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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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The Abandoned. (Earl of Northbrooh.)
Capture of Smuggled Goods. [Adam Duqdale, Esq.)
Tilbury Fort— Wind against Tide. (W. Tattersall,

Battle of Eoveredo. (Boyal Solloway College, Eghara.)

STANGE, Bernhakd, painter, born at Dresden,
July 24, 1807. He was intended for the profession
of the law, and studied for a time at Leipsic Uni-
versity, but his admiration for Rottmann and Rahl
caused him to devote himself to art. His first
works were poetical landscapes, which had a great
popularity in his native countrj'. His ' Morning
Bell,' in particular, had such success, that he re-
peated it twenty times. In 1849 lie went to Venice,
where he began moonlight scenes, for which he
became famous. Later he painted many historical
and genre pictures. He died in 1880 at Sindelsdorf,
a village in the Bavarian Highlands to which he
had retired. There are several of his pictures in
the New Pinakothek, Munich, and one in the
possession of Queen Victoria.

STANLEY, Caleb Robert, landscape painter,
bom about 1790, studied in Italy and practised in
London. He painted in oil and water-colours,
and exhibited at the Academy from 1820 to 1863.
He died in London in 1868. There are three of
his landscapes in the South Kensin/;ton Museum.

STANLEY, Harold John, painter, was born at
Lincoln in 1817. He studied at Munich under
Kaulbach. In 1845 he painted ' King Alfred with
his Code of Laws.' He afterwards travelled and
painted in Italy. For the ' Ludwig's Album ' ho
made a series of drawings illustrating ' Some
Years of an Artist's Life.' He died at Munich in

STANLEY, MoNTAGOE, landscape painter, was
born at Dundee in 1809. Losing his father when
young, he spent a wandering childhood with his
mother, visiting New York, Nova Scotia, and
Jamaica before he was ten years old. At the ngo
of eight he played the part of 'Ariel,' and up to
the year 1838 he followed the theatrical profession,
in which he obtained a considerable reputation.
From conscientious motives he quitted the stage
and devoted himself to art, receiving instruction
from J. W. Ewbank. He rapidly rose in public
estimation, and was elected an Associate of the
Scottish Academy. He died in the island of Bute
in 1844.

STANNARD, Joseph, landscape and marine
painter, was born in 1797 at Norwich, where he
afterwards practised. He was a pupil of Hobert
Ladbrooke, and also studied for a time in Holland.
He was a member of the Norwich Society of Artists.
His works are chiefly coast and river scenes, with
some portraits. He also published a set of etchings.
He died in 1830. His most important picture was
one of the annual ' Water Frolic ' at Thorpe, in
which he introduced many portraits.

STANTON, Thomas, landscape painter, born
about the middle of the 18th century. He prac-
tised in London, painting views in which ho
generally introduced architecture. A 'View of
Stonyhurst College' by him was engraved by

STANZIONI, Massimo, painter, born at Naples
in 1585, was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Carac-
ciolo, but received some instruction in fresco from
Belisario Corenzio. When Lanfranco visited
Naples, Stanzioni profited by his lessons, and also
by those of Fabrizio Santafede. He afterwards
visited Rome, where he applied himself to study
the works of Annibale Carracci, and formed an
intunacy with Guido. On his return to Naples
he displayed an ability that enabled him to
compete with the ablest of his contemporaries.
There existed between Stanzioni and Spagnoletto
a jealousy and animosity which led the latter into
the commission of a disgraceful piece of treachery,
Lanzi reports that Stanzioni had painted an altar-
piece at the Certosa i-epresenting the dead Christ
with the Marys, in competition with Ribera's ' De-
position from the Cross.' Stanzioni's picture hav-
ing turned somewhat lower in tone, Spagnoletto
recommended the monks to permit him to clean it,
when he made use of some spirit or acid by
which the beauty of the work was entirely de-
stroyed. The fathers applied to Stanzioni to repair
it, which he refused to do, declaring it should
remain as it was, that such perfidy might be
exposed. Among his other works at Naples are
the ceilings of the churches of S. Paolo and del
Gesii Nuovo, his best frescoes, and a large ' S. Bruno
presenting tlie Regulations of his Order to his
Monks ' at the Certosa. He also painted many easel
pictures for private patrons at Naples. Stanzioni's
works are distinguished above those of his con-
temporaries by nobility of conception, simplicity
of feeling, and purity of line. He formed many





„ T^'iiiitA dci Pellegrini.

„ Fal. Cassaro.

Paris. Louvre.

Vienna. Liechtenstein Gal.

scholars, among; tliem Dom. Finoglia and Gius.
Marullo. He died in 1656. Other works :
Dresden. Gallery. A Genius.

Naples. S. Martina. Ijast Supper.

Legend of S. Bruno.

S. Bmidio.


S. Sebastian.

Virgin and Child.

STAPLEAUX, Michel Ghislain, painter, born
at Brussels in 1799. He was a pupil of David.
He painted historical and genre pictures, and por-
traits. He painted a ' Napoleon at St. Helena,' and
portraits of other members of the Bonaparte familj'.
His ' Prodigal Son ' is at Prague. Several pic-
tures by him are in the collection of the King of
Wiirtemberg and Prince Peter of Oldenburg. He
died in 1881.

STAR. See Stella.

STAB, DiBOK VAN, (Staken,) a Dutch engraver,
who flourished in the middle of the 16th century.
He is sometimes called a little master, although
not one of the seven men more strictly associated
with the title. His drawing of the figure is good,
with well-marked extremities. His prints are dated
from 1520 to 1550. He usually marked them with
the initials D. and V. divided by a star, to which

f/auu I

he generally added the date, thus :

The following are among the best of his very
numerous plates :

1. Eve and the little Cain, 1522, A. G. {Awjusti) 19.

2. The Deluge ; 1544.

3. Christ calling Peter and Andrew, 1523, Mey 30.

4. St. Peter walking on the Water, 1525, Des. 30.

5. Christ tempted by the Demon, 1525.

6. Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 1523.

7. The Virgin and S. Anne, 1522, B. C. {DecemTrris) 31.

8. St. Bernard, 1524, Oct. 3.

9. St. Luke painting the Virgin, 1526. In Jvli. 23.

10. St. BUsabeth, 1524, Nove. 15.

11. Venus, 1524. Oct. 20.

12. The Faun, 1522, Se'fi. 14.

13. Man with a chimerical Fish, 1522, A. G. 16.

14. The Goldsmith, no date.

15. The Man Asleep, 1532, Oct. 10.

16. The Drunken Drummer, 1525, Mert. 8.

17. The Drummer and a Child, 1523, Oct. 14.

18. The Man holding a Shield of arms, 1522.

19. The Woman holding an Escutcheon ; lozenge ; 1525.

20. St. Christopher.

21. A wood-cut of an Interior, with a Gallery, and
numerous Figures. The mark near the middle,
1526 on the left.

Whether the initials D. V. with a starling between
them, and the letters D. V. separated by an asterisk
in the upper part, belong to this engraver or not,
is a matter of dispute.

STARK, James, landscape painter, was born at
Norwich, November 19th, 1794. He was the son
of one Michael Stark, a Scotchman, who had settled
at Norwich, where he had a, dye-works. James
studied under Crome for three years, and then went
to London, where he entered the Royal Academy
in 1817. His first work was 'Boys Bathing.'
After a time a painful affliction compelled him to
return to Norwich, where he had to abandon paint-
ing entirely for some three years. As he became
stronger in health, he began to take part energeti-
cally in the exhibitions of the Norwich Society of
Artists, to which he had been elected as early as
1812. He was also a frequent exhibitor at the
Academy and at the British Institution, where, in
1818, he had won a premium of £50. In 1821 he


married Elizabeth Dinmore, and moved to Yar-
mouth for a time. He soon returned, however, to
the cathedral city, and there, in 1827, he began
the publication of his ' Scenery of the Rivers Yare,
Waveney, and Bure.' Shortly afterwards he
migrated to London, moving on, in 1839, to
Windsor, where he lived and painted for ten years.
Returning for the last time to London in 1849, he
died there, in Mornington Place, Regent's Park, on
March 24th, 1869. A collection of his pictures
was shown at Norwich in 1887. Stark's reputation
has suffered from the frequent ascription of his
better pictures to Crome, and from the attribution
to him of inferior works of the Norwich school.
The following examples of his art are in English
public collections :

Edinburgh. JVat. Gal. Gowbarrow Park.
London. „ The Valley of the Yare {per-

kaps his masterpiece).

„ S. Kensington Mus. Landscape — Woody Lane near

„ „ Distant View of Windsor.

(^And others in circulation.)
Sheffield. Mappin Gal. Landscape with Cattle.

His son Arthur is a landscape and animal painter.

STARK, Joseph, born at Graz in 1782, first
studied theology, and then law, and afterwards
painting at the Vienna Academy. In 1817 he
became director of the Academy at Graz. In 1826
he travelled in Italy, and produced several portraits
and historical pictures. He etched several plates
after his own pictures, among them a ' Christ in the
House of Martha and Mary,' which is in the
Academy at Venice. He died at Graz in 1838.

STARNINA, Ghbeabdo, painter, born at Florence
in 1354 (?), was a disciple of Antonio Veneziano.
He is entered on the lists of the Painters' Guild, in
1387, as Gherardo d'Jacopo Stama. He painted
history in the stiff style which prevailed at the early
period at which he lived. Vasari reports that he
was invited to the court of Spain, where he painted
some pictures for the king, for which he was
well paid. Among the few works of his at
Florence which have escaped the ravages of time,
is a ' Dying St. Jerome delivering his doctrines to
his disciples,' in the church of S. Croce. Some
scenes from the life of the Virgin, in a chapel of the
cathedral at Prato, are partly attributed to Stamina.
He is supposed to have been the master of Masolino
da Panicale. He died at Florence in 1408 ?

STARRENBERG, Johann, was born at Gron-
ingen, and flourished from the year 1650 to 1670.
He painted historical subjects, and frescoed

STATTLER, Albert Coknel, painter, was born
at Cracow in 1800. He was a pupil of Lampi, but
went in 1817 to Rome, where he studied at the
Academy of St. Luke, and came under the influence
of Overbeck. He painted historical subjects and
portraits, and died at Rome in 1870.

STAVEREN, Johan Adriaensz van, flourished
about 1600, and if not a pupil, was a close imitator
of Gerard Dou. His favourite subject was a hermit
contemplating a skull, reading a book, or at his
devotions before a crucifix. As the scene is
generally the entrance of a grotto in a wild locality,
he introduces the trunk of an old tree covered
with ivy or moss. His execution i^s as elaborate
as that of Gerard Dou, but his handling is not so
clear and fluent. Works :

Amsterdam. R. Museun

An Old Man praying.

A Hermit.

The Schoolmaster.





Gallery. 'Woman Sewing.
Louvre. A Savant in his Study.

Dutch writers mention three other artists of this
name, Paul, Jacob, and E. ; Paul and E. are also
said to have been pupils of Gerard Dou ; Jacob was
a painter of fruit and flowers ; they all lived from
about 1660 to 1700. Laborde mentions a mezzotint
of a Man counting Money, signed P. Straverenus.

STAYLEE, Alen, illumined the choir books
for the Abbey of St. Alban's, in the reign of
Henry III.

STAYNER, J., an English engraver, worked in
London towards the close of the 18th century.
Two line plates by him, after Collet, are known,
and a few mezzotints.

STECH, Andbeas, a painter of Dantzic of the
17th century, painted for the churches of Dantzic,
Oliva, and Pejiplin. In the Dantzic cathedral there
is a 'S. Rosa' by him. He made drawings for
books on botany and astronomj', and several por-
traits by him have been engraved. He died in

STEELE, Edward, nicknamed 'Count Steele,'
was born at Egremont, in Cumberland, about 1720.
He studied in Paris, and under an obscure painter
called Wright. He practised at Kendal and York,
whence he made tours in the northern counties,
painting portraits at a few guineas apiece. Sterne
was among his sitters. In 1756 he ran away with
a young lady who was his pupil, in which exploit
he was assisted by George Romney, who was at
that time his scholar. The date of his death is
unknown, but in 1759 his collection of pictures,
prints, and drawings was sold by auction. He is
said, however, to have been living in Ireland, with
his wife, after that date.

STEEN, Jan, was born at Leyden in 1626.
His father was a brewer of respectable family,
and probably sufficiently rich. The maiden name
of his mother was Elisabeth Capiteyns. He dis-
played an early talent for art, and was sent to
study in the first place under Nicholas Knupfer,
or Knuffer, a German painter of historical subjects
settled at Utrecht ; and from him transferred to
the studio of Adriaen van Ostade, at Haarlem.
The influence of Ostade is evident in his principal
works. He is. supposed to have received further
■instruction from Adriaen BrSuwer, whose choice
of subjects he largely adopted. He completed his
studies under Jan Van Goyen, of the Hague, whose
daughter Margaretta he married in 1649, and by
whom he had four, if not five, children. The
details of his life are obscure. That he worked
hard is proved by the number of pictures (more
than 600) he has left. That he was improvident
is proved by the records of executions for debt
which have been discovered at Haarlem by Mr.
Van Willingem, and that his pictures sold at low
prices is clear from a contract he made to pay the
year's rent of his house for 1666-1667, with three
portraits "painted as well as he was able,'' the
amount of the rent being only twenty-nine florins.
Jan Steen was entered in the Painters' Guild at
Leyden in 1648, but is not supposed to have re-
sided there between his marriage and the deaths
of his father and wife in 1669, when he returned
to take possession of his inheritance. In 1672
he opened a tavern in the city at the Lange
Brug (Long Bridge). Many of his pictures had
been painted in the interval, a great part of which
he may have spent at the Hague. In 1673
he married a second wife, Marie van Egmont,

widow of Nicolas Herculens. A son was bom in
1674; and five years later Jan Steen himself died,
and was buried in the parish church of St. Peter, at
Leyden, on the 3rd of February, 1679, leaving the
house he had inherited from his father to his widow
and children.

A very large proportion of the works of Jan
Steen are in English private collections. The
annexed list is mainly restricted to pictures in
public galleries :

Amsterdam. £. Museum. Portrait of Himself.

„ „ Prinsjesdag. (Fete of the

Prince of Orange.)
„ „ The Feast of St. Nicholas.

„ „ The Parrot's Cage.

„ „ A Village Wedding.

„ „ The Merry Home-coming.

„ „ The Charlatan.

„ „ Do. ; another version.

„ „ The Baker Oostwaard with his

Wife and- the Painter's Son.
„ „ The Libertine.

„ „ The Scullery-maid.

„ „ The Dancing Lesson.

„ „ The Happy Family.

„ „ The Sick Lady.

„ „ After the Carouse.

„ „ A Couple Drinking.

Antwerp. Museum. Samson mocked by the Philis-

„ „ A Village Wedding.

Berlin. Gallery. Garden of an Inn.

„ „ Men Quarrelling at Cards.

„ „ A Merry Company.

Brussels. Museum. The Bhetoricians.

„ „ The Operation.

„ „ Twelfth Night.

„ The GaUant Offer.

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Miser surprised by Death.
„ „ David returning with the Head

of Goliath.
Dresden. ,, The Marriage at Cana.

„ „ A Woman feeding a Child.

„ „ The Expulsion of Hagar.

Dublin. 2Vat. Gallery. A Village School.
Edinburgh. „ The Sick Lady.

Glasgow. Gallery. The Painter and his Family.

Hague. Museum. The Doctor's Visit.

„ „ Human Life. (Jan Steen's Ale-

„ „ The Painter and his Family.

„ „ A Doctor feeling the pulse of a

Young Woman.
„ „ The Dentist.

„ „ The Menagerie.

London. JVat. Gallery. The Music Master.

„ Bridgewater Gal. Man Selling Fish at a House

„ „ A School of Boys and Girls.

„ Sucldngham Pal. Card-playing.
„ „ Kermesse.

„ „ Lady Dressing.

„ „ Interior of an Ale-house.

And others.
Munich. Finaeotheck. Quarrel in a Tavern.

„ „ Doctor's Visit.

Petersburg. Hermitaye. Esther before Ahasuerus.
„ „ Doctor's Visit.

„ „ FSte ChampStre.

„ „ The Drinkers.

„ „ The Sick Man.

„ „ The Tric-trac Players.

„ „ Village Wedding.

„ „ Tavern Scene.

Botterdam. Museum, The Pretended Operation.
„ „ The Feast of St. Nicholas.

Vienna. Gallery. A Village "Wedding.

„ „ The Prodigal Household.

A Wedding Party ; and several others. (Duke of Wel-
Doctor with Lady; and other pictures, (Marquis of





STEEN, Jan, (of Alkmaae,) an obscure Dutch
painter of the 18th century, who painted historical
and genre pictures.

STEENREI. See Steneee.

STEENWIJCK, Hendeik van, (Steinwyok,)
the elder, born at Steenwijck in 1550, was a scholar
of Jan Vrcdeman de Vries, an artist of reputation
as a painter of perspectives and architectural views.
Steenwijclc painted similar subjects, in whichhe not
only surpassed his instructor, but in his own way
has scarcely been equalled by any one who has
succeeded him. His pictures represent the interiors,
usually Gothic, of churches and other buildings.
He was fond of painting torchlight, with which, by
judicious chiaroscuro, he won extremely picturesque
effects. His pictures are usually supplied with
figures by the Franckens and others. He worked
at Antwerp in 1577, but in 1579 went with Lucas
and Martin Valckenborcht to Germany, and after-
wards settled in Frankfort. Pieter Neefs was
among his pupils. He died about 1604. The
following are among his better pictures :

Amsterdam. E. Museum. Interior of a Catholic Church.
Brussels. Museum, Interior of St. Peter's Church

at Louvain.
liOndon. Wat. Gallery. Interior of an Ante-room.
„ Bridyewater Gal. Interior of a Church by Torch-
„ iS. Joseph, Esq. Interior of a Church.

Vienna. Gallery. Interior of a Gothic Church.

„ „ Dungeon Interior. (The De-

liverance of St. Peter, dated
1604. His last known work.)

STEENWIJCK, Hendeik van, (Steinwyck,)
the younger, the son of Hendrik Steenwijck, born
at Amsterdam, or perhaps Frankfort, about 1580,
was instructed by his father. His pictures are
similar in subject to those of the elder Steenwijck,
but are usually on a larger scale. He lived in
intimacy with Vandyck, who painted a fine por-
trait of him, of which we have a print by Pontius.
He was recommended by Vandyck to the notice
of Charles I., who, about 1629, invited him to
England, where he resided several years. In the
Whitehall catalogue ten of the principal works of
Steenwijck are to be found. The pictures he painted
before coming to England have figures by Jan
Brueghel, Theodore van Thulden, and others,
while he himself occasionally painted architectural
backgrounds to Vandyck's portraits. He died in
London in 1648. His widow, Susanna, settled in
Amsterdam, and became known as a painter of
views, while his son Nicholas entered the service
of Charles I., and is believed to have died in
England. The younger Steenwijck's works are
often confounded with those of his father. The
following are good examples :

Berlin. Museum. The Prison (dated 1649).

Copenhagen. Galleri/. Interior of a Gothic Church.
Dresden. Gallery. Three Church Interiors, dated

respectively 1609, 1611, 1614.
Florence. Uffizi. Interior of a Prison, with Be-

heading of St. John Baptist.
The Hague. Museum. A Public Square, with Monu-
ments and figures.
London. Bridgewater ) Interior of a Church at Ant-
Gallery. J werp (figures by Van Thul-
Madrid. Gallery. Christ brought before the High

„ The Denial of Peter.

Zouvre. Christ in the House of Martha
and Mary. (The figures at-
tributed to Poelenburgh.)
„ Interior of a Church.



Vienna. Gallery. Two Church Interiors; and

Two Dungeon Interior-s, with
Deliverance of St. Peter.

STEENWIJCK, Nicholas, born at Breda in
1640, excelled in painting vases, musical instru-
ments, books, and other inanimate objects, and fish.
He died in 1698.

STEENWIJCK, Pietee, a Flemish painter of the
17th century, who practised at Breda, where he is
said to have led a very dissolute life. His favourite
subjects were emblems and allegories of Death.
In the Madrid Museum there is an example of his
work. He may be identical with the last-named
Nicholas Steenwijck.

STEEVENS, RiOHAED. See Stievens.

STEFANESCHI, Giovanni Battista, bom at
Ronta, near Florence, in 1582, was a monk, and
is generally called I'Eremita di Monte Senario.
He was instructed by Andrea Comodi, by Ligozzi,
and by Pietro da Cortona, and chiefly excelled in
copying, in miniature, the works of other painters,
in which he was much employed by Ferdinand II.,
Grand Duke of Tuscany. He died in 1659.

STEFANI, Benedetto, a publisher and engraver,
and native of Verona, who flourished about 1575,
and whose name is afBxed to a print in the style
of .^Snea Vice, copied from Marc Antonio's Battle
of the Lapithse.

STEFANI, PiETEO Degli. See Degli Stefani.

STEFANI, Tommaso Degli. See Degli Stefani.

STEFANI da FOSSANO, Ambeogio, called also
Boegognone, Ambeogio da Fossano, and, by Lanzi,
Ambeogio Egogni, was born probably between
1450 and 1460. His birthplace is usually said to
have been Fossano, in Piedmont, but he seems
rather to have been born in Milan, for his father,
Stefano, was already called ' Mediolanensis,' or a
native of Milan. As for his name of Borgognone,
some writers, notably M. Rio, believe it to have
been given in consequence of Flemish character-
istics in his art, others, among them the commend-
atore Morelli, think it due merely to some ancestor,
his father or grandfather, having lived for a time
in Flanders, which was then called Borgogna by
the Italians. Ambrogio's life is so little known
that Lanzi divided him into three different indi-
viduals, giving to each one class of his works.
His master was, in alt probability, Vincenzo Foppa,
to whom some critics would add Zenale and Butti-
none. His earliest known works date from about
1488. They were painted for the Pavian Certosa,
where Ambrogio was at work for some years. The
stalls and other wood- work in the choir were
finished by Bartolommeo de' Polli from designs
furnished by Borgognone about the year 1490.
The latter returned to Milan in 1494, in which
year he was at work at San Satire. In 1497 he
was at Lodi, painting in the church of the Incoro-
nata. In 1508 he received a commission for an
altar-piece in San Satiro, Bergamo, which is still
extant. In 1512, as documents prove, he was
back at Milan. In 1524 he painted some scenes
from the legend of St. Sisinius in the portico of
San Simpliciano, Milan, which have now dis-
appeared, and lie may have died very soon after.
The date 1535, which, it was said, was upon an
' Assumption ' that has now disappeared from the
church of Cremeno, in Valsassina, is so much later
than any other record we possess of Ambrogio's
existence, that we may put it aside, especially as
the authenticity of the picture itself was doubtful.
In Borgognone's latest works, traces of Leonardo's




influence are visible, but otherwise he may be
called the incarnation of the early Milanese spirit
in art. He was to the Lombard school what Peru-
gino was to the Umbrian, Prancia to the Bolognese,
or Bellini to the Venetian. He had a younger
brother, Bebnaedino, who often acted as his
assistant. W.A.




San Spirito. Presentation in the Temple,
Annunciation, and Epi-
„ Madonna Enthroned.

„ Five predella panels.

Lochis-Carrara ) Virgin giving fruits to the
Gallery. J infant Olirist.
Museum. Madonna Enthroned.

„ Madonna Enthroned with

Saints (signed ambrosij

Nat. Gal.


Casa Borromeo.

lergognoni op').

Four small predella panels
in oil.

Marriage of St. Catherine
of Alexandria.

Two groups of family por-

A Triptych (Virgin and

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 138 of 201)