Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Fortune-Teller.

Madonna with S. Francis.

Cain and Abel.

Christ on the Cross.

Return of the Prodigal.

Martyrdom of S. Christopher.

Maeas and Anchises.

A Concert.

St. Jerome.

The Martyrdom of S. Catha-
rine,

517



Bologna. S. Damenico.



, S. Michele in Bosco.



Dresden.

Florei^ce.

Madrid.

Modena.

s>

Naples,

)j
Paris.



Pinacoieca.
Gallery.



Gallery.

)>
Museum.


Louvre.



Parma. Carmelite Church.
„ S. Sepolcro.



Spada

Eeggio.



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Spencer



Church of the \ j)avid and Abigail.
Madonna, J °

„ Judith and Holofernes.

„ Esther and Ahasuerus.

<, The Virtues.

Pal. Bori/hese. A Concert.



Eome.

SPADA, Lo. See Marescalco, Pieteo,

SPADARO, Micoo. See Gabsiuoli.

SPADEN, Jan, a Flemish painter of the 14th
century, who practised at Louvain, and is recorded
in the town registers, under the sobriquet of Jan
Oliepot (oil-pot), to have worked for the Com-
mune from 1364 onwards. He died some time be-
fore 1394. His son Jan was also a painter.

SPAENDONCK, Cornelis van, brother of Gerard
van Spaendonok, born in 1756, was also a painter
of flowers. He was chiefly employed at the Sfevres
porcelain factory, but occasionally painted portraits
in oil. He died in 1839.

SPAENDONCK, Geeaed van, a distinguished
fruit and flower painter, was born at Tilburgh in
Holland in 1746, and studied under the elder
Herreyns at Antwerp. At the age of twenty-four
he went to Paris, where for some time he painted
miniatures, and fruit and flowers. Hia productions
became very popular, and were purchased with
avidity. In 1793 lie was lecturing at the Jardin
des Plantes. The title-page to his ' Fleursdessin^es
d'apres Nature ' informs us that he was a member
of the National Institute, and Professor-Adminis-
trator of the Museum of Natural History in Paris,
where he died in 1822. The Fruit and Flower
piece by him in the Louvre was in the collection of
Louis XVI.

SPAGIASI, GrovANNi, an Italian painter, born
at Eeggio, who died in the service of the King of
Poland, in 1780.

SPAGIASI, Pellegeino, was a pupil of Fran-
cesco Bibiena; he painted interiors and perspective
decorations, and also worked as a scene painter.
He died in France in 1746.

SPAGNA, Lo. See Giovanni di Pieteo.

SPAGNOLETTO. See Ribeea.

SPAGNDOLO. See Giovanni di Pieteo.

SPAGNUOLO, Lo. See Ceespi, Giuseppe Maeia.

SPAGNUOLO Dbgli PESCI, Lo. See Heeeera,
Peancisco de.

SPALTHOF, N., a Dutch painter, who flourished
about the year 1660. He is said by Descamps to
have visited Italy, and to have studied there several
years. He excelled in painting fairs, markets,
carnivals, and merry-makings, somewhat in the
style of Theodoras Helmbrecker.

SPANGENBERG, Feiedeich, historical painter,
born at Gottingen in 1843, began his career in
Munich under Ramberg. In 1861 he went to
Weimar, where he painted the ' Triumph of the
American Union' for the Capitol at Washington.
After that he returned to Munich, where he pro-
duced his ' Plundering Vandals,' and his ' Departure
of Geiserich from Rome with Budoxia.' He met
with an accident in going up Vesuvius, and died
in 1874.

SPANZOTTI, Martino, (De Spanzotis,) painter,
a native of Casale, who practised at VerceVli towards
the close of the 15th century, and in whose studio
Sodoma learnt the rudiments of art.

SPARMANN, Kael Cheistian, landscape painter,
was born at Meissen in 1805. He became the
pupil of Arnold at Meissen, and of Dahl at Dresden,
and teacher of drawing to Prince Louis Napoleon,
in Arenenberg. From the latter, when he became

518



Emperor of the French, he received a pension. He
died at Dresden in 1865.

SPARVIEE, PiEEEE DE, a French painter, born
1660, was a pupil of Cesare Gennari at Bologna.
He painted portraits and battle-pieces, and occa-
sionally flowers. He settled at Florence, where he
died in 1731.

SPECOHI, Alessandeo, an Italian engraver,
who flourished from 1665 to 1706. He engraved
a set of plates from the palaces and public buildings
of Rome, which are executed in a spirited style.
These engravings were published by Dom. de Rossi,
in 1699. Specchi is supposed to have died in 1710.
SPECKLE, Veit Rudolph, (SPECKLIN,) an
old engraver on wood, who flourished at Strasburg
about the year 1540. He executed a set of cuts for
Fuchsius's ' Herbal,' published in that year, with
a whole-length portrait of the author, portraits of
Heinrich Fullmaurer and Albrecht Maher, who de-
signed the figures, and the engraver's own portrait.
SPECKTER, Eewin, painter, was born at Ham-
burg in 1806. He worked at Munich under Cornelius,
but was influenced by Overbeck and Genelli. From
Hamburg, where he painted his ' Christ and the
Samaritan Woman at the Well,' he went in 1830
to Italy, where he produced a ' Samson and Delilah,'
and ' "Three Marys at the Grave of Christ,' which
was engraved by Schroder. In his leisure he wrote
'Letters of an Artist from Italy.' He died at
Hamburg in 1835.

SPECKTER, Otto, brother of Erwin Speckter,
was born at Hamburg in 1807. He practised as
a lithographer and book illustrator. In the latter
branch of art, the following are his best works :
Illustrations to Luther's ' Spiritual Songs,' Bellman's
'Epistles,' Bberhard's 'Hannchen und die Kiich-
lein,' 'Puss in Boots,' and Klaus Groth's ' Quickbom,'
which last is considered his most successful achieve-
ment. He died at Hamburg, April 29, 1871.

SPEECKAERT, Hans, or Jan, a Flemish painter
of the 16th century, a native of Brussels, where
his father worked as an embroiderer. He lived
for some time in Italy, and worked both at Rome
and Florence. At Rome he became acquainted
with Arnold Mj'tens, and a close friendship sprang
up between them. He died at Rome about 1577.
Van Mander calls him an artist of great merit,

SPEECKAERT, J., a Flemish painter, bom at
Mechlin in 1748. He painted flowers and fruit,
and practised for some time in his native town,
but lived towards the close of his life at Brussels,
where he died in 1838.

SPEER, Maetin, (or Michael,) a painter and
engraver, was bom at Eatisbon in 1700. It is
said that he became a disciple of Solimena : at all
events he imitated his manner, and engraved some
of his allegories and martyrdoms. He painted seve-
ral altar-pieces and historical pictures, and there are
engravings by him after his own designs. They
are signed M. Speer inv. et fecit, 1742. The time
of his death is uncertain, but Zani puts it in 1762.
SPELT. See Van dee Spelt.
SPENCER, Fbeperick, an American painter,
born at Canistota, U.S.A., in 1805. He studied art
in his native village, without a master. About
1830 he settled in New York as a portrait-painter,
where he met with much success, painting many
distinguished persons. He became a member of
the Academy in 1848, and in 1853 he retired to
Canistota, where he practised until his death in 1875.
SPENCER, Jaevis, (or Gekvase,) a painter in
miniature and in enamel, who flourished about the



Spencer



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Spielberg



middle of the last century. He began life in
domestic service, but by the help of his employer
and his family, developed his faculty for art, and
became a fashionable painter of the day. He
painted on ivory and in enamel. In 1762 he
sent some enamel portraits to the exhibition of the
Society of Artists, and some fine enamels bearing
the initials G. S. are probably his. He etched his
own portrait, after Reynolds, a plate on which the
name George Spencer was afterwards erroneously
placed. Some portrait etchings by him in the
British Museum prove him to have been a good
draughtsman. He died October 30, 1763.

SPENCER, Lavinia, Countess, (nee Bingham,)
daughter of the Earl of Lucan, and wife of the
second Earl Spencer, was an amateur of some
ability. Some of her drawings were engraved,
among others ' The Orphan,' by Gillray, and ' New
Shoes,' by Bartolozzi. She died June 8, 1831.

SPBRANZA, Giovanni, an Italian painter of the
16th century. The dates of his birth and death are
both unknown, though he was probably a native of
Vicenza. Vasari states that both he and Bar-
tolommeo Montagna, with whom he has much in
common, were disciples of Mantegna, but there is
no proof of their personal acquaintance with the
Paduan master. The church of S. Giorgio, at
Velo, in the province of Vicenza, has an enthroned
' Virgin and Child with Saints ' by him ; and in
the gallery of Vicenza is an ' Assumption of the
Virgin, with S. Thomas and S. Jerome ' ; this latter
is a reproduction of the ' Assumption,' assigned to
Pizzolo, in the Ereraitani Chapel, Padua ; both are
in tempera. At the Casa Nievo, Vicenza, is an oil
painting of the ' Virgin and Child.' Other paintings
by this artist may be found at Santa Corona and
Santa Chiara, Vicenza, and in the Casa Pioveni,
Padua. In his later works it is difficult to dis-
tinguish his hand from that of Montagna. It is
likely that the ' Madonna with the Child holding
a Strawberry ' in the National Gallery, and there
ascribed to Montagna, isby Speranza ; also No. 174,
in the Brera, at present unascribed. 'W.&..

SPERANZA, Giovanni Battista, born at Rome
about the year 1610, was a disciple of Francesco
Albano. He acquired a considerable repute as a
painter of history, particularly in fresco. In a
chapel in the church of S. Caterina da Siena, there
are some subjects from the life of the Virgin, in
fresco, by him ; and in the Orf anelli a ceiling re-
presenting the Passion of our Saviour, in five com-
partments. Speranza died in the prime of life, in
1640.

SPERLING, Hieronymus, a German engraver,
born at Augsburg about the year 1695, was a pupil
of Preissler, at Nuremberg, and engraved some of
the plates for a work on the churches of Vienna,
published by J. A. PeSel, in 1724. He ajso en-
graved some of the plates from statues in the gallery
of King Augustus of Poland, at Dresden, which
were published as a collection in 1733. He en-
graved many portraits, chiefly after German painters,
and a set of ' Months of the Year,' with a frontis-
piece. He died in 1777.

SPERLING, Johann Christian, a painter of
portraits and small historical subjects, was born
at Halle, in Saxony, in 1691. He was the son of
Johann Heinkioh Sperling, a painter of portraits
and fancy heads, who had moved from Hamburg
to Halle. Christian studied under his father, and
afterwards under Adriaan Van der WerfE, at Rotter-
dam, and adopted his manner of painting. There



is a ' Vertumnus and Pomona' by him in the Dresden
Gallery ; and many of his portraits of persons of
high rank exist in Germany. They are but little
known elsewhere. He died at Ansbach in 1746.

SPERWER, PiETEE, a Flemish painter of the
17th century, was born at Antwerp, where he prac-
tised, and where a few of his pictures are still to be
found. He is registered as a pupil in the records
of the Guild of St. Luke for 1675-76. In 1703 he
received from the States of Antwerp the sum of
ninety florins for a portrait of the King, to be
placed in the H6tel de Ville.

SPBY, Martin, a painter of portraits, flowers,
and dead game, was born at Antwerp in 1777. He
left his native country for Paris in 1809, and re-
mained there till the entry of the allied army in
1814, after which all trace of him is lost.

SPEZZINI, Francesco, was a native of Genoa,
and flourished about the year 1578. He was first
a scholar of Luca Cambiasi, but he afterwards
studied under Giovanni Battista Castelli. He visited
Rome, where he studied Raphael, Michelangelo,
Giulio Romano, &c. On his return to Genoa, he
painted several pictures for the churches, particu-
larly an altar-piece for S, Colombano, which is per-
haps his best work. He died young, of the plague.

SPICEB, ^ — , an English mezzotint engraver,
who flourished about the year 1770. He engraved
some portraits after Sir Joshua Reynolds, among
which are those of Barbara, Countess of Coventry ;
Kitty Fisher ; and Lady Stafford.

SPlCER, Henry, painter in miniature and
enamel, born at Reepham, in Norfolk, was a pupil
of Gervase Spencer. He was extensively employed,
and reached considerable excellence as an enamel
painter. He was a constant exhibitor with the In-
corporated Society and with the Royal Academy,
and was appointed portrait painter in enamel to the
Prince of Wales. In 1776 he visited Dublin, and
painted many Irish celebrities. He died in London
in 1804.

SPIEGL, Joseph, a mezzotint engraver, of whom
nothing is known, except that he was born in 1772,
and received his artistic education in the Academy
at Vienna. Five prints by him are extant :

A Holy Family ; after Sass({ferrato.
Mater Dolorosa ; after Guido.
Venus and Oupid ; after iV. foussin.
Bacchus and Ariadne ; after Gavin Hamilton,
A Woman bathing ; after Jluiens.

SPIELBERG, Adruna, (Spilbbrg,) the daughter
of Johannes Spielberg, was born at Amsterdam in
1646, and instructed by her father. She excelled in
crayon portraits, though she occasionally practised
in oil, She married the painter Breckvelt, and,
after his death, Eglon Van der Neer.

SPIELBERG, Johannes, (or Spilberg,) born at
Diisseldorf in 1619, was the son of a glass-painter
in the service of the Elector Palatine. It was his
father's intention to have sent him to Antwerp, to
the school of Rubens, but that painter's death put
an end to the project. So Spielberg went to Am-
sterdam, where he became a scholar of Govert
Flinck. He prosecuted his studies under that artist
for seven years, and on leaving his school, soon
won fame as a painter of history and portraits.
The reputation he acquired at Amsterdam led to
his being invited to the court of Dusseldorf, as
painter to the Elector Palatine. He painted the
portraits of the Electoral Family, and several his-
torical works for the churches. For the Schloss
he painted a series of ' Labours of Hercules.' He

519



Spierinc



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Spilsbury



was also commissioned to paint some scenes from
tlie ' Life of Christ,' wliich he did not live to accom-
plish. He died in 1690. His 'Banquet of the
Archers' Company,' in the Stadthaus at Amsterdam,
shows clearly the influence of Van der Heist. One
Gabriel Spielberg, who was painter to the court
of Spain in the 17th century, is supposed to have
been his brother.

SPIEEINO, Nicholas, a Flemish miniaturist of
the 15th century. He was working at Brussels in
1469 for the Duke of Burgundy.

SPIERINGS, PiETER, (or Spierinokx,) painter,
born at Antwerp in 1633. He has sometimes been
mistakenly called Nicholas. He painted land-
scapes, into which other artists occasionally intro-
duced figures. Pieter Ykens in particular is said
to have frequently aided him in this manner. He
spent several years in Italy, and imitated the
works of Salvator Eosa. It has been said that
he died in England, but more recent researches
show him to have died in his native town in 1711.
He and his wife, Maria de Jode, whose death took
place in 1714, were both buried in the Church of St.
Jacques at Antwerp. He was the friend of Biset,
and was one of the painters of Louis XIV. At
Antwerp there are two large landscapes by him,
and two in the Madrid Museum.

SPIEERE, Claude, a French painter of the
17th century, and brother of Fr. Spierre, the en-
graver. He went to Rome to study, and gave
promise of a great career, which was cut short by
his early death.

SPIERRE, FRANgois, born at Nancy in 1643,
went to Paris when very young, and became the
pupil of Francois de Poilly, whose style he for
some time followed with success. He did not,
however, confine himself to the manner of his
master, but went to Italy, where he acquired a
distinctive stj'le of his own. He did not long sur-
vive his return to his native country, but died in
1681. The following are, perhaps, his best prints :

Pope Innocent SI. ; engraved in the style of Mellan ;

Franciscus Spier, del. et sculp.
The Grand Duke of Tuscany ; dated 1659.
Lorenzo, Count de Marsciano ; after his own design.
The Virgin suckling the Infant Christ ; after Correggio.
St. Michael defeating Satan ; after P. da Cortona.
The Immaculate Conception ; after the same.
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. Catharine ; after

the same.
The Circumcision ; after Ciro Ferri.
St. John preaching in the "Wilderness ; after Bernini.
The miracle of the Loaves and Fishes ; after the same.
Christ on a Gross suspended over a sea of blood, which

flows from His wounds ; after the same.

SPIERS, Albert van, was born at Amsterdam
in 1666, and was a scholar of Willera van Ingen,
an historical painter of some eminence. He had
already given proof of considerable talent in his
native country, when he determined to visit Rome.
After passing seven years there, he went to Venice
to improve his colour. After a residence in Italy
of ten years he returned to Holland in 1697, and
established himself at Amsterdam, where he was
largely employed in decoration. He had established
a, great reputation when he fell a victim to over-
work; in 1718.

SPIESS, August Friedrich, engraver, was born
at Castell, in Franoonia, in 1806. He began his
studies at the Munich Academy, under Amsler. His
first works were, 'The Transiiguration,' and a
'Holy Family,' after Raphael, and 'The Last
Supper,' after Leonardo da Vinci. He produced a

620



large number of historical and religious engravings,
and many excellent crayon portraits. He died at
Munich in 1855.

SPIESS, Heinrich, historical painter, bom at
Munich in 1831, was a pupil of the Academy under
Voltz from 1849 to 1866, and studied later under
Kaulbaoh. He was associated with Sohwind in the
execution of the Wartburg frescoes, and jointly
with his brother, August Fr., he painted allegories
of the sciences in the Arcades of the Maxirailia-
neum, at Munich. He died at Munich in 1875.

SPILIMBERGO, Irene di, was born at Udine
about 1540. Although practising painting for her
amusement only, she applied herself to it with all
the zeal of a professor, and is said to have received
lessons from Titian. Lanzi mentions three pictures
from sacred history, by this lady, which were in his
time in the Casa Maniago at Venice. Titian is said
to have painted her portrait. She died in 1659.

SPILMAN, Hendeie, was born at Amsterdam in
1721, and painted portraits and landscapes with some
success. He engraved a few plates, among which
are the following :

Henry Tilly ; after C. van Noorde.

His own Portrait ; after the same painter.

Several portraits for Langeudijk's History of the Counts

of Holland.
Six small Views in Holland, on one sheet ; inscribed

Flaizante LandschapieSj S. Spilman, inv. et sculp.
View of the Eokin, Amsterdam ; after J. de Beijer.

He also engraved three landscapes, in the style of
bistre drawings, after Bverdingen, Van Borssum,
and Berchem. He died in Haarlem in 1784.

SPILNBBRGER, Hans, ( Spiels erger,) painter
and etcher, was born at Kaschau, in Hungary, in
1628. He worked in Italy and Augsburg, and
afterwards settled in Vienna as court painter. He
was carried off by the plague in 1679, while
travelling in Bohemia. His works include, 'St.
Peter preaching on the Day of Pentecost,' in the
Kreuzkirche at Augsburg ; ' The Death of St.
Benedict,' in the church of S. Emeran at Ratisbon ;
and ' The Assumption of the Virgin,' in St. Stephen's,
Vienna. He also etched several plates.

SPILSBURY, F. B., an amateur painter and
draughtsman, was a surgeon in the navy, and
made many drawings of scenery and costumes seen
by him during his voyages. He served in the
Syrian campaign of 1796, and published a ' Pictur-
esque Scenery in the Holy Land and Syria,' and, in
1805, a book on the West Coast of Africa, illustrated
by himself

SPILSBURY, John, an English engraver and
printseller, was born in 1730. He scraped a great
many plates in mezzotint after Reynolds and others,
and many portraits after his own designs. In the
dot style he engraved a collection of gems, which
was published in numbers. About 1782 he was
drawing-master at Harrow School. He also kept a
print-shop in Russell Court, Covent Garden. He
died in 1795. Among his plates we may name :

Miss Pond, who rode lOCO miles in 1000 hours ; from his

own design.
A set of fourteen Heads and Busts ; in the manner of

Rembrandt. 1767 and 1768.
George III. when Prince of "Wales. 1759.
Queen Charlotte. 1764.

Christian VII., King of Denmark ; after Fesche. 1769.
Inigo Jones ; aftei- Vandyclc.

Lady Mary Leslie decorating a Lamb ; after Reynolds.
A young Lady with Flowers ; after the same.
Frederick Howard, Earl of Carlisle ; after the same,
•A Boy eating Grapes ; after Rubens.



Spilsbviry



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVERS.



Spisano



Two Monks reading ; after the same.
Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Eemirandt.
The Flight into Egypt ; after Murillo.
The Crucifixion ; after the same.

The name Inigo Spilsbury, which often occurs in
catalogues, seems to have been given to John, as
the engraver of Van Dyck's ' Inigo Jones,' to dis-
tinguish him more readily from his brother Jonathan.
SPILSBURY, Jonathan, the brother of John
SpilKbury, exhibited portraits at the Royal Academy
from 1776 to 1807. Among them were those of
Charles Wesley, and of the Rev. J. Fletcher and
his wife.

SPILSBURY, Maria, painter and engraver, was
the daughter of John Spilsbury, and was born in
London in 1777. She painted genre pictures, and
was most successful in the treatment of rural life
and of childhood. In 1807 she exhibited eight
pictures at the Royal Academy. Many of her best
works were engraved, one, 'A Shepherd's Family,'
by herself. She married a Mr. John Taylor, and
settled in Ireland, where she died.

SPINELLI, Gasparei, (Parbi,) painter of Arezzo,
born in 1387, was the son and pupil of Luca
Spinelli. He afterwards went into the school of
Ghiberti in Florence. The church of S. Doraenico,
Arezzo, contains a ' Crucifixion,' with the Virgin and
figures of three saints on either side, by him, in
fe-esco. The Gallery of Arezzo possesses three
frescoes taken from the church of Sta. Maria della
Misericordia of that city ; and the church of San
Francesco, a ' Last Supper,' which is now much
damaged by time. His portrait, painted by Marco
de Montepulciano, is still preserved in the cloisters
of S. Bernardo, in his native city. He died in 1452.
SPINELLI, Ldca, commonly called Spinello
Aeetinoj was the son of Luca Spinelli, a Ghibeline,-
who about 1308 had fled to Arezzo, where the
younger Luca was born about 1332. The boy was
apprenticed to Jacopo del Casentino, and before his
twentieth year was a better artist than his master.
Very few of his early works at Arezzo have been
preserved. About 1348 we find him at Florence,
painting frescoes in the choir of S. Maria Maggiore,
in two chapels of the Carmine, and in one at S.
Trinita, besides three altar-pieces for the churches
of S. Apostolo, S. Lucia di Bardi, and S. Croce.
The frescoes have all disappeared, but the panels
remain. In 1361 he was recalled to Arezzo, where
he painted an altar-piece for the Abbey of the
Camaldoli in the Casentino, which was removed in
1539 to give place to one by Vasari, as well as
many other altar-pieces and frescoes, of which an
' Annunciation ' over the altar of S. Francesco, and
frescoes in different parts of the church, may
still be seen ; the bell-room contains frescoes illus-
trating the life of St. Michael the Archangel.
In 1384, when Arezzo was sacked, Spinello again
went to Florence, where he was engaged by
Don Jacopo d' Arezzo, Abbot of S. Miniato, and
General of the Congregation of Monte Oliveto,
to furnish an altar-piece for his church. The centre
panel of this work has disappeared ; but its two
wings, with the date 1385, and the names of Simone
Cini, the carver, and Gabriello Saracini the gilder,
inscribed on two members of the frame, are in
the possession of Mons. Eamboux, superintendent
of the gallery at Cologne, while its gable and
predella are in the gallery of Siena. He also
decorated the sacristy of San Miniato and the
Pisan Campo Santo with frescoes. These finished
he again returned to Florence, where in 1400 and



1401 he painted scenes from the lives of SS. Philip
and James for a chapel in Santa Croce, and an
altar-piece for the convent of Santa Felicita, now
in the Accademia at Florence. It is in three
compartments, of which the centre, with the
'Coronation of the Virgin,' is painted and signed
by his assistant and pupil, Lorenzo di Niccolo
Gerini; the figures of St. Peter, St. James, St.
John, and St. Benedict on its right were painted
and signed by Niccoli di Pietro, the father of
Lorenzo ; and the figures of St. John Baptist,



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