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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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concerts, conversations, and bambocciafe. He died
at Rome in 1746.

STETTLER, Wilhelm, was a native of Berne,
and a scholar of Konrad Meyer at Zurich and of
Joseph Werner at Paris. He accompanied the
arcliseologist Charles Patin in his travels through
Holland and Italy, and designed most of the plates
in his publications on medals and antiquities.
Stettler died in 1708.

STEUBEN, Karl, painter, wasborn at Bauer-
bach, near Baden, in 1788. His 'father was an
officer in the Russian army, and he received his
first education at the Academy of St. Petersburg,
and then went to Paris, where he studied under
Gerard, Robert Lefevre, and Prud'hon. In 1812 he
exhibited for the first time. He soon made his
mark, and was employed by the French Government
and decorated with the cross of the Legion of
Honour. Late in life he visited Russia, and painted
seven scenes from the life of Christ for St. Isaac's
cathedral. He died in Paris in 1856. Works :

Amiens. Museum. Peter the Great in a storm on

Lake Ladoga. 1812.
Compiegne. Palace, Mercury and Argus. 1822.

Lille. Museum. Jeanne La FoUe.

Nantes. „ Esmeralda.

Paris. St. Germain des I St. Germain giving alms.

Pres. S 181T.

Strasburg. Cathedral. The Assumption.
Valenciennes. Museum. Peter the Great saved by his
mother from the Strelitz.
Versailles. Gallery. Battle of Ivry.

„ „ Battle of Poitiers.

„ „ Many portraits.

Steuben's wife, El^onorb, practised portrait paint-
ing in Paris.

STEUDTNBR, Mark Christoph, born at Augs-
burg in 1698, engraved the ' Loves of the Gods,'
and many other subjects on copper and wood, and
in mezzotint. He was also much employed on
designs for goldsmiths, in conjunction with his
brother Esajas. He died in 1736.

STEVAERTS, (Staevaerts, Stevees, Stevens,)
Anthonie Palabiedesz, painter, was the son of
Palamedes Stevaerts, a gem-engraver of Delft, and
was born in that city in 1600. lie painted por-
traits and conversations, and was particularly
successful in the rendering of groups of small
figures in interiors, at meals or musical entertain-
ments. He frequently painted figures in the archi-
tectural pieces of his friend Dirk van Deelen. He
was admitted into the Guild of S. Luke in 1621,
and later filled the important office of Dean. He
died in 1673. Works by him :

Berlin. Gallejy. Portrait of a Young Girl.

„ „ A Party at Table in a Park.

„ „ Portrait of a Boy.

Brussels. Gallery. Portrait of a Man.

» „ The Musical Party.

Copenhagen. Gallery. Soldiers Playing Cards in a

Hague. Museum. Portrait of an Officer.

Petersburg. Hermitage. An Interior, ladies and gentle-
men singing.
Vienna. Ziechenstein \ Guard-Room Interior, two pic-
Gallery. j tures.
The Concert. {Belonging (1885) to the Dowager Madame
de t/onge, at the Hague.)

STEVAERTS, (Staevaerts, Stevers, Stevens,)
Palamedes Palamedbsz, painter, was the brother
of Anthonie Palamedesz. It is said that his father,
having been summoned to the court of James I. of
England, remained for some time in London, and
that during this sojourn Palamedes was born, in
1607. On the return of the family to Delft he
worked for a time in his brother Anthonie's studio,
and also studied the works of Esaias van der Velde,
devoting himself finally almost exclusively to the
representation of battles, skirmishes, and hand-to-
hand encounters in the manner which Esaias had
brought into fashion. These be treated with extra-
ordinary animation. He became a member of the
Guild of S. Luke in 1627. He was deformed, and
his early death in 1638, at the age of thirty,
accounts for the rarity of his works.

Berlin. Gallery. A Skirmish between Swedes

and Imperialists.
Dresden. Gallery. Cavalry Combat.

„ „ A Cavalier with a Staff.

Munich. Pinakothek. Cavalry attacking Musketeers

and Pikemen.
„ „ A Cavalry Pight.

Vienna. Gallery. A Cavalry Charge.

„ Liechtenstein Gal. A Skirmish of Cavalry.

STEVENS, Alfred, the sculptor of the Wel-
lington Monument in St. Paul's, was also a painter
of remarkable powers. He was born towards the
end of 1817, at Blandford, in Dorsetshire. At the
age of eight he could make a recognizable portrait,
and when he had reached more mature years, he
was sent to Italy by a discriminating friend, the
Hon. and Rev. Samuel Best. There he copied the
early fresco painters of Florence, as well as Andrea
del Sarto, and afterwards Titian, his copies from
whom are extraordinarily fine. Plis motto through
life, however, asserted the unity of art. In Italy he
studied architecture and sculpture as well as paint-
ing, and on hie return home it was in the two
latter arts that he was chiefly active, and in those,
together with ornamental design, he won his great
name. In England his activity as a painter was
confined to a few portraits — two of Mr. and Mrs.
Leonard Collnian may be named — and to decorative
designs. Of the latter the most notable are a
design for the decoration of the British Museum
Reading Room, at South Kensington ; four prophets
for the spandrils of the dome of St. Paul's, one of
which has been carried out in mosaic ; and a sketch
for the decoration of the dome itself. The two
latter belong to the cathedral authorities. Stevens
died at Haverstock Hill, in 1875. For further
particulars see ' Alfred Stevens,' by Walter Arm-
strong, 1881.

STEVENS, Anthonis, painter, a native of
Mechlin, flourished in the second part of the 16th
century, and was the head of a numerous family
of artists. For his eldest son, see Stevens, Pibter.
His daughter, Joanna, married a painter, Maurice
Mobeelse, and had a son Maurice, who was also a





painter. His younger son, Jakob Stevens the
elder, flourished at Mechlin at the beginning of the
17th century, and settled at Antwerp, but later
practised again at Mechlin, where he married in
1614. He died before 1630, leaving, among other
children, two sons, jAN and Jakob {q. v.).

STEVENS, D., an English portrait painter of the
18th century. He painted a portrait of George I.,
which was engraved by J. Faber.

STEVENS, Peanois, water-colour painter, born
in 1781. He appears to have been a pupil of P.
S. Munn, and his name first appears at the Royal
Academy in 1804. Joining the W^ater-Colour
Society in 1806, his works were exhibited there
for a few years, and he assisted in forming the
Sketching Society. He then seems to have mi-
grated to Norfolk, as in 1810 he belonged to the
Norwich Society of Artists. His latter years were
spent in Exeter, where he died suddenly from
apoplexy in 1822 or 1823. There is a volume of
etchings of English cottages and farm-houses,
published by him in 1815. The following are two
specimens of his work with the brush :

Devon and Ea:eter Insti- 1 L^gyg; i, cjeeve. 1820.

iution. ) °

S. Kensiru/ton Museum, j A Devonshire Cottage. 1806.

STEVENS, Jakob, the younger, painter, the
son of Jakob Stevens, was born at Meclilin in 1593.
He was his father's pupil, practised in his native
town, and married there in 1620. Having lost his
first wife by the plague, he married his pupil,
Agnes Bissohops, in 1626. He died in 1662.

STEVENS, Jan, called Db Cuypere, a Flemish
painter of the 14th century. Details of his life
and works are wanting. _The town registers of
Antwerp record that he was practising in that city
in 1378. His father, Andbies Stevens, also worked
as a painter at Antwerp,

STEVENS, Jan, painter, the son of Jakob the
elder, was born at Mechlin in 1595. He was a
member of the Guild of S. Luke, practising in his
native town and at Antwerp. He died about 1627.

STEVENS, Jan or John, a Dutch landscape
painter, settled in England in the early part of
the 18th century. His works were chiefly small pic-
tures in the manner of Van Diest ; many are to
be found in old English houses over doors and
chimney-pieces. He died in London in 1722.

STEVENS, JoHANN, (or Stephanus,) a German
engraver, who flourished at Strasburg about the
year 1585. His plates are frequently little more
than outlines, but they are from his own designs,
and prove him to have been a man of some genius.
He generally marked them with the initials I. and
S. and the date.

STEVENS, John, a Scotch subject and portrait
painter, born at Ayr about 1793. He studied in
the schools of the Royal Academy, where he
obtained two silver medals in 1818. After prac-
tising porti'aiture for a time at Ayr, he went to
Italy, where he spent the chief part of his artistic
career. He was a foundation member of the Scottish
Academy. Travelling in France, he met with a
railway accident, which eventually brought about
his death at Edinburgh in 1868. As specimens of
his art may be cited :

Edinburgh. Nat. Gal. The Standard-Bearer.
London. Nat. Fart. Gal. Sir C. Bell.

STEVENS, John, an English engraver of the
18th century, who practised in London, and en-

graved a series of views of English scenery in
conjunction with C. Grignon.

STEVENS, Palamedes. See Stevaebts.

STEVENS, (or Stbevens,) Pibteb, called Ste-
PHANI, a painter, born at Mechlin in 1540, was the
eldest son of Anthonis Stevens of Mechlin. He
settled at Prague about 1690, and was appointed
painter to the Emperor Rudolph II. In 1600 he
is said to have returned to his native town, and to
have painted four landscapes, which Gillis Sadeler
engraved in 1620, under the name of ' The Four
Seasons.' He was the uncle of Maurice Moreelse
the younger, who studied under him at Prague.
Stevens died at Prague after 1620. In the Vienna
Gallery there is a ' Woody Landscape with a Stag
and Hounds' by him, and a 'Fight with the
Amalekites ' ; two small landscapes in the Bruns-
wick Gallery are also attributed to him. It has
been stated that several German painters called
Stevens or Stephani, (a name adopted by Pieler
Stevens at Prague,.) were ofEshoots of his family.
The following artists are among his known and
supposed descendants:

Pieteb Stevens the younger, his son, painter
and engraver, practised at Prague. Anthonis
Stevens the younger, called Stephani, his grandson,
painter, settled at Prague in 1644, and died there in
1672. Anthonis Stevens was also known as Stevens
of Steinfels, and had a son a fresco-painter, who died
at the beginning of the 18th century. One Stein-
fels or Stevens, who worked in 1695 — 1698 at the
convent of Waldsassen, in Bavaria, was probably
of the family, as also a certain Paul Stevens, who
practised at Prague in 1674.

STEVENS, (or Stibvens,) Richaed, a Dutch
painter, sculptor, and medallist, who came to
England in the reign of Elizabeth, and designed
and executed the monument to Eadclifie, Earl of
Sussex, in Boreham Church, Suffolk. The Lumley
family possesses some portraits by him, notably one
of John, Lord Lumley, 1590, painted in the manner
of Holbein. The curious portraits of Queen Eliza-
beth, in a gown embroidered with sea-monsters,
and of Mary Queen of Scots, both at Hardwicke,
have been ascribed to him. His reputation in
England rests chiefly on his achievements as a

• STEVENSON, Thomas, an English landscape
painter, and pupil of Aggas, practised towards the
end of the 17th century. He made the designs for
the Jubilee pageants of the Goldsmiths' Company,
in the mayoralty of Sir Robert Vyner. He also
painted portraits, two of which were engraved.

STEVER, GusTAV Cubt, historical and genre
painter, was born at Riga in 1823, and went in 1847
to the Berlin Academy, whence he was summoned '
in 1850 to Stockholm, where he painted portraits
for the Court, and for Upsala University. In 1854 he
went to Paris, and studied in the school of Couture.
His chief works are : ' The Death of Gottschalk,
the Vandal King,' ' Abishag and King David,' ' The
Transfiguration,' 'The Visitation,' 'The Last Sup-
per,' cartoons of the Four Evangelists for the
windows of the Schroder Mausoleum in Hamburg,
and cartoons for the windows of S. Paul's Church in
Schwerin. From 1859 to 1865 he worked in Ham-
burg, but died at Diisseldorf in 1877.

STEVERS. See Stevaebts.

STEWARDSON, Thomas, was born at Kendal in
1781. He went to London, and became a pupil of
Romney. He painted portraits with considerable
success, and was appointed to the household of




Queen Caroline. His portrait of Grote is in the
National Portrait Gallery. He died in London in

STEWART, Anthony, born at Crieff, Perthshire,
in 1773, was placed under Alexander Nasmyth in
Edinburgh to study landscape. He made many
sketches of Scotch scenery, but at an early period
took to miniature, which, after some practice in
Scotland, he adopted as his profession, and estab-
lished himself in London. He painted the Princess
Charlotte, and the first miniature ever done of the
Princess Victoria. In the last fifteen years of his
life he devoted himself entirely to painting children.
He died in London in 1846.

STEWART, Gilbert. See Stuabt.

STEWART, James, an English portrait painter,
who practised in the middle and latter half of the
18th century. He was appointed Sergeant Painter
to George III. in 1764, and worked for Boydell.
There is a portrait of G. F. Cooke by him at the
■Qarrick Club.

STEWART, James, painter and engraver, was
born at Edinburgh in 1791. He studied under
Robert Scott and John Burnet, and at the Trustee's
Academy, under Graham. His first plate was
'Tartar Brigands dividing their Spoil,' after Allan,
on which followed ' The Murder of Archbishop
Sharp,' and 'The Abdication of Mary Stuart,'
after the same. At .this time Stewart was teach-
ing in Edinburgh. In 1830 he went to London,
where he engraved Wilkie's 'Gentle Shepherd,'
' The Pedlar,' and ' The Penny Wedding.' In 1833
he emigrated and went to Algoa Bay. When
the Catfre insurrection broke out his farm was de-
stroyed, and he and his family had to fly to Somer-
set. He then fell back upon art, and by painting
portraits and teaching he was enabled to buy
another farm, on which he resided for many years.
He died in the colony in 1863.

STEYAERT, Anthonie, painter, born at Bruges
in 1765. He studied at the Academy of his native
town, and afterwards settled at Ghent, where he
became a Professor at the Academy, and died in
1863. In the church of S. Nicholas at Ghent
there is a ' S. Anthony ' by him.

STIELER, Joseph Karl, was born at Mayence
in 1781. After working for a time at miniature
painting.he studied oil under Pasel at Wurzburg, and
then went to study under Fiiger, at Vienna. In

1805 he was painting in Poland, whence he pro-
ceeded to Paris to work under Gerard. Then he
painted a ' S. Charles ' for the Grand Duke of
Frankfort, in which city he was in 1808. Between

1806 and 1816 he visited Frankfort, Milan, Rome,
Munich, and Vienna. In 1820 he became painter
to the Austrian court. Among others he painted
portraits of Goethe, Tieck, Humboldt, Schelling,
and Beethoven. He died at Munich in 1858.

STi:^MART, FEANgois, portrait painter, born at
Douai in 1680, was keeper of the French king's
pictures, and decorator to the Louvre. He was
received into the Academy in 1720, his reception
picture being a copy after Rigaud's portrait of
Louis XIV. There is by him at Pontainebleau a.
picture of 'Children Playing with a Dog.'

STIFTER, Adalbert, the poet, born at Ober-
plan, in Bohemia, in 1806, was also known as a
painter of miniatures. An example of his work on
copper is in Herr R. Fischer's collection in Vienna.
He died at Linz in 1868.

STILKE, Hermann, painter, born at Berlin in
1803, received his first instruction in the Academy

there. In 1821 he went to Munich, and then
accompanied Cornelius to Dtisseldorf. After he
had, with Stiirmer, painted a ' Last Judgment ' in
the Assize Court in Coblenz, he devoted himself to
the frescoes in the Court garden in Munich. From
Munich he went to Italy, and on his return in 1833
joined Schadow at Dtisseldorf From 1842-46 he
was engaged on frescoes in the Rittersaal at Stol-
zenfels, and in 1850 was painting frescoes in the
Royal Schloss and in the new theatre, at Dessau.
He died at Berlin in 1860. His 'Children of
Edward IV. taken from their Mother' is in the
National Gallery, Berlin. His wife, Hermine, was
a cleVer designer of ornamental borders, initials,
&c., for editions ' de luxe.' She died at Berlin in

STIMMER, Johann Christoph, perhaps the
younjrer brother of Tobias Stimmer, was born at
SchafEhausen in 1552. He distinguished himself
as an eminent engraver on wood, and executed
cuts from the designs of Tobias. He marked bis
prints with a monogram composed of the letters

C. S. T. M., thus,

But there is much dispute

as to what should be included in his oeuvre and
as to whether another monogram, in which C. S.
also occurs, should be ascribed to Stimmer or to
Christoph Maurer. Besides the cuts in the Bible,
published at B^sle in 1586, we have the following
prints by him :

A set of cuts for the New Testament, printed at Stras-

burg in 1588.
A set of portraits of German savants; published by

Bernard Jobio, at Strasburg, in 1587
A set of Emblems entitled Icones Jffabrm, published by

B. Jobio at Strasbnrg, in 1591.

STIMMER, Tobias, was born at SchafEhausen the
7th of April, 1539. It is not known under whom
he studied, but he acquired a reputation by decor-
ating the fa9ades of houses in his native town with
historical subjects in fresco. He was invited to
the court of the Margrave of Baden to paint a series
of ancestral portraits. His frescoes have perished ;
but his ability appears in the woodcuts from his
designs. Tobias Stimmer also engraved on wood
himself, and with his brother, Johaim Christoph
Stimmer, executed the outs for the Bible published
at Basle in 1586, and ' Novae Tobia; Stimmeri
sacrorum Bibliorum figure versibus Latinis et
Germanicis expositss,' which he had himself
designed. Rubens declared he had studied these
prints with attention, and recommended tL-em to
young artists. Among his other works may be
named cuts for a ' Livy,' a ' Josephus,' cuts of
animals for a ' Neues Jagdbuch,' 1590, and a series
of satirical drawings directed against the Pope.
Tobias Stimmer usually marked his prints with a

monogram composed of a T. and an S., thus ^ .

He died in 1592 (?).

STIRNBRANDT, Fbanz Xaver, was bom about
1793. He began his career as a painter upon
lacquer, and afterwards worked in Frankfort, orna-
menting metal boxes. In 1813 he went to Stuttgart,
and afterwards studied in Paris and in Rome.
Returning to Stuttgart in 1825, he obtained a good
practice as a portrait painter, and painted various
members of the royal family. He died in 1880.

STOBER, Franz, engravei-, born at Vienna in
1795, son and pupil of Josef Stober, studied at the
Academy of Vienna under Maurer, where he gained
several prizes. At first he worked with his father





for books and almanacks, but in 1830 he engraved
the portraits of the Emperor Francis and the Em-
press Caroline Augusta, Don Miguel, and Alexander
von Humboldt. His plates are numerous; among
them we may name :

The Return of the Peasant ; after WaUmiiller. 1835.

The Death of Zriny ; after Krafft. 1836.

The Spendthrift ; after Dannhauser.

The Convent Soup ; after the same. 1839.

The Opening of the Will ; after the same. 1843.

The Novel Reading ; after the same. 1851.

S. Catharine of Siena ; after Rieder. 1846.

Dolce far Niente ; after Ender. 1851.

Madonna with the Child ; after Sassoferrato.

The Judgment of Solomon ; after Fuhrick. 1853.

The Sibyls ; after Raphael. 1854.

Besides these he has also left some etchings of
Austrian celebrities after Dannhauser. He died in

STOBER, Franz, painter, born at Viennain 1760,
studied with the Jesuits, and under the painter
Christian Brand. He afterwards paid a visit to
the Netherlands to study the Dutch masters. Re-
turning to Vienna, he met with no success, and so
settled at Spiers. He painted, among other things,
the ' Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen,' and a
view of the ruins of St. James's Church at Spiers.
He died at Vienna in 1834.

STOCK, Andreas, resided chiefly at Antwerp,
where (?) he was born about 1616. He is supposed
to have been a pupil of Jakob de Gheyn the elder,
from the similarity of their style. He engraved
several of the plates for the ' Acad^mie de L'Espde,'
published at Antwerp by Thibeau ; which are
inscribed Andreas Stdkius HagcB Gomitis sculp.
We have the following plates by him :

Albrecht Diirer ; Effigies Alberti Omen. And. Stock, sc.

Han.s Holbein ; Ejffigies Holheini, Fief oris celeherrimi se
ipse pinx. And. Stock, fecit.

Lucas van Leyden ; from a picture hy hiviself.

Peter Sneyers, Painter ; after A . Vandi/ck.

The Sacrifice of Abraham ; after Rubens.

The Twelve Months in the Year ; after WUdens.

A set of eight Landscapes ; after Paul Frill,

STOCK, DoEis, (Dora,) painter, bom at Leipsic
in 1761, was a daughter of Johann Michael Stock,
an obscure engraver. She was a member of the
Dresden Academy, and copied many of the principal
works in the Dresden Gallery. She also gained
some reputation by original works. She died in

STOCK, Martin, painter, was born at Hermann-
stadt' in 1746. He was a pupil of Meyten, and
settled at Pressburg, where he painted altar-pieces
and portraits. He left a set of etchings of Gipsy
musicians. He died in 1800, having for some time
abandoned art for trade.

STOCKADE. See Helt-Stokade.

STOCKER, JoRG, (Stocker,) painter of Ulm,
who flourished from 1481 to 1525. To him are
assigned a panel in the Neidhart Chapel at Ulm,
and altar-pieoes at Oberstadion and Dischingen.

STOCKMANN, Jakob, painter, born at Ham-
burg about 1700, studied in Holland under Meyering
and M. Carre. He painted landscapes with animals,
and died at Hamburg in 1750.

STOCKVISCH. See Stokvis.

STOER, LoRENZ, a native of Augsburg, flour-
ished about the year 1567. He is mentioned by
Professor Christ as a painter and engraver on
wood, and is said to have marked his cuts with the

cipher ^.


STOFFB, J. V. D., a painter of battle-pieces,
chiefly skirmishes of cavalry, flourished about the
year 1649. His pictures are not uncommon, though
his history is not known. They are generally small,
on panel, spirited in action, well-drawn, and
smoothly finished. They are sometimes attributed
to D. Stoop, or Esaias Vandevelde. His pictures,
when untouched, have his name, and sometimes
the date.

STOKADE. See Helt-Stokade.

STOKER, Bartholomew, portrait painter, was
the son of an upholsterer in Dublin, and studied at
the art schools in that town, working at the same
time under his father. He became very successful
as a portraitist in crayons. He died at Dublin in

STOKVIS, Hendeik, (Stokvisch,) painter, born
at Loenen, in the province of Utrecht, in 1768, went
when he was seventeen years of age to Amsterdam,
to learn drawing and painting under J. C. Schultsz.
He studied hard from nature, and painted land-
scapes with sheep, oxen, &c., often in Indian ink
and pastel. He died in 1824. The Amsterdam
Museum possesses a good example of his art : it is
signed JB. Stokvisch.

STOLKER, Jan, portrait painter, designer, and
engraver in aquafortis and mezzotint, was born at
Amsterdam in 1724, and studied portrait painting
there under J. M. Qiiinkhardt, with whom he re-
mained till he was twenty-three. He then removed
to the Hague, where he lived nine years painting
portraits and family groups ; moving afterwards
to Rotterdam, and there following the same branch
of art. He also painted cabinet pictures. When
about fifty he abandoned painting, and devoted
himself to making copies in water-colours and
Indian ink. He etched some plates after Rem-
brandt, P. Hals, Jan Steen, Schalcken, Adriaen
Ostade, Brekelenkara, and others. He was also
much employed on designs for hangings and other
decorations. There is a portrait group by him in
the Rotterdam Museum. He died at Rotterdam
in 1786.

STOLTZHIUS (Stolzius). See Stoss.

STOLZEL, Christian Ernst, engraver, bom at
Dresden in 1792, was the son and pupil of Christian
Friedrich Stolzel. He first copied the works of
Goltzius, Preissler, Seifest, and Bervic, and then en-
graved a ' Hagar in the Wilderness,' after Baroccio,
and several vignettes and small portraits. In 1822
he went on foot to Italy, where he painted land-
scapes, engraved a ' St. Catharine ' and a ' St. John
the Evangelist,' after Fra Angelico, and made a
drawing of Raphael's ' Coronation of the Virgin,'
which on his return home he engraved. He died

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 140 of 201)