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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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van Mander, in the ' Life of Otho Venius,' calls him
an eminent painter of history and battles. There
are some historical pictures by him in the Belgian
public buildings, which prove him to have pos-
sessed a considerable gift for ' high art.' His best
works, however, were skirmishes and attacks of
cavalry. He lived at Antwerp, where he was
much emploj'ed, and was appointed court-painter
to Albert and Isabella, the governors of the Nether-
lands. His battle-pieces are well grouped, the
figures and horses correctly designed, and the
fury of the combatants fully expressed. The
talents of Snellinck were appreciated by Van-
dyck, who painted and etched his portrait among
the distinguished artists of his time. Snellinck
worked much as a designer of patterns for the
factories of Oudenarde. He was twice married,
and of his numerous sons no fewer than five were
painters, viz. Jan, born 1576 ; Daniel, born
1576 ; Gerabd, born 1577 ; Andries, born 1587 ;
Abraham, born 1597. Snellinck died at Antwerp
in 1638. Works:

Mechlin. Ch.ofSt.},,,, „ ..

Eoviiia. JTheKesurrection.

GMetif: } Descent of the Holy Ghost.

Oudenarde. Ch. of St. 1 mi, m <= i-

Walbirga. j ^"^^ Transfiguration.

" ^'-Ifj;'-^] Creation of Adam.

SNELLING, Matthew, portrait and miniature
painter, practised in the reign of Charles II., paint-
ing heads, chiefly of ladies. There is a portrait


by him at the College of Physicians, and a portrait
of Charles I., dated 1647, was exhibited at South
Kensington in the Loan Collection of 1862.

SNELLINKS, J., a Dutch painter, who practised
in the manner of F. Moucheron, painting landscapes
with figures. He died at Rotterdam in 1691.

SNIP. See Terwestbn, Augdstinds.

SNUFFELAER. See Sohbieck.

SNYDERS, Fbanz, painter, born at Antwerp in
1579, received his first instruction from Hendrik
van Balen and P. Brueghel. For some time he
confined himself to painting still-life, in which he
excelled ; but he afterwards devoted his studies to
a more difficult branch of art, in which he won
a unique celebrity. He painted animals and hunts
with surprising fire and spirit. The talents of
Snyders excited the admiration of Rubens, wlio
frequently intrusted him to paint the animals, fruit,
&o., in his pictures, although he could do them so
well himself. Snyders is said to have travelled in
Italy, though others assert that he never left
Flanders, but constantly resided at Antwerp, ex-
cept for a short time, when he was invited to
Brussels by the Archduke Albert. For him he
painted some of his finest works, particularly ' a
stag-hunt, which was sent by the Archduke to
Philip III. of Spain, who commissioned Snyders
to paint several large hunting pictures, and com-
bats of wild beasts, which are still in the old
palace of Buen-Retiro. He also excelled in painting
kitchens and larders stored with game, fish, fruit,
vegetables, &c., which are occasionally provided
with figures by Rubens and Jordaens. Vandyck
painted Snyders more than once. One example is
at Castle Howard. Snyders died at Antwerp in
1657. His pictures are very numerous. The fol-
lowing are good and accessible examples :

Antwerp. Museum. Swans and Dogs.

Berlin. „ Fight between Bear and Dogs.

Dresden. Gallery. Kitchen, with portraits of

Bubens and his Wife, by
Edinburgh. Mit. Gallery. A Wolf Hunt.

„ „ Miscbievous Monkeys. {And

two more.)
Florence. Uffizi. A Boar Hunt.

Hampton Court. A Boar Hunt. (And three

Madrid. Museum. Twenty-one pictures of hunts,

Munich. P'makothek, Interior of a Kitchen.

„ „ A Boar Hunt.

„ „ A Lioness killing a Wild Boar.

Paris. Louvre. A Stag Hunt.

9, „ Paradise.

i> „ Animals going into the Ark.

»» „ A Boar Hunt.

The Hague. Museum. Stag Hunt. {Landscape h/
n J) Kitchen, with game and vege-

tables. (Figures h/ Sulms.)

SNYERS, Pietek, born at Antwerp in 1681,
studied his art under Alexander van Bredael. In
1707 he was free of the Guild of S. Luke, and was
afterwards president of the Antwerp Academy. He
is reported to have visited London, and to liave
painted portraits of various members of the
nobility. A ' Rocky Landscape ' in the Antwerp
Museum is one of his best works. Besides land-
scapes and portraits he also painted flower-pieces
with much skill. He died in 1752.

SNYERS, Pieter Jan, the nephew of Pieter
Snyers, was born at Antwerp in 1696, and was
instructed by his uncle, but when only twenty-five
years old abandoned his profession His works




are coDsequently very scarce. His subjects were
hunting-scenes, and he excelled in those of small
size. He died in 1757.

SOBLEO. See Desubleo.

SOBRINO, Dona Cecilia, nee Morillas, bom
1538, carved in wood, and painted ; she was par-
ticularly skilful in the execution of globes and
maps. She is said to have had a thorough know-
ledge of Greek, Latin, and Italian, and to have been
well versed in various branches of science. She
had a son and a daughter who devoted themselves
to art, Jos^ and Cecilia. The latter was a Car-
melite nun at Valladolid, where many of her
paintings are still to be found, and died April 7,
1646. Her mother died at Madrid, October 21,

SOCRATES, a Greek painter, mentioned by
Pliny as a disciple of Pausias.

SODBRMARK, Olaf Johan, painter, was born
at Stockholm in 1790. He was an ofScer in the
Swedish Army, and served in several campaigns
before he decided upon an art career. In 1819 he
left the army, and later went to Munich to study,
and eventually to Rome. He was a successful
portraitist, and also painted many pleasing genre
pictures. In the Stockholm Gallery there are two
pictures by him, a bust portrait of the German
artist, Franz Riepenhausen, and a study of an
Italian girl, ' La Grazia.' His last work was a
portrait of Jenny Lind. He died in 1848.

SODERINI, Maueo, painter, practised at Flo-
rence in the 18th century. He was a pupil of
Giovanni dal Sole. In the church of San Stefano
at Florence there is by him a ' Raising of a Dead
Child by S. Zanobio.'

SODOMA, II. See Bazzi.

SOENS, Jan, born at Bois le Due about the
year 1553, was first instructed by Jakob Boon,
but afterwards became a scholar of Gillis Moes-
taert. Under that master he made great progress,
and was considered one of the most promising
young artists of his time. He travelled to Italy,
where he was employed by the Pope, and by
several of the Roman nobility, in the embellish-
ment of their palaces. He passed some time at
Parma, in the service of the duke. His manner
was animated, and the figures he introduced into
his landscapes were well drawn and handled. He
died at Parma in 1611.

SOEST, or ZOEST, Gerard, a native of West-
phalia, was born early in the 17th century. He
visited England some time before the Restoration,
with an established reputation as a portrait painter.
His heads are animated, in bold relief, yet highly
finished. His draperies were usually of satin, in
the manner of Terburg ; but he enlarged his style
on seeing the works of Vandyck. He was more
successful in his portraits of men than women.
He executed a portrait of the Lord Mayor Sheldon
and Dr. John Wallis. He died in London in 1681,

SOEST, Jarens von. See Jaeentts.

S0G6I, NiccoLO, painter, born at Florence in
1480, was a disciple of Pietro Perugino. He
painted in the style of his instructor. His chief
residence was at Arezzo, where some of his works
are preserved in the charohes. In La Madonna
delle Lagrime a ' Nativity ' represents him fairly.
In 1650 he was in Rome, and working for the
Pope. He died at Arezzo in 1654.

SOGLIANI, Giovanni Antonio, painter, born at
Florence in 1492, was a pupil of Lorenzo di Credi,
whose style he imitated, as may be seen in his

' Burial of Christ,' in the Berlin Museum. He. also
copied the manner of Fra Bartolommeo, notably in
a 'Miraculous Conception,' with Saints, formerly in
Santa Maria Nuova, Florence. One of his earliest
works was a ' S. Martino,' in Or San Michele,
Florence. In 1621 he painted the 'Martyrdom
of S. Arcadius,' in S. Lorenzo. It is a good study
of the nude, but with no originality. In conjunc-
tion with Andrea del Sarto and Sodoma, he painted
a series of subjects behind the high altar of the
Pisan duomo. At Florence there are several
Madonnas by Sogliani in the Accademia ; a St.
Catherine in the Torrigiani Collection ; also a
' Christ Washing the Apostles' Feet,' in S. M. del
Fosso, Anghiari. He died at Florence in 1544.

S06LIARI, IL. See Gatti.

SOGNI, Giuseppe, an Italian painter, born in
1797. He studied at the Brera, in Milan, under
Pacetti and Sabatelli, and went to Rome for further
instruction in 1830. He was a member of the
Milan Academy, and held the post of Professor at
Bologna from 1834 to 1839, and from 1839 at the
Brera. He occasionally painted portraits, but
devoted himself chiefly to historical pictures, the
best known of which are the following :

Columbus Embarking at Palos. (1829.)

The Death of Raphael.

The Rape of the Sabines. (1831.)

Susannah. | Adam and Eve.

Return of the Milanese after Legaano. (1837.)

Last Hours of Beatrice Cenci.

Frescoes in S. Pietro al Rosario, Novara.

In the Milan Hospital there are portraits of various
benefactors by him.

SOHN, Karl Ferdinand, historical and portrait
painter, born at Berlin in 1806, studied first at the
Berlin Academy, and then in the private atelier of
W. Sohadow, whom he accompanied to Diisseldorf
in 1826. After a visit to the Netherlands, he went
in 1830 to Italy. In 1832 he was appointed teacher,
and in 1838 professor at the Diisseldorf Academy.
He was an excellent portrait painter, especially of
women ; the best of his portraits being that of the
Countess Monti, now in the Wallraf Museum,
Cologne. He was also particularly successful as
a painter of the nude. Of his pictures we may
name :
Diana in the Bath. | The Two Leonoras.

The Judgment of Paris. Romeo and Juliet.
The Sisters. | Vanitas.

Girl playing the Lute. {Berlin National Gallery.)
Hylas seized by Water Nymphs. (.Do.)
Rinaldo and Armida. {Do)

Portrait of a Young Lady. \Do.)

He died at Cologne in 1867.

SOIGNIE, Jacques Joachim db, painter, born
at Mons, 1720, studied in Paris, and practised for
a time at Lyons. He finally settled in his native
town, where, in the Museum,, an 'Annunciation,'
an ' Adoration of the Shepherds,' ' Episodes in the
Life of Madame de Chantal,' and other works of his,
are to be seen. He died in 1783.

SOITZ, G. C, a German engraver, who flourished
about the year 1530. He executed some of the
portraits for the ' Templum Honoris,' published at
Vienna in the above-mentioned year.

SOIDS, Philippe. See Soye.

SOJARO, II. See Gatti.

SOKOLOFF, Peter, painter, flourished at St.
Petersburg in the 18th century. He studied in Rome
under Battoni, and painted historical and mytho-
logical subjects. He was assistant professor at the
Academy at St. Petersburg, where he died in 1791.





SOLARIO, Andrea, (or, as lie sometimes signed
himself, Andreas Mediolanensis,) was bom at
Milan about 1460, and together with his brother
Cristoforo, called II Gobbo (the hunchback), a
sculptor of repute, went to Venice about 1490. In
1495 he painted a 'Virgin and Child, with S.
Joseph and S. Jerome,' for the church of S. Pietro
Martire, Murano ; and in 1499 he returned to Milan,
where he hnished the ' S. Catharine' and ' S. John
the Baptist,' now in the PoMi Pezzoli Museum. In
1507 he painted ' The Head of S. John the Baptist,
in a Charger,' and in the same year went to France
at the invitation of the Cardinal d'Amboise, and
assisted in decorating the Chftteau Gaillon, where
he painted a ' Nativity,' and completed the designs
for that ornamentation of the chapel which
was destroyed in the Revolution of 1793. The
account-books of the Chfiteau Gaillon record that
Andrea and his assistant received for the expenses
of their journey seventy crowns, fo:- a year's wages
three hundred and seventy livres, and one hundred
livres extra for expenses, while the French artists
employed only received four sous a day. In
1513 Solario was engaged in conjunction with
Andrea da Salerno in decorating the chapel of
S. Gaudenzio at Naples. Solario was great as a
portrait painter. One of his best works is the por-
trait of Maximilian Sforza, now preserved in the
Casa Perego, Milan. About 1515 he finished the
' Holy Family,' in the Poldi Pezzolj Museuin, and
in the same year received a commission to paint an
' Assumption of the Virgin ' for the Pavian Certosa.
This he seems to have left unfinished at his
death, wliich took place at Milan about 1515.
The work was completed by Bernardino Campi.

Bergamo. Gallery.

Brescia. Gallery.

London. Natioiuil Gall.



Foldi Pezzoli 1
Museum. J



Pavia. Certosa.

Petersburg. Hermitage.

„ LeucJiteniherg

Rome. Sorghcse.

Dalmasii in Bologna, and then visited the princi-
pal cities of Italy, studying under Vivarini in
Venice, Bicci in Florence, Galassi in Ferrara, and
the works of the old masters in Rome. He after-
wards returned to Naples, married the lady of his
choice, and distinguished himself as a painter.
Among his best works are twenty frescoes in a
court of the convent of San Severino, Naples, from
the life of S. Benedict. A 'Madonna with Saints,'
in the Museum, an 'Ascension of Christ, with
Saints,' in the church of Monte Oliveto, and the
following pictures in galleries, may also be
named :



Portrait of a Young Prince.
Portrait of a Young Princess.

{Probably the portraits of Alphonso V., King of Arragon,
Sicily, and Naples, and of Joanna II., Queen of Naples.)

S. Ambrose in Episcopal Dress.
S. Louis, Bishop of Toulouse.
Madonna with Saints.
Ascension of Christ.
A Madonna.

Munich. • Pinakothek.




Monte Oliveto,


Ecce Homo.

Christ bearing His Cross.

Portrait of Giovanni Cristo-
foro Longoui.

Portrait of a Venetian Senator.

Virgin between S. Joseph and
S. -Terome. Signed an;l dated
1495. This picture was re-
moved from Sau Pietro Mar-
tire, at Murano, and given to
Brera by the Viceroy, Eugene

S. Catharine.

S. John the Baptist.

Virgin, lufant, and S. Joseph.

A Eiposo (dated 1515 ; his last

known worlt).
The Virgin of the Green Pillow.
Portrait of Charles d'Amboise.

(Chaumont. Sig. Morelli

thinks it is the portrait of

Louis XII.)
The Crucifixion.
The Head of S. John the Baptist.
Altar-piece — The Assumption.

(Finished by B. Campi.)
Columbine. (Ascribed to Lnini

in the catalogue.)
) Virgin and Child with the infant
J St. John.
Christ on the way to Calvary.

SOLARIO, Antonio da, called Lo Zingaro,
painter, was born about 1382, either at Venice, or
at Civita di Penna, near Chieti, or according to
Dominici, at Abruzzo, where, like Quentin Matsys,
he followed the trade of a blacksmith till he was
seventeen, when he fell in love with a daughter of
Colantonio del Fiore, and became a painter in order
to win her affections. He became a pupil of Lippo


Solario died at Naples in 1466.

SOLDI, Andrea, portrait and history painter,
was born at Florence about 1682. After a visit
to the Holy Land, he came to England, about
1735. He was a good draughtsman, and found
considerable employment as a portrait painter, but
was very thriftless. He died soon after 1766.
SOLE, DAL. See Dal Sole.

SOLEMACKER, J Frans, (Soolemaker,) a

landscape and cattle painter, of whom little is
known. He lived at the same time as Wynants,
Ruisdael, and Berchem. It is supposed that he
was a pupil of the last, but of that there is no
proof. He imitated Berchem in the grouping and
forms of his cattle ; but in handling he was with-
out the freedom of that master ; his shadows are
black, and the general appearance of his pictures
heavy. He painted cows, sheep, and goats better
than horses. His pictures are generally of small
dimensions, always on panel, and a good specimen
may be a locum tenens for a Berchem. There is a
good example of his art in the Hague Museum.

SOLERI, Giorgio, painter and sculptor, and a
native of Alessandria, flourished in the 16th century.
He was probably a disciple of Bernardino Lanini,
whose daughter he married, though he did not
adopt his style. He worked at the Escurial for
Philip II. of Spain. As a painler of portraits he
holds a respectable position. An altar-piece, in the
church of the Conventuali, at Alessandria, represent-
ing the Virgin, tb whom SS. Augustine and Francis
are recommending the city of Alessandria ; and a
S. Lorenzo kneehng before the Virgin, with a
group of three Angels, in the church of the
Domenicani, at Casale, which is signed with his
name, and dated 1573, are his chief works as a
painter of religious subjects. Soleri died in 1587.
SOLPAROLO, IL. See Tavella.
SOLIMENA, Francesco, (Solimene,) called
l' Abate Ciccio, was born at Nocera de Pagani, a
small town about eighteen miles distant from
Naples, in 1657. He was the son of Angelo
Solimena, an obscure painter, who had been a
disciple of Cavaliere Massimo. Angelo had his
son instructed in classical learning, and the boy
is said to have often passed whole nights in the
study of poetry and philosophy. In spite of this
assiduous application he managed to cultivate his
talent for art, and Cardinal Orsini, afterwards




Pope Benedict XIII., happening to pass through
Nocera, saw his designs, and persuaded his father
to indulge his son's inclination. After studying two
years under his father he went to Naples in 167'
where lie first became a disciple of Franceses^!
Maria, but left that master to enter the school of
Giacomo del Po. He afterwards went to Rome,
where the works of Pietro da Cortona, Lanfranco,
II Galabrese, Guido, and Carlo Maratti were his
models. Among his best works are a series of
frescoes in S. Paolo Maggiore, others at Naples
and Monte Cassino, and the ' Last Supper,' in the
refectory of the Conventuali at Assisi. In 1702
he was commissioned by Philip V. of Spain to
paint some pictures for the Royal Chapel at Madrid.
He was the friend of Luca Giordano, and formed
many scholars, among whom the best known are,
Seb. Conca, C. Giaquinto, N. M. Rossi, S. Capella,
and F. di Mura. Solimena was also a poet and
musician. He died at Naples in 1747.

Dresden. Galleiy. Death of S. Francis.

„ „ Abduction of Hippodamia.

„ „ Paris, Juno, and Iris,

„ „ Sophonisba, &c.

Florence. TTffizi. His own Portrait.

,, „ Diana at the Bath.

Genoa. Due. Pal. Triumph of Mordecai.

Madrid. Museum. The Brazen Serpent.

„ „ Prometheus.

Milan. Brera. Meeting of a King and Pope.

„ „ Establishment of a Eeligious

Naples. S. Paolo. Conversion of S. Paul.

„ „ Fall of Simon Magus.

„ Gesi, Nuovo. Heliodorus driven from the

Paris. Louvre. The same Subject.

Rome. Corsini. Entry of Christ into Jerusalem.

„ „ S. John the Baptist.

Vienna. Gallery. Cephalus and Aurora, and
several others.

SOLIS, Francisco db, a Spanish painter, bom
at Madrid in 1629, was instructed in art by his
father, Juan db Solis, a little-known painter.
Intended at first for the Church, he was led to take
up art in earnest by the success of a picture painted
in his eighteenth year, which attracted the notice
of Philip IV., who directed him to put his name
and age upon it. This brought him into public
favour, and he obtained much employment. When
Queen Louisa of Orleans made her solemn entry
into Madrid, he contributed a series of paintings
representing the labours of Hercules to the decora-
tion of the city ; but the work which established
his reputation was an ' Immaculate Conception of
the Virgin, with the Dragon at her Feet.' For many
years De Solis held an academy in his house,
to which all young artists were admitted free
of expense, to draw from the living model. He
wrote an account of the lives of Spanish painters,
sculptors, and architects, and even engraved several
of their portraits, which he intended to publish,
but was prevented by death. This manuscript is
now lost. He died at Madrid in 1684. He left
an enormous collection of books, prints, and draw-

SOLIS, NiCLAS, engraver of the 16th century, a
son or brother of Virgil Solis, published fifteen plates
representing the Marriage Festivities of Duke
William V. of Bavaria and the Duchess Renata of
Lorraine in 1668.

SOLIS, Virgil, a German engraver, born at
Nuremberg in 1514. He engraved both on wood
and on copper, chiefly from his own designs. The


copper-plates worked in the early part of his life
resemble those of Hans Sebald Beham, but when he
terwards engraved after the Italian masters, he
adopted a style more open and spirited. His
woodcuts are similar to those of Jost Ammon,
with respect both to composition and execution.
His works prove him to have been a man of
ability, though his design is formal and stiff.
He has been sometimes called a little master.
His prints are very numerous, amounting to
upwards of eight hundred. He usually marked
them with a cipher composed of a V. and an S.,

thus, Y^' "J^ 'T$' He died in 1562. Among
his multifarious productions are the following :


A variety of small Engravings on copper, representing

hunting subjects ; dated 1541.
A set of vases and ornaments for goldsmiths. 1541.
The Marriage of Cupid and Pysche.the Assembly of the

Gods, Parnassus, and other subjects ; after Raphael.
The Bath of the Anabaptists ; copy from Aldegrever.


Several sets of small historical subjects from the Bible.
The Metamorphoses of Ovid, in one hundred and seventy

cuts ; published at Frankfort in 1563.
A set of cuts for Nicholas Eeuser's Emblems. 1581.
Another for the Emblems of Andreus Alciatus. 1581.
A series of French Kings from Pharamond to Henry HI.

SOLLAZZINO II, a Florentine painter, whose
real name seems to have been Giulano da Monte-
lupo, was born about 1470. In 1506 he was work-
ing at Pistoja, in conjunction with G. B. Volponi.
He painted an altar-piece for S. Stefano at Serra-
valle, and other works in Casole and Pisa, in which
latter city he died in 1543.

SOLOMAYOR, Luis de. See Sotomayor.

SOLOMON, Abraham, painter, was born in
London in 1824, went in 1838 to an Art- School in
Bloomsbury, and in 1839 was admitted to the
Academy schools. From 1843 he contributed pic-
tures to the Academy and British Institute. His
' Waiting for the Verdict,' exhibited at the Academy
in 1857, and its sequel, 'Not Guilty' (1869), estab-
lished his reputation. Other pictures by him
which have become well known through engrav-
ings are, ' Third class — the Parting,' and ' First
class — the Return' (1864), ' Le Malade Imagiu-
aire,' and ' Consolation ' (1861). His last ex-
hibited work was ' The Lost Found,' and he died
still young at Biarritz in 1862.

SOLOSMEO, II, an Italian sculptor and painter,
whose real name appears to have been Antonio m
Giovanni, was a scholar of Andrea Sansovino the
sculptor, and of Andrea del Sarto. In the church
of Badia di San Fedele at Poppi there is a panel of
the Virgin and Child, with SS. John Baptist,
Francis, Sebastian, and John Gualberto, inscribed :


SOLSERNUS. This name, with the date 1267,
appears on a large mosaic of the Byzantiue type,
representing Christ enthroned, with the Virgin
and S. John, on the exterior of the Cathedral at

SOLVYNS, FsANS Baltasae, a marine painter,
born at Antwerp in 1760, was a pupil of Querte-
mont. After gaining several prizes at the Antwerp
Academy he went to Paris, and studied under
Vincent. His sea-pieces, however, are not numer-
ous, as his fondness for travel led him to visit
India, where he found materials for some three





hundred coloured platea illustrating the occupa-
tions, festivals, and costumes of the Hindoos, which,
when published, were unsuccessful, and involved
their author in pecuniary embarrassment. He died
in 1824. One of his marine pieces, a view from
Ostend, is in the palace at Vienna.

SOLY, Arthur, an obscure English engraver,
who lived about the year 1683. He was employed
by Robert White, and engraved a few portraits,
among which are the following :

His own Portrait ; dated 1683.
Richard Baxter, Presbyter. 1683.

Tobias Crisp, D.D., Kector of Brinokworth, "Wiltshire ;

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 134 of 201)