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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Child ; Agony in the
Garden; Christ bearing
His Cross).

Portrait of Bishop Andrea


Coronation of the Virgin.


San Satiro.
San Simpliciano.

Santa Maria della \ „ .,• „, ., „ c!„„ . , "

Passione. ] ^^''"'S of the Sacristy.

Sant' Ambrogio. Christ disputing with the
„ Christ after His Resurrec-

Sanf Eustorgio. Madonna with Saints.
S. Maria Fresso \ Virgin adoring, with
San Celso. } Angels.

Louvre. PresentationintheTemple.

„ St. Peter of Verona and

a kneeling Woman.

Certosa. St. Ambrose, with other


„ St. Sirus, with other Saints.

„ St. Augustine (a fragment

on panel).
„ The Four Evangelists (at-

tached to an altar-piece
by Macrino d'Alba).
„ St. Peter and St. Paul (in

the new sacristy).
„ Madonna, with SS. Sebas-

tian and Koch.
„ Virgin adoring.
„ Eooe Homo.

„ Virgin giving the breast to

the Child.
„ The Crucifixion. (And many
Accademia. Christ carrying His Cross,
with a suite of Carthu-

STEFANO, ToMMASo, painter, called 1l Giottino,
from the exactness with which he imitated the
manner of Giotto, is said to have been the son
and pupil of Stefano, called Fra Fiorentino, (see
FiORENTiNO,) and to have been born at Florence
about 1324. A ' Pieti ' in the church of San Remigio
at Florence is attributed to him, and certain frescoes
at Assisi. He died at Florence in 1366.




ZEVIO. A difference of opinion exists as to


whether the above are one and the same, or an
older and a younger painter. The existence of
Stefano da Zevio (Zevio is near Verona) is well
authenticated. He was a contemporary and fol-
lower, and perhaps a scholar, of Vittore Pisano,
and was born in 1393. He was by profession a
miniaturist, and was the grandfather of Girolamo
dai Libri. A distinctive mark of his pictures is the
frequent introduction of a peacock. To him Messrs.
Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign all the paintings
under the name of Stefano in Verona, and the two
panels at Rome and Milan, given in the list below.
Vasari, however, mentions one Stefano da Verona,
a pupil of Agnolo Gaddi, and certain Veronese
critics have contended that under this master the
school of Verona rose to a fair level of excellence
as early as the 14th century. They divide the
frescoes attributed to Stefano into two classes,
those of the 14th and those of the 15th century,
giving the former to the master whom they claim
as the founder of their school.


lUasi, near ) Parish Church.
Verona. J




Palazzo Colonna.


Parts of a fresco, repre-
senting the Virgin and
Child and Saints. (This
wall-painting is cited by
some as a proof of the
existence of the elder
Adoration of the Kings
(signed Stefanus pinxit,
and dated 1-135, ascribed
in the catalogue to Ste-
fano Fiorentino).
Virgin and Child (ascribed
to Gentile da Fabriano).
Strada Hi Porta 1 Fragments of a Virgin and
Vescovo. i Child, with St. Chris-
topher and Seraphs. (On
the front of a house.)
Sanf JEufemia. A Trinity, and Glory of
St. Augustine.
„ St. Nicholas with Saints,

and a predella.

Madonna with St. Cather-
ine. (Both ascribed to
And other frescoes at San Zeno, Sant' Antonio, and
San Niccolo in Verona. See ' History of Painting in
North Italy,' Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Vol. I. p. 450.

STEFANO DA ZEVIO. See preceding article.

STEFANO di GIOVANNI. See Sassetta.



STEFANO, Fr. di. See Feanoesco di Stefano.
tine painter of the 15th century. None of his works
survive. He is said to have worked in conjunction
with Bicci di Lorenzo on pictures for San Marco
and the Camaldolese church. In 1468 he was paint-
ing in the hospital of San Matteo, and in 1472 he
painted the marble mausoleum of Temmo Balducci,
its founder, of which Francesco di Simone Ferrucci
was the sculptor.

STEFANO SANT' ANNA, an obscure Sicilian
painter, of the early 16th century. In the church
of San Dionisio at Messina there is an altar-piece of
the patron saint enthroned, inscribed: Stephanus
S" Anna 1519.

STEFANONE, Maestro, painter, born at Naples
about the year 1325, was a pupil of Maestro Simone,
and a fellow-scholar of Gennaro di Cola. In con-
junction with the latter, he painted some frescoes
in the church of S. Giovanni da Carbonara, at Naples.





In S. Maria della Pietk he painted a Virgin Mary
and the Magdalene weeping over the dead Christ,
which is still well preserved. A curious ' Genealogy
of Christ' over the entrance to the chapel of San
Lorenzo, in the Duomo at Naples, has been con-
jecturally ascribed to him, also a Magdalene and
S. Dominic, in San Domenico Maggiore. He died
about 1390.

STEFANONI, Giacomo Antonio, a native of
Bologna, who flourished about the year 1630. He
is said to have been both painter and engraver.
We have, among others, the following etchings by

The Virgin with the infant Christ, St. John, and two
Angels ; after lod. Carracci.

The Holy Family, with St. John; after An. Carracn.
1632. ^ .

Another Holy Family, with St. John presenting cherries ;
after the same.

The Virgin and infant Christ, with St. John ; after
Agostino Carracci.

The Murder of the Innocents ; after Quido Bent.

The Martyrdom of St. Ursula ; after L. Pasinelli.

STEFANONI, Pietbo, an Italian engraver, born
at Vicenza. about 1600, who has left a set of forty
etchings, from the, designs of the Carracci, intended
for use as a drawing-book. He marked his plates
with the initials P. S. F.

STEFFELAER, Coenelis, painter and engraver,
was born at Amsterdam in 1797. He was a pupil
of Kobell, and painted landscape. He died at
Haarlem in 1861.

STEIDL, Martin Melchior, painter, born at
Innsbruck in the 17th century, studied under Joh.
Andr. Wolf in Munich, and painted pictures in
fresco and in oil. His ' Draught of Fishes ' is in
the Dominican church at Eichstadt. He died in

STEIFENSAND, Xaveb, engraver, was born at
Caster, near Cologne, in 1809, and received his
first lessons from GOtzenberger and Cauer at Bonn.
He then became a student of the Dusseldorf
Academy, where he studied till 1833. His first
plate was from a copy of Raphael's St. Catharine,
by Desnoyers, after which he went to Darmstadt,
and worked under Felsing. In 1835 he returned
to Dusseldorf, engraved ' Shepherd and Shep-
herdess ' after Bendemann, and several plates from
drawings by Kaulbach, Sohrbdter, and Stilke for
editions de luxe of Schiller and Goethe. He was a
member and professor of the Berlin Academy. He
died at Diisseldorf in 1876. Among his other
works we may name :

A Madonna ; after Overieck.
Frederick II. ; after J. F. Schrader.
Portrait of Lacordaire ; after Chauvin.
Portrait of Pius IX.
The Child Jesus ; after E. Deger.

The Nativity, Visitation, and Ave Maria; afterMintrop.
' Eegina Cceli ' ; after K. Nuller.
The Adoration of the Magi ; after P. Veronese.
Plates after Kethel's designs for Rotteck's ' Welt-

STEIN, Theodoe Friedeich, a painter of the 18th
century, a native of Hamburg, who painted por-
traits in crayons. He died at Liibeck in 1788.

STEINBRUCK, Eduaed, born at Magdeburg,
May 3, 1802. He was intended for commerce,
and in 1817 was sent to Bremen to learn business.
There he remained until 1822, when, being called
to Berlin for his term of military service, he re-
solved to embrace art as a profession, and took
the opportunity of attending Wach's newly-opened


atelier. In 1829 he went for a short time to Diissel-
dorf, and later to Rome. It was not until 1846
that he finally settled in Berlin. He had mean-
time become well known as a painter with much
poetic feeling, and in 1841 had been elected
member of the Berlin Academy. He now received
many commissions, and became very popular, both
in his native country and in America. He became
professor at the Berlin Academy in 1854, but in
1876 retired to Landeck in Silesia, where he died
February 3, 1882. The following are among his
more important works :

BerUn. Nat. Gal. The Fairy Voyage, from

Tieck's ' Marchen.'

„ „ Children Bathing.

„ New Museum. Medallions for the Ceiling.

„ Chapel of the Schloss. The Resurrection, &c.

„ Catholic Church of ) Adoration of the Shep-

St. Hedwig. j herds.

„ Chapel^JheCatholic \ ^jtar-piece.

Magdeburg. Chwrdi^ofSt. | ^tar-piece.

Sans Souci. Friedenskirche. Christ on Olivet.

„ „ Madonna and Child.

„ „ Genevieve.

STEINER, Eduaed, painter, bom at Winterthur
in 1811, studied at Munich under the influence of
Cornelius, but made his reputation as a porti-aitist,
chiefly in pastel. He also made many landscape
drawings in pen-and-ink. He died in 1860.

STEINER, Emandbl, painter, was born at Win-
terthur in 1778. He painted landscapes in oil and
water-colour, and afterwards flower pictures in
water-colour. He etched several plates. He died
in 1831.

STEINER, Johann Konead, painter, born at
Winterthur in 1767, studied in Geneva and Dresden.
He afterwards went to Paris, and then travelled in
Italy, where he drew much after Claude Lorraine.
On his return home he devoted himself to Swiss
landscapes in oil and water-colour, and etched a
few plates. In 1796 he paid a second visit to
Italy. He died in 1818. His wife Anna Baebaea
Steiner was also a painter.

STEINER, Johann Nepomuk, painter, born at
Iglau in Moravia in 1726, after gaining a reputa-
tion as a portrait painter, went to Italy, where
he was influenced by Mengs. On his return he
painted altar-pieces in Iglau and the neighbour-
hood. In 1755 he became court painter at Vienna,
and painted some excellent portraits, among them
those of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. He died in

STEINER, Ka^AE, painter, born at Winterthur
in 1734, was first manager in a silk warehouse at
Bergamo, and then took to painting portraits,
which are warm in colour, but careless in execu-
tion. He afterwards devoted himself to landscapes,
and died at Bergamo in 1812.

STEINFELD, Franz, painter, born at Vienna
in 1787, worked first as a sculptor at the Vienna
Academy, and then took to landscape painting, in
which, though self-taught, he displayed such talent
that he was appointed painter to the court. In
1846 he became professor at the Academy in
Vienna, and led his pupils to study nature and
Ruysdael. In the Vienna Gallery he has a ' View
of Heligoland,' ' The Deserted Mill,' and ' Dawn.'
He also executed some etchings and lithographs.
He died at Pisek, in Bohemia, in 1868.

STEINFELD, Wilhelm, son and pupil of Franz
Steinfeld, born at Vienna in 1816, was also a painter




of landscapes. There is a mountain scene by him
in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. He died at
Ischl in 1854.

STEINFURTH, Hermann, who was born at
Hamburg in 1824, studied first with E. Sohn in
Diisseldorf, and then in the Academy of that city ;
and subsequently visited Italy. He afterwards
resided for some time in Diisseldorf, and won him-
self a name as an historic painter. He also made
a series of pencil drawings in illnstration of the
Prometheus of ^sohylus, and painted portraits.
He died in his native city in 1880. Pictures :

The Entombment. 1844.

The Education of Jupiter. 1846. {Cologne Museum.)
Hylas carried away by the Nymphs. 1847.
The BesurrectioQ. {In St. Nicholas, Samburg.)
„ „ {In St. Feter's, Hamburg.)

STEINHAUSER, Pauline, nJe Frank, was the
wife of the architect Karl Steinhauser, and a painter
of historical pictures. Her 'Esther before Aha-
Buerus' is in the Schloss Bellevue, at Berlin. She
died in 1866.

STEINHEIL, Louis Charles Auguste, painter,
was bom at Strasburg, June 26, 1814. He studied
under Ducaisne and David d' Angers, and first
became known as a painter of portraits and flower-
pieces. Later he produced a number of romantic
subjects, treated in imitation of the early German
masters. Upon his mural and glass paintings,
however, his reputation chiefly rests. He ex-
hibited frequently at the Salon from 1836 onwards,
and was several times premiated. He was the
brother-in-law of Meissonier, and his son and
pupil, Adolphe Charles, is a young painter of
repute in Paris. Steinheil died in 1886. The
following are good examples of his works :

Amiens. Cathedral. Several figures of Saints.

Dijon. Museum. Cartoons for the ' Marriage

of the Virgin.'
Dunkirk. Church of S. Eloi. A window painted with
the ' Marriage of the
Limoges. Cathedral. Various pictures.

Nantes. Museum. The Mother.

Several wall-paintings and windows in the Sainte
ChapeUe in Paris, and a ' St. George and the Dragon '
in the Chapel of St. George, Notre Dame.

STEINKOPP, GoTTLOB Friedkich von, painter,
born at Stuttgart in 1779, was the son and pupil of
Johaun Friedrich Steinkopf. He went to Vienna in
1799, where he transferred his attention from en-
graving to painting. Prom 1807-14 he was in Rome,
and, under the influence of Koch, Schick, and
Overbeck, painted ideal historical pictures. From
1814-21 he was in Vienna, and went thence to
Stuttgart. In 1829 he was teacher at the Stuttgart
Art School, in 1833 professor, and in 1845 head of
the school. His ' Cleobis and Biton' is in the
King of Wiirtemberg's collection, his ' Elysian
Fields' in the Stuttgart Gallery. He died at
Stiittgart in 1861.

STEINKOPF, Johann Fbiedbich, painter, was
bom at Oppenheim in 1737, and went in 1755 as
painter to the porcelain works at Ludwigsburg, in
Wiirtemberg. He afterwards painted animal pic-
tures in the style of Roos and Wouwerman, became
in 1786 teacher of drawing at the Gymnasium at
Stuttgart, and in 1801 court painter. He died at
Stuttgart in 1825.

STEINLA, MoBiTZ. See Mulleb, Moritz.

STEINLB, Johann Eduaed, painter, bom at
Vienna, July 2, 1810, was the son of an engraver.
He was at first placed with an engraver named

M M 2

Kininger in Vienna, studying in the Academy at
the same time. Finding that his real inclinations
lay towards oil painting, he entered the atelier of
Leopold Kupelwieser, who had lately returned from
Rome, and under him became an ardent supporter
of the lately-founded neo-Gerinan school of re-
ligious art. In 1828 he set out for Rome with
introductions to the chiefs of the movement, Over-
beck and Ph. Veit, by whom he was warmly re-
ceived, and under their influence his art training
was completed. He remained at Rome till 1834,
when he returned to Vienna, and made a short
stay in Frankfort. He was soon occupied with
important works, one of the first being a com-
mission from Herr von Bethmann-Hollweg to
decorate the Castle chapel at Rheineck with frescoes
illustrating the Beatitudes. In 1838 he spent
some months in Munich, studying the technique
of fresco painting under Cornelius, and shortly
afterwards settled at Frankfort, where in 1850 he
accepted a professorship at the Stadel Institute.
Steinle was a member of the Academies of Berlin,
Munich, Hanau, and Vienna, and received a gold
medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1854. In 1875
he undertook a series of decorative paintings for
Strasburg Cathedral, and one of his latest com-
missions was a ' cycle ' of religious and historic
subjects for the cathedral at Mayence. In the
Berlin National Gallery are the cartoons for his
' Last Judgment,' and a scene from ' As You Like
It.' He died in 1886. Other works:

Virgin and Child. {Bridgewater Gallery.)

Groups of Angels. {Cologne Cathedral.)

The Judgment of Solomon. 1848. {Kaisersaal, Frank-

St. Peter's Sermon. {Riga.)

Paintings in the ' ^gidienkirche ' at Miinster. 1857.

Frescoes in the "Wallraf Museum at Cologne, and in the
' Marienkirche ' at Aix-la-Chapelle. 1860—1866.

Decoration of the Lowenstein Chapel at Heubach. 1867.

STEINMULLER, Joseph, born at Vienna in
1795, received his first instruction at the Academy
of that city under Maurer, and began in 1818 as an
engraver of portraits. His principal plates are the
three which follow ; they were engraved for the
Austrian Art Union :

The Madonna in the Meadow ; after Raphael.

The Virgin and Child ; after Leonardo da Vinci.

A Madonna and Child, and two Saints ; after Ferugino.

Steinmiiller also engraved several plates for the
' Vienna Gallery.' He died in 1841.

STELLA. See Stern, Ignaz.

STELLA. A family of French painters and
engravers, of Flemish origin. The following table
shows their genealogy, and relation with the Bou-
zonnets, who also called themselves Stella:

Jean Stella


Francois Stella


Jacques Franpois
1696—1057. 1603-1647.

Madeleine Stella
Married to Etienne Bouzonnet.





STELLA, Antoine. See Bouzonnet.

STELLA, Antoinette. See Bouzonnet.

STELLA, Claudine. See Bouzonbtt.

STELLA, Franqois, the elder, painter, son of
Jean Stella, was born at Mechlin in 1565. In 1578
he accompanied a Jesuit friend to Rome, and there
studied painting. On his return northwards he
stopped at Lyons, and there married the daughter
of a notary. He painted a large number of religious





pictures in that city, among others a ' Descent from
the Cross ' for the C^lestins, and an ' Entombment '
for the church of St. Jean. He died at Lyons in

STELLA, FRAN901S, younger brother of Jacques
Stella, born at Lyons in 1601, was instructed by
his brother, whom he accompanied to Italy. He
painted history, but never arrived at much emi-
nence, and was very inferior to Jacques. There
are some pictures by him in Paris churches, among
them an altar-piece, representing the dead Christ
with the Virgin Mary and St. John, at Les Augustins.
He died in Paris in 1661.

STELLA, Feanqoise. See Bouzonnet.

STELLA, Jacques, an eminent French painter,
born at Lyons in 1696, was the son of Franjois
Stella. His father taught him the rudiments of
design, but he was left an orphan when only nine
years old. He had, however, at that early age,
made such progress, that he continued his studies
without another master. When he had reached
his twentieth year he travelled in Italy, and passing
through Florence, on his way to Rome, was em-
ployed by Cosmo de' Medici to assist in the pre-
parations for the marriage of his son Ferdinand.
He painted several pictures for the Grand Duke,
who assigned him apartments in bis palace, with
a pension equal to that of Callot, who was at that
time in the same service. After a residence of seven
years at Florence, he proceeded to Rome in 1623.
Tliere he studied in the society of Nicholas Poussin,
with whom he contracted an intimate acquaintance.
Stella resided eleven years at Rome. In 1634
he returned to France, where his talents recom-
mended him to Richelieu, by whose favour he was
appointed painter to the king, with a pension, and
was presented with the order of St. Michael. His
principal works in Paris are a ' Baptism of Christ,'
in the church of St. Germain-le-Vieux ; an 'Annun-
ciation,' in the chapel of the Nuns of the Assump-
tion ; and a ' Christ with the Woman of Samaria,'
at the Carmelites. Stella was more successful in
easel pictures than in large works. His composi-
tion is graceful, and his design correct; but his
works as a whole are cold and lifeless. He died in
Paris in 1657. The Louvre possesses two of his
pictures, an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' on ala-
baster, and a ' Minerva and the Muses.' Stella left
some etchings, among them the following :

The Descent from the Cross.

The Ceremony of Homage to the Grand Duke of

Tuscany on St. John's Day. 1621.
A Madonna.
St. George.
Children dancing.

A great number of his decorative designs have
been engraved by Edelinck, Claudine Bouzonnet
(called Stella), the Poillys, Mellan, Paul Bosse, and

STELLA, Jean, painter, the first of the family,
^vas born at Antwerp in 1526. Nothing is known
of his works. He died in 1601.

STELZER, JoHANN Jakob, a German engraver,
who flourished about the year 1720. He engraved
sorne plates for the collection of prints from the
antique marbles in the Dresden gallery, which was
pubHshed in 1733.

STEMPSIUS. See Sempelius.

STENBOCK, MAONns Graf von, a Swedish field-
marshal, born at Stockholm in 1764. He painted
some good portraits, and executed mechanical art
work. He died at Copenhagen in 1717


STENDARDO. See Bloemen, Pieter van.

STENGLIN, Johann, engraver, born at Augs-
burg in 1716, studied under Bodenehr, and en-
graved after Dinglinger, Grooth, Haid, Klein, and
De Meytens. In 1743 he received a summons to St.
Petersburg, and engraved portraits of Russian
Czars and members of the Royal Family. He died
at St. Petersburg in 1770.

STENNETT, William, amateur, was a merchant
at Boston, in Lincolnshire, who practised, under
the pseudonym of ' Delineator,' as an antiquarian
draughtsman in the first part of the 18th century.
His chief productions were drawings of Lincoln-
shire churches, some of which were engraved, the
best known being those of Boston and Walpole
churches. He died poor at Boston about 1762.

STENRBB, (or Steenhee,) by some called
WiLLEM, by others Geoeg, was a nephew of Cor-
nells Poelemburg, by whom he was instructed, and
whose manner he followed. His birth is placed at
Utrecht in 1600, and his death in 1648, but on
uncertain authority.

STENT, Peter, resided in London, and carried
on a considerable business as u printseller from
1640 to 1662. It is believed that he occasionally
engraved. A portrait of Andrew Willet, with six
Latin verses, and marked with the initials P. S.,
is generally attributed to him.

STEPHAN, (Stephanus, or Stevens,) Jo-
hannes, called Calcar, from his birth-place in the
Duchy of Cleves, was born in 1449. He worked
for a time at Dordrecht, and in 1536 went to Venice,
and became a pupil of Titian. He imitated his
master with much success, and painted portraits
that have been mistaken for works of Vecelli.
Later he also imitated Raphael. He spent the
greater part of his life in Italy, and at Naples
became acquainted with Vasari, who speaks of him
in terms of high praise, and states that he made
the designs forthe ' De humani corporis fabrica ' of
Vesalius. It is said that he also drew the por-
traits in the early editions of Vasari. He died at
Naples about 1546. The following portraits are
ascribed to him :

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of a Young Man.

Paris. Louvre. Ditto.

Vienna, Gallery. Portrait of a Man.

STEPHAN, Meistbr. See Lochner.

STEPHANI. See Stevens, Pieter.

STEPHANOFF, Francis Philip, was born in
London in 1788. He was the son of Fileter Ste-
phanofi, and painted popular pictures in oils and
water-colours, such as 'The Poor Relation,' 'Re-
conciliation,' ' The Trial of Algernon Sidnej'.' He
also made the drawings for Pyne's ' Royal Resid-
ences,' and a fine series of costume portraits for
' Garter's ' worlc on the coronation of George IV.
This series is now in the South Kensington Museum.
Another excellent series was devoted to the ' Field
of the Cloth of Gold.' His illustrations are to be
found in a great many other books published in
the first half of the present century. He died at
West Hannam, in Gloucestershire, in 1860.

STEPHANOFF, N Fileter, a Russian

painter, who settled in London in the second half
of the 18th century. He exhibited at the Royal Aca-
demy in 1778-81. He was by profession a portrait
painter, but in this country was chiefly employed on
decorations for ceilings, and scenery for a Circus
in St. George's Fields. He committed suicide
some time before 1790. His wife, GERTRnDE Ste-




PHANOFF, was a flower-painter and teacher of
drawing. Slie exhibited at the Academy in 1783
and 1805, and died at Brompton in 1806. Her
daughter, M. G. Stephanoff, followed the same

STERN, Ignaz, (called Stella,) painter, was
bom at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, about the year 1698.
He went early in his life to Bologna, where he
entered the school of Carlo Cignani. He painted
for churches in Lombardy, and resided several
years at Rome, where he was much employed
both for public buildings and private collections.
In the Basilica of St. John Lateran, there is an
Assumption by him ; he also painted some frescoes
in the sacristy of S. Paoliuo. He also painted

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