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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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St._ Matthew, and St. Felicita on its left were
painted and signed by Spinello himself The
whole bears an inscription dated 1401. To about
the same period must be ascribed the famous fresco,
formerly in S. Maria degli Angeli, at Arezzo, repre-
senting the 'Fall of the Rebel Angels.' The
church was destroyed in the present century, and
the only parts of Spinello's work which were
saved are now in the National Gallery. It is of
this last subject that Vasari states that Spinello
died through fright from a dream in which he
saw the devil, who demanded of him why he
had painted him so frightful. But so far from
dying at this time, Spinello accepted a commission
to paint at Siena, where he and his son Gasparri
or Parri, went in 1404, and worked at the decora-
tion of the Duomo until 1405. He probably then
returned to Florence, where he decorated Dardano
Accaiuoli's chapel in San Niccol6, as well as portions
of the church. In 1408 he and his son returned
to Siena, and decorated the Sala di Balia of the
Palazzo PubbUco with a series of sixteen frescoes,
illustrating the Venetian campaign against Frederic
Barbarossa, and giving prominence to the part
taken in it by Pope Alexander III. It is supposed
that he then retired to Arezzo, where he died in
1410, leaving two sons, Gasparri and Baldassare.
Forzore Spinelli, sometimes called Luca's son, was
his nephew.

Academy. Madonna and Child with Saints

and Angels. 1391.
Marchese ) A Banner with the Flagellation,
Ranyhiacci. J and Mary Magdalene.
Ifat. Gallery. St. John the Baptist, St. John,
and St. James the Great (?).
„ Michael and six Companions,

from the ' Fall of the Eebel
Angels,' formerly in S. Maria
degli Angeli, Arezzo.
„ Fragments from the border of

the same.
Death of the Virgin.




SPINNY, GuiLLAUME DE, a native of Brussels,
studied art in that city and in France. In 1756
he established himself at the Hague, where he
painted with some acceptance for many years. He
died in 1785,

SPIRINX, J., an indifferent engraver, who flour-
ished about the year 1635. He engraved some
frontispieces and other plates for books.

SPIRINX, L , probably a relation of J Spirinx,
engraved some frontispieces and other ornaments
for books, dated from 1641 to 1674. This artist has
left a few portraits, among them one of Pierre de
la Mothe, dated 1663.

SPISANO, ViNCENZO, (called Lo Spisanelli,)
painter, born at Orta, in the Milanese, in 1495,
studied at Bologna, in the school of Denys Calvaert,
whose style he adopted, and followed without
deviation. His compositions are, however, less
judicious, and his design less correct. Of his





numerous works in the public buildings of Bologna,
the most remarkable are, the ' Death of S. Joseph,'
in S. Maria Maggiore ; the ' Visitation of the
Virgin to S. Elizabeth,' in S. Giacomo Maggiore ;
the ' Baptism of Christ,' in S. Francesco ; and the
' Conversion of Paul,' in S. Domenico. His easel
pictures, most of which are in private collections
in Bologna and its neighbourhood, are better than
his altar-pieces. He died in 1662.

SPLINTER, Gebeit, is quoted by Van Mander
as the master, at Utrecht, of Abraham Bloemaert.
The records of Utrecht show that early in the
16th century a family of painters of this name was
established in the city.

SPOEDE, Jean Jacques, a Flemish painter of
etill-life, was born at Antwerp, probably in the
first years of the 18th century. He studied in the
Academy of his native city, and afterwards went
to Paris, where he became the friend and pupil of
Watteau. His name occurs in the catalogue of
the exhibitions held by the Paris Society of S. Luke,
of which he was professor, and rector in 1751, 1762,
and 1753. He died in 1760. There is a portrait
by him in the Orleans Museum.

SPOFFORTH, Robert, an English engraver
and printseller, who flourished about the year 1707.
From his style Strutt thinks he was a pupil of
S. Gribelin. We have a few portraits by him,
among them the following :

Queeu Anne. | George I. | John Cole, M. D.

SPOLETI, PlER-LoEENZO, a Genoese, born in
1680, was a pupil of Domenico Piola the Elder,
and lived for a time at Madrid, where he had some
success as a portrait painter. He died in 1726.

SPOLVERINI, HiLARio, born at Parma in 1657,
was a disciple of Francesco Monti, Although he
occasionally painted historical subjects, he was
better known for his battles, attacks of banditti,
and assassinations, which he designed with spirit,
and painted with a consistent vehemence. He
was much employed by Francesco, Duke of Parma,
There are some altar-pieces bj' him at Parma, in
the cathedral and the Certosa. He died at Piacenza
in 1734,

SPOONER, Charles, was born in the county of
Wexford in the first half of the 18th century, and
apprenticed in Dublin to John Brooks, He came
to London on the invitation of McArdell. We have
several mezzotint portraits and other subjects by
him, dated from 1762 to 1762, among which are the
following :

Thomas Prior ; nftei' J. Van Nost. 1752.

Major-General Sir "William Johnson; after T. Adams,

Miss Gunning ; aftei' Cotes.

Miss Smith ; after the same.

George Keppel, Earl of Albemarle ; after Ueynolds.

Lady Selina Hastings ; after the same,

Garrick in the character of Lear ; after Houston.

"Woman with a Candle in her hand ; aftei^ Schalcken.

Peasants regaling ; after Tenier^,

A set of four plates of Youthful Amusements; after
He died in London in 1767, aged about fifty.

SPOOR, W. J. L., a Flemish painter of the 18th
century, was born at Budel, in North Brabant. He
was a scholar of Hendrik van Anthonissen, at Ant-
werp. In his early pictures he imitated the manner
of that painter ; but afterwards became a copyist
of Paul Potter, and of other landscape and animal
painters of the Dutch school.

SPORCKMANS, Herbert, was born at Antwerp
in 1619. He studied under Rubens ; received the


freedom of the Corporation of S. Luke in 1640,
and was dean in 1669. He died in 1690. There
is a picture by him in the Hotel de Ville, at

SPRANGHER, Baetholomaus, painter, born at
Antwerp in 1646, was the son of Joachim Sprangher,
an eminent merchant, who destined him for com-
mercial pursuits ; but betraying a decided inclina-
tion for painting, he was placed under the tuition
of Jan Mandijn, at Haarlem, with whom he studied
eighteen months, when, on the death of his in-
structor, he became a scholar of an amateur called
Van Dalem. He afteiwards travelled through
France to Italy, and resided three years at Parma,
where he studied under Bernardino Gatti, called
II Sojaro, who had been a disciple of Correggio.
From Parma he went to Rome, where he was
engaged to decorate the Villa of Caprarola by
Cardinal Farnese. He was introduced by that
prelate to Pope Pius V., who appointed him his
painter, and gave him apartments in the Belvidere.
The first thing he did for the Pope was a ' Last
Judgment,' a composition of more than five hundred
figures, painted on a copper-plate six feet high,
which he finished with great care. He was also
commissioned by the Pope to paint twelve scenes
from the Passion of our Saviour. In 1675 Sprangher
was invited to the court of Vienna, by the Emperor
Maximilian II,, who appointed him his principal
painter. On the death of Maximilian, in 1576, he
remained in the service of Rudolph II,, for whom
he was employed both at Vienna and at Prague.
Sprangher was greatly respected by the Emperor,
both for his abilities as a painter, and for his
literary acquirements, which were extensive, as
well as for his talents in conversation. In 1588
Rudolph ennobled him and his descendants. He
died at Prague about 1627. There is a curious
picture by Sprangher in the magazine of the
National Gallery ; the subject is ' Men devoured
by Dragons.' Other works :

Berlin. Museum. The Resurrection.

Copenhagen. Musnum. The Death of Lucretia.
Vienna. Gallery. Portraits of himself and his

„ „ The Virtues of Rudolph II., an

And others at Stockholm,
Sclileissheim, Darmstadt, and

Spranger has left a few etchings, among which
the best is,
A Figure bound to a T.ee, on which the initials B.S.
are reversed.

SPRINGINKLEE, Hans, is said to have resided
in the bouse of Albrecht Dtirer, from whom he learnt
the principles of the art of design, and to have died
about 1540. He was formerly ranked among wood

engravers from the presence of his mark, ^S[\_

on several of the woodcuts in the ' Hortulus
animae cum horis beatse Virginis,' &c., printed at
Nuremberg in 1518, 1619, and 1520. All that can
be certainly affirmed of him, however, is that he
was the designer of those subjects, and that he was
contemporary with Albreclit Diirer. Neudbrfer calls
him an illuminator, and Thausing believes him to
have been the author of some of the borders in the
Prayer Book of Maximilian,

S PRONG K. See Verspeonck.

SPRONG, Gerard, born at Haarlem in 1600,
was a fair painter of portraits and interiors. He




died in 1651. There is a balf-lengtli portrait of a
lady by him in the Louvre.

SPROSSE, Kael, painter and etcher, bom at
Leipsic in 1819. He worked at the Art Academy
of Leipsic, under Fr. Brauer and Schnorr. About
1838 he was employed by Dr. Puttrich of Cologne.
In 1840 he went to Italy, where he painted several
views of the ruins of ancient Rome, from which
he afterwards etched twelve plates. In 1848 he
returned to Germany, but in 1849 was again in
Rome. In 1850, 1857, and 1860 he was painting
in Venice. He also visited Greece in search of
subjects. Besides his Italian series, he etched
many German castles, cathedrals, &c. He twice
exhibited in London. He died at Leipsic in 1874.

SPRDYT, Charles, son and pupil of Philip
Spruyt, was born at Brussels in 1769. After study-
ing in Italy, he settled in Brussels, where he painted
historical pictures, such as a 'S. Theresa,' 'The
Disciples at Emmaus,' 'John, Duke of Brabant,
rescuing his sister.'. He died at Brussels in 1827.

SPRUYT, Jakob Philips, a native of Ghent,
where he flourished about 1764. He worked for
a time at Delft and the Hague, but finally settled
in his native city.

SPRUYT, Philip Lambert Joseph, painter, was
born at Ghent in 1727. He received his first teach-
ing from Mil6 and Van Loo in Paris, and then from
Mengs in Rome. On his return to Belgium he
became Professor of Drawing at the Ghent Academy,
and by command of Maria Theresa made a cata-
logue of all the works of art in the Belgian
churches, and convents, which he adorned with
etchings. He died at Ghent in 1801.

SPRY, William, an English flower-painter, who
practised in London, and exhibited at the Royal
Academy from 1834 to 1847.

SPYOK, Hendrik van, portrait painter, flourished
at the Hague about 1670. He was an artist of
some ability, and painted the portrait of Spinoza,
with whose opinions he sympathized,

SPYERS, James, a painter of views, practised
in London in the second part of the 18th century.
Various landscapes by him were engraved and
mezzotinted by Jukes and G. Wills,

SQUABGIONE, Francesco, the son of a notary,
was born at Padua in 1394. He was at first a
tailor and embroiderer, but, when still young,
turned to the art of painting, and determined to
improve his mind by travelling. Having made a
tour of Italy, he is said to have wandered as far
as Greece. On his return he founded a school,
which became the most famous of its time. The
list of his pupils reaches a total of one hundred
and thirty-seven. He formed a collection of pic-
tures and antique fragments, which he set before
his pupils as models, and thus, though himself of
moderate skill, he became one of the most famous
of masters, and earned the title of 'Father of
Painters.' Among his pupils were the two younger
Bellini, Mantegna, Gregorio Schiavone, Dario da
Treviso, Bono Ferrarese, Ansuino, Pizzolo, Matteo
Pozzo, and Marco Zoppo, and it was by their aid
that he executed the commissions he received. In
the spring of 1439 he finished a Crucifix for
Fantino Bragadini, a Venetian noble, living at
Terrassa, near Padua. In 1441 he was employed
in decorating the organ at the Santo, and in that
year his name first appears in the lists of the Paduan
guild. According to Vasari, he next contracted to
ornament a chapel at the Eremitani, and entrusted
its execution to Mantegna, Pizzolo, and others.

From 1444, when he laid in with plain colours
several ceilings at the Santo, until 1465, when he
became formally exempt from taxation in consider-
ation of his having cast a model of the city and
territory of Padua, he was constantly employed in
that building, sometimes executing his commissions
himself, sometimes employing his pupils. Crowe
and Cavalcaselle express the belief that il was
Mantegna's refusal, after he had arrived at the
maturity of his talent, to paint pictures for Squar-
cione, that led the latter to quarrel with his pupil,
rather than anger at Andrea's marriage with
Niocolosia Bellini. Squarcione's death occurred in
1474. Amongst his few remaining picti^res are the
' Glory of St. Jerome, with St. Lucy, St. John
the Baptist, Anthony the Abbot, and Giustina,'
now in the Gallery of Padua, a very poor pro-
duction, in which, according to Crowe and Caval-
caselle, Zoppo may have had a hand ; and a 'Virgin
and Child,' in the Casa Lazzara of the same city.
The latter is an excellent picture, bearing unmis-
takable signs of the hand of Mantegna. It is
signed Orms Sguaroioni pictoris.

SQUARGIONB, Zoppo di. See Zoppo, Marco.


STAAL, Pierre Gustave EtiGfcNE, painter, was
born at Vertus, Marne, in 1817, He entered the
Bcole des Beaux Arts in 1838, and was a pupil of
Paul Delaroche. He exhibited portraits, chiefly in
pastel, at the Salon from 1839 to 1872, and in 1865
eight etchings. He died at Ivry in 1882.

STABEN, Hendeik, born at Antwerp in 1578,
is said to have visited Venice when very young,
and to have entered the school of Tintoretto. He
could not have studied there long, however, for
Tintoretto died before Staben had reached his
seventeenth year. He does not appear to have
remained long in Italy, but established himself at
Paris, where he painted small interiors, with neatly
drawn figures. He died in 1658.

STACCOLI, Francesco, water-colour painter,
flourished in Rome at the end of the 18th century.
He was a pupil of A, Maron, and copied much
from the old masters. He died in 1815.

STACHOWICZ, Michael, painter, born at Cracow
in 1768, was a pupil of Molitor. He painted pic-
tures for churches and afterwards battle pictures,
and other scenes from Polish history. In 1817 he
became Professor at the Lyceum of S. Barbara in
Cracow, where he died in 1835.

STACK, JosBF Magnus, a Swedish painter, born
at Sund, in 1812. He studied at Stockholm and
Munich, completing his education by visits to
Paris and Italy. He died in 1868. Tlie following
pictures by him are in the Stockholm Gallery :

A Sea View by Moonlight. 1847.

A View of Haarlem in Wiuter. 1848.

Eiver Scene in Daleoarlia. 1856.

Italian Landscape. 1860.

STACKELBERG, Otto Magnus, Baeon von,
antiquarian draughtsman, was bom at Revel in
1787. He studied first in Dresden, and finished his
education in Rome ; whence, in 1810, he went with
an exploring party to Greece. The result of their
researches was the discovery of the remains of the
Temple of Apollo at Bassaa, which are now in the
British Museum, and of the JSginetan marbles,
now in the Glyptothek at Munich. Of all these
Stackelberg made careful and exact drawings,
which he published in 1826. He also published a
series of views of modern Greece, drawings of
Greek costumes and customs, and a work on ancient





Greek sepulture. He travelled later in Italy, and
discovered some ancient Elruecan frescoes, to
■which another book was devoted. He died at St.
Petersburg in 1837.

STACKHOUSB, J., an English painter of flowers
and fruit, who practised in London towards the
close of the 18th century.

STADING, Eveline, born at Stockholm in 1803,
was a pupil of Pahlcrantz. She travelled and worked
in Germany and Italy, but died young in 1829.

STABLER, Alois Martin, painter, born at Imst,
in the Tyrol, in 1792, studied at Innsbruck and
Munich, and in Italy. In 1822 he settled in Munich,
and painted altar-pieces for different towns in the
Tyrol, among them an ' Assumption of the Virgin,'
for the parish church at Imst. He died at Sterzing
in 1841.

STABLER, Joseph Constant ine, a German en-
graver, who worked from 1780 to 1812 in London,
and engraved views in aquatint. Among his best
plates are :

The Fire of London ; after Loittherhourci ,

The Destruction of the Armada ; after the same.

The Picturesque Scenery of Great Britain ; six plates ;

after the same.
Views of London, "Westminster, and Blackf riars Bridges ;

after Favin(jton.
Many plates for Oombes' ' History of the Thames.'
A series of views of Schloss Hohenheim, Wiirtemberg ;

engraved in conjunction with I^icolas and Victor


STAEVAERTS. See Stevaerts.

STAGNON, Antoine Marik, draughtsman and
engraver, flourished in the second half of the 18th
century. He was engraver of seals to the King of
Sardinia. Among his works were forty-three plates
of Sardinian costumes, and two vohimes of Sar-
dinian uniforms. He assisted St, Non with the
plates for his 'Voyage pittoresque d'ltalie.' In
the fifth edition of tliat work, Choffard's name was
substituted for his on two of the plates, Nos. 36
and 38, and Stagnon published an indignant pro-
test in ' Les Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres
et des Arts,' for May 1779, claiming their sole

STAINIER, R., an English engraver, who prac-
tised in London towards the close of the 18th cen-
tury. He was chiefly engaged on portraits, but occa-
sionally engraved subject pictures, such as 'Lindor
and Clara,' and ' Cleopatra,' both after Wheatley.

STALBEMT, Adriaan van, (Staelbent,) a
Flemish painter and engraver, was born at Antwerp
in 1580. He painted landscapes with small figures,
in a style resembling that of Brueghel ; also in-
teriors with historical subjects. He practised for
a time at Middelburg, and visited England in the
reign of Charles I., and is noticed by Walpole
under the name of Stalband. He painted a ' View
of Greenwich,' and is said to have returned rich to
Antwerp. Vandyck painted a portrait of Stalbemt,
which was engraved by Pontius. Stalbemt has left
an etching representing the ruins of an English
Abbey, with cattle and sheep. It is signed. He
died at Putte, in Brabant, in 1662. Works:
Amsterdam. Eijlcsmuseum. A AVooded Landscape.
Antwerp. Museum. A Landscape.

Beriin. „ Adoration of the Shepherds.

Cassel. Gallery. Landscape.

Copenhagen. „ A View of Antwerp.

Dresden. „ Olympic Games.

j> „ Judgment of Midas.

Frankfort. „ Consecration of a Church.

Madnd. Museum. David's Triumph over Go-



STAMM, JoHANN Gottlieb Samuel, was bom at
Meissen in 1767. He practised as a copyist at
Bresden, but also etched after Klengel, Bietrich,
and others. He died in 1828.

STAMPART, Fbans, born at Antwerp in 1675,
was a scholar of the younger Tyssens, and a student
of Vandyck. He had acquired a reputation as a
portrait painter in his native city, when he was
invited to Vienna by the Emperor Leopold, who
appointed him his principal painter, in which office ■
he was confirmed by Charles VI. He died at
Vienna in 1750.

STANFIELB, George Clakkson, son of William
Clarkson Stanfield, was born in London in 1828.
He was a pupil of his father, but was gifted with
very little talent. He exhibited, from 1844 to
1876, continental landscapes, marine subjects, and
views of towns. He died at Hampstead in 1878.

STANFIELB, William Clabkson, painter, was
born at Sunderland in 1793. His father, James
Stanfield, was an Irishman of a certain reputation
as a writer, and author of an ' Essay on Biography.'
William Stanfield began life as a sailor, and showed
an early taste for art, drawing and sketching ships
and marine views, and painting scenery for plays
performed on board ship. Buring one of his
voyages to Guinea he became acquainted with
Thomas Clarkson, and a warm friendship sprang
up between them, in token of which Stanfield
adopted the abolitionist's surname. Whilst serving
as a clerk in the navy, Stanfield's talent attracted
the notice of Captain Marryat, the novelist, who
was the first person to recommend him to art as a
profession. In 1816 he was temporarily disabled
by a fall on an anchor, and getting his discharge
in 1818, he made a fresh start as scene-painter at
the Old Royalty in Wellclose Square, a theatre
much frequented by sailors. His reputation grow-
ing steadily, he obtained engagements successively
at the Coburg Theatre, Her Majesty's, and Dmry
Lane ; an early acquaintance with Bouglas Jer-
rold proved of much service to him at this period
of his career. Whilst occupied with his profession
he at the same time painted a number of small sea-
pieces, and became known in London as a pro-
mising marine painter. In 1824 he was elected a
member of the Society of British Artists, with whom
he had exhibited the previous year. A large sea-
piece, painted in 1827, and exhibited at the British
Institution, ' Wreckers oflf Fort Rouge,' attracted
considerable attention. In 1829 he sent his first
picture to the Academy, a 'View near Chilon-sur-
Saone,' and encouraged by its favourable reception
and by a premium of fifty guineas from the British
Institution, he gave up scene-painting to devote
himself to easel pictures, and started on a conti-
nental tour, the fruits of which were shown in
pictures exhibited during the two following years :
' Venice,' ' Strasburg,' ' A Honfleur Fishennim,' &c.
A fine example of bis art is the 'Mount St. Michael,
Cornwall,' which was exhibited in 1830 at the
Academy, and ensured his election, in 1832, as an
Associate. Three years later he rose to full
membership, and having resigned his connection
with the Society of British Artists, became a con-
stant exhibitor in Trafalgar Square up to the year
of his death, sending altogether 132 pictures to
the Academy exhibitions. In 1836 he completed a
large ' Battle of Trafalgar,' for the Senior United
Service Club, having previously been brought pro-
minently before the public by a commission from
William IV. to paint ' Portsmouth Harbour,' and




the ' Opening of New London Bridge,' To these
large spectacular works Stanfield's manner was
peculiarly adapted. In his easel pictures he could
never entirely free himself from the influences of
the theatre, and his best landscapes-are marred by
a cold staginess of eSect and of treatment.
His pictures were greatly admired in their day,
but their reputation has waned, and is not likely
to revive. Among important works executed by
him on commission, we may mention a series of
large pictures painted for the Banqueting-room
at Bowood, and another series for Trentham
Hall. A visit to Italy in 1839 resulted in the
painting of a number of views of Italian scenery,
of which the 'Castello d'Ischia, from the Mole'
(1841), and ' Isola Bella, Maggiore' (1842), are
notable examples. He also frequently treated
Dutch coast scenery, and published a series of
lithographic views of the Rhine, the Meuse, and
the Moselle, and a number of coast views in Heath's
'Annual.' His health gradually declined towards
the close of his life, but he continued to work with
unabated industry, exhibiting at the Academy in
the year of his death, which took place at Hamp-
stead. May 18, 1867. He was buried in S. Mary's
Roman Catholic cemetery at Kensal Green. A
large number of his pictures were included in the
winter exhibition at Burlington House in 1870.
Among his other works we may name :
London. Nat. Oal. Entrance to the Zuyder Zee,

Texel Island. (Ex. 1844.)
„ „ Battle of Trafalgar. (Sketch

for the largepictvre painted
for the Senior United Ser-
vice Gluh. Ex. 1836.)
„ „ Lake of Como.

„ „ Canal of the Giudeeca, and

Church of the Jesuits,
Venice. (1836.)
S. Kensington. Museum. Near Cologne. (1829.)

„ „ Market Boat on the Scheldt.

(Ex. 1826.)
„ „ Sands near Boulogne. (Ex.

Port-na-gpania, near the Giant's Causeway, Antrim,
with the Wreck of the Spanish Armada. (Dan.
Thwaites, Esq.)
Off the Texel. (J. SotUdsworth, Esq.)

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