for an engraver of the name of
Taylor. This master instructed him in the me-
chanical part of the business, and his natural talent
soon enabled him to surpass his teacher. He
became an assistant to James Heath, in whose
name he is said to have executed several plates,
among them the ' Apotheosis of Handel.' Bell, who
was now publishing an edition of the British Poets,
engaged him to engrave the plates for it ; and he
was soon employed by other publishers. He also
engraved several of the plates for Smirke's edition
of ' Don Quixote.' It is said that he practised
at one time under Bartolozzi. He was one of the
engravers employed by Boydell on the ' Shakspeare
Gallery ' ; the print of 'The Death of Wat Tyler,'
after Northcote, obtained his election to the Royal
Academy. He engraved the plates for an edition
of Shakspeare edited by Wood, for the works by
Coombe, on ' The Ancient Marbles and Terra-
cottas in the British Museum ' ; also several plates
after Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, and Correga-io.
He died in 1819.

SMITH, Benjamin, an engraver in the chalk

and dotted mannei-, was born in London ; the year

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 132 of 201)