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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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STURMER, Karl, painter, born at Berlin in
1803, was the son and pupil of Johann Heinrich
Stiirmer. He studied at Diisseldorf under Corne-
lius, and devoted himself chiefly to fresco painting.
His first work of importance was a fresco in the
Schloss, Helltorf, near Diisseldorf, 'The Recon-
ciliation between Barbarossa and Pope Alexander.'
He accompanied Cornelius to Munich, and was
employed upon the frescoes in the arcades of the
' Hofgarten,' and again, in 1842, went with the
master to Berlin, and painted several frescoes from
Schinkel's designs in the portico of the Berlin
Museum. He further painted two -figures of pro-
phets for the Schloss Chapel, and numerous easel
pictures, battle-pieces, landscapes, and genre
pictures. He died in March, 1881.

STURMIO, Heenando, a Dutchman, born at
Ziricksee, resided at Seville about the middle of the
16th century, and painted the altar of the chapel of


the Evangelists in the cathedral there, in several
compartments. One of these connpartments is in-
scribed, Hernandus Sturmius Ziriczcensis faciebat,

STURRINI, Maeco, an Italian painter, who is
known only by the existence, in the IJfiizi at
Florence, of a ' Penitent Magdalene ' with this
inscription : Opus Marci Sturrini, 1654.

STIJRT, John, born in Loudon the 6th of April,
1658, and a pupil of Robert White, was an excellent
engraver of letters. His principal work is his
Book of Common Prayer, published in 1717, which
was engraved on silver plates. At the top of every
page tliere is a small historical vignette. He died
in 1730.

STUVEN, Eenst van, born at Hamburg in 1657,
was the pupil of an obscure painter, named Hins.
In 1675 he went to Amsterdam, where he studied
under Jan Voorhout, a reputable painter of history
and portraits. Finding that the pictures of flowers
atid fruit by Abraham Mignon were at that time in
great favour, and having himself an inclination for
that branch of the art, he became his disciple, and
won a respectable place in the same genre. He
was a man of violent character, and was more
than once in prison. He died in 1712.

SUARDI, Babtolommeo, called Bramantino, and
in the historical records of his time, Bramantino de'
Suardis, was born about 1450. He was the pupil
successively of Foppa and Bramante, and followed
the latter to Rome in the early part of the 16th
century. There in 1508 he executed a series of
frescoes in the Stanze, by orders of Julius IL, all of
which were afterwards destroyed to make way for
the work of Raphael. Of his early paintings,
there is in the Louvre a ' Circumcision ' dated
1491 ; and in the Municipio at Milan is a ' Cruci-
fixion ' of the same date, though now much injured
through repainting. At the church of San Sepolcro,
Milan, is a fresco called the ' Christ of Pity,' that
was painted soon after his return from Rome. In
the library of the Ambrosiana, Milan, can be seen
a sketch-book containing architectural and other
designs, which were probably made during his
visits to Rome and Florence, which occurred pre-
viously to 1513. In that year he painted for the
Cistercians at Rome a ' Pietk,' which had been con-
tracted for by the brethren of the monastery of
Chiaravalle, near Milan ; it is now lost. The picture
formerly ascribed to Bramantino in the National
Gallery, is now restored to his master, Foppa. He
was in Milan in 1523, when it was besieged by the
French, and so distinguished himself in its defence,
that in 1525 he received from the Duke Francesco
Maria a patent as architect and engineer. From
that date until 1536, when he probably died, he
continued to execute both frescoes and paintings,
among which we may name :

Locarno. .^/at^oana ) ■,-,. ■,,.. ^ . ,«. jv

deZ&sso.;^''elit»"'° Egypt. (Sigmd.)

Milan. S. Sepolcro. Pieta with Figures.

„ S. Seiastiano. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.

„ Municipio. Crucifixion.

„ Brera. Virgin, Child, and Angels.

„ „ St. Martin dividing his Cloak.

Casa Mdzi. The Virgin, St. Michael, St.
Paris. Louvre. The Circumcision. 1491.

The Adoration of the Magi. (Sir H. Luyari)

SUAU, Jean, painter, born at Toulouse in 1758,
was a pupil of Rivalz, and gained the first prize for
painting at the Toulouse Academy. He afterwards
became professor, fellow of the Academy and




director of the Museum. He died at Toulouse in

SUAU, PiEKRE Theodore, painter, the son of
Jean Suau, was born at Toulouse. He studied
with his father and with David, and entered the
Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1811. He painted chiefly
religious subjects, and many of his works are to
be found in the churches of Toulouse and other
towns in the south of France. He died in 1856.

SUAVIUS, Lambert, an engraver of the 16th
century, who practised at Li6ge. He was the pupil
and brother-in-law of Lambert Lombard, with
whom he has been often confounded. He flourished
between 1540 and 1559. He signed his plates l. s.
The most important is a ' Raising of Lazarus,' after
Lambert Lombard.

SUBLEYRAS, Pierre, (Hubert,) a French
painter, bom at Usez, in Languedoo, in 1699, was
the son and pupil of Mathieu Subleyras, an artist
of little celebrity. When he was fifteen years of
age he was placed under Antoine Rivalz, of Toulouse.
On leaving that master in 1724, he went to Paris,
and obtained tjie first prize at the Academy, for
a 'Raising the Brazen Serpent.' He finished his
studies in Rome, and established himself there for
the remainder of his life. His altar-piece for St.
Peter's, which he lived to see executed in mosaic,
represents St. Basil celebrating Mass before the
Emperor Valens. It has been engraved by Do-
menico Cunego. He also painted portraits. He
married Maria Tibaldi, the miniature painter, in
1739. He died at Rome in 1749. Two of his
pictures, one of them a ' Magdalen washing Christ's
feet,' painted for the canons of St. John Lateran,
are in the Louvre ; two in the Brera at Milan ; and
at Alton Towers, the seat of the Earl of Shrewsbury,
there is a 'Fall of Simon Magus.' Many others
are in the French provincial museums. He has
left a few etchings from his own designs ; among
them the following :

The Brazen Serpent.

The Martyrdom of St. Peter.

Mary Magdalene washing the Feet of Christ.

The Holy Family ; in an oval.

St. Bruno restoring a Child to life.

Martyrdom of St. Peter.

A set of four Plates from Fontaine's Fables.

SUDR^, Jean Pierre, painter and lithograplier,
was born at Alby, September 19, 1783. He studied
first under Suau at the Toulouse Academy, and in
1802 came to Paris, and was for a time in David's
atelier. In 1818 he took to lithography, and from that
time to the year of his death was a busy and pro-
lific worker in this branch of art. He exhibited
with success at the Salon from 1824 onwards. He
died in Paris in July, 1866.

SUESS, Hans, (or Hans von CnLMBACH,) painter
and engraver upon wood, was born at Culmbach in
Franoonia. and flourished at Nuremberg in the early
years of the 16th century. Sandrart and Lochner
are responsible for the error by which his name has
been given as Fuss or Fuess. He signs his name
Johannes Sves on a series of scenes'from the life
of St. Catharine, in the church of the Virgin at
Cracow. He was a scholar of Jacopo de' Barbari,
and apparently lived in close connection with
Diirer, and probably worked in his studio. Sketches
by Diirer are in existence from which Suess painted.
A notable instance is the ' Christ treading the Wine-
press,' in the chapel of St. George at Anspach,
Durer's sketch for which is in the print-room at
Berlin. It has also been surmised that Diirer pro-
vided the sketch for Culmbach's masterpiece, the


fine triptych in St. Sebald's Church at Nuremberg.
Another important work is the 'Adoration of the
Kings,' in the Berlin Museum, which shows the
influence of De' Barbari. The series of eight
scenes from the history of SS. Peter and Paul, in
the Uflizi, there attributed to Schaufelin, should
most probably be ascribed lo this master, and
other examples are to be found at Schleissheim
and Leipzig. Recent researches show him to have
died before Diirer, at latest in 1522.

SUEUR. See Le Sueur.

SUHR, Christoph, painter, born at Hamburg in
1771, studied in Salzdahlum, and for three years
in Italy. Thence he sent his ' Judgment of Midas '
to Berlin. In 1798 he returned to Hamburg, where
ho uo(juired a reputation as a portrait painter. He
also painted humorous subjects, which were en-
graved by his brother Cornelius, with whom he
painted the scenes for an ' optical cosmorama,'
exhibited by Cornelius in most of the countries of
Europe. He died at Hamburg in 1842.

SUHRLANDT, Johann Heinrich, painter, born
at Schwerin in 1742. He painted portraits and
historical pictures, and died in 1827.

SUHRLANDT, Rudolph Friedrich Karl,
painter, born at Ludwigslust in 1781, son and pupil
of Johann Heinrich Suhrlandt. He studied in
Dresden and Vienna, and in 1808 went to Rome,
where he painted a 'Theseus and Ariadne.' From
1812-15 he was in Naples, painting portraits. On
his return to Germany he was appointed painter
to the court of Mecklenburg. Several altar-pieces
by him are in the churches of Ludwigslust and the
neighbourhood. He died at Schwerin in 1862.
His son, Karl, is an animal painter.

SUIJDERHOEF, Jonas, engraver, was born at
Leyden in 1613 (1600), and studied under Cornelius
Visscher and Soutman. He died in 1669. His
plates are numerous and excellent ; the following
are among the best :

The Emperor Maximilian ; after Lucas van Leyden.

The Empress Maria, his consort ; after the same,

Maximilian, Archduke of Austria ; after Rubens.

Philip III., King of Spain ; after the same.

Albert, Archduke of Austria, Governor of the Nether-
lands ; after the same.

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, his consort ;
after the same.

Charles I., King of England ; after Vandyck.

Henrietta Maria, his Queen ; after the same.

Fran9ois de Monijade, Comte d'Ossonne ; after the same.

John, Duke of Burgundy ; after F. iSoutman.

Charles, Duke of Burgundy ; after the same.

Aldus Swalmius (The old Man with the Beard) ; after

Een6 Descartes ; after F. Hals.

Anna Maria Schurmann ; after J. Lievens.

The Fall of the Eebel Angels ; after Rubens.

The Virgin embracing the infant Jesus ; after the same.

A Bacchanalian subject ; after the same.

A Drunken Bacchus, supported by a Satyr and a Moor ;
after the same.

The Peace of Munster ; after Terburg's picture in the
National Oallery ; one of his finest plates.

The Burgomaster of Amsterdam in Council ; after
Thomas de Keyser.

Three old Women at table ; aftei- Ostade.

Three Boors, one playing on the Violin ; after the same.

The Tric-trac players ; after the same.

Dutch Boors fighting with Knives ; after the same.

Dutch Boors dancing, called the Ball ; after the same.

SUISSE, Le. See Le Suisse.

SULLIVAN, Luke, a native of Ireland, came
to London when young and studied under Thomas
Major. He practised miniature painting as well
as engraving, and was well employed. As an





engraver, he was chiefly engaged on plates after
Hogarth, and sometimes worked conjointly with
that artist. The following prints by him may be
named :

The infant Moses presented by his Mother to the
Daughter of Pharaoh; after Hoyarth; W. Hogarth,
et L. Sulivan, sc. 1752.

Paul before Felix ; after the same ; L. Sulivan, sc. 1752.

The March to Finchley ; after the same. 1761.

The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after Teniers.

A set of six Views of Oountry-seats.

' SULLY, Thomas, painter, was born at Horncastle,
in Lincolnshire, in 1783. At nine years old he went
with his parents, who were actors, to America,
studied in Charlestown, and in 1813 set up as a
portrait painter in Richmond. He afterwards
returned to Europe, studied under West and
Lawrence, and painted a portrait of Queen Victoria,
which now belongs to the St. George's Society of
Philadelphia. In 1838 he settled in Philadelphia,
where he painted portraits of Lafayette, Jefferson,
and Washington, and of famous actors ; among
them T. p. Cooke and Fanny Kemble. He also
designed some illustrations to Shakespeare, and
his ' Washington Crossing tlie Delaware ' is in the
Boston Museum. He died in Philadelphia in

SUMMERFIELD, John, engraver, was one of
Bartolozzi's best pupils. Ilis finest work was an
excellent plate of 'Rubens and his Wife,' after
the Flemisli master, engraved in 1800, for which
he received the gold medal of the Society of Arts.
Another good plate was 'The Sleeping Boy,' after
Reynolds. In spite of the high quality of his work.
Ire found it impossible to make a living, and is said
to liave been reduced to great poverty. Redgrave
gives the date of his death as 1817, but he is
believed to liave lived much longer.

SUMPTEB, H , an English painter of still-
life, who exhibited regnlarly at the Academy, the
British Institution, and the gallery of the Society
of British Artists, between 1816 and 1847.

SUNDER, Lucas. See Ceanach.

portrait painter, who came to England in the
reign of Charles II., and was much employed
after the death of Sir Peter Lely. Walpole says
that, being less snocessful than Riley in a portrait
of the King, he retired to Oxford, and was there
employed to paint portraits of founders. He died
in London about the year 1707. In Wadham
College there is an excellent portrait inscribed:
Mary George, jEtatis 120, Gul. Sonmans, pinxit
et deait.

SONMANS, William, perhaps a son of the last
named, was employed in London as a draughtsman
early in the 18tli century. The drawings for
Morrison's ' Historia Plantarum,' 1715, are by him.

SUPPA, Andrea, painter, born at Messina in
1628, studied under B. Tricomi and Casenibrot. He
painted very minutely finished works in oil, and
frescoes for the churches and convents of his
native city, ariiong them a ' Trinity ' in the chapel
of St. Gregory, ' The Acts of St. Paul ' in San
Paolo delle Monache, and 'The Assumption' at
the Nunziata de' Teatini. He died in 1671.

SURCHI, Giovanni Feancesoo, called Dielai,
a native of Ferrara, who flourished about the year
1543. He was a disciple of the Dossi, whom he
assisted in several of their principal works in the
palaces of Belriguardo, Giovecca, and Cepario, at
Ferrara. He painted history, and distinguished
himself also as a painter of qrotteschi and land-


scapes. He died in 1590. The Costabili Gallery
has an 'Adoration of the Shepherds' by him.

SURU6UE, Louis, a French engraver, bom in
Paris in 1695, was instructed in design and en-
graving by Bernard Picart, whose style he adopted
with success, and, like his instructor, united the
point with the graver in a very agreeable manner.
The effect of his prints is pleasing, and he would
have reached an eminent rank among the engravers
of his country if his drawing had been more cor-
rect. He was a member of the Academy of Paris,
where he died in 1769. We have, among others,
the following prints by him :

Portrait of Louis de BouUongne, painter to the King ;

after Mathieu.
St. Margaret ; after Eaphael ; for the Crozat collection.
St. Jerome in the Desert ; after Bal. de &iena ; engraved

by N. Chasteau, and finished by L. Suruyue ; same

Christ curing the Lepers; after Girol. Genga; for the

same collection.
The Sacrifice of Isaac ; after A. del Sarto.
The Birth of the Virgin ; after P. da Cortona.
Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Le Sueur.
Venus nursing Love ; after Rubens.
A Flemish Merry-making ; after Teniers.
The Fortune-teller ; after the same.
Clytia ; aftm- Coyipel.
Last Supper ; after Muiens.
Susanna ; after Verkolje.

SURUGUE, PiEREE Louis, the son of Louis
Surugue, born in Paris in 1716, was taught the
art of engraving by his father. His style, though
inferior, resembles that of his father. He became
a memtier of the Academy in 1747. Among his
plates we may name the following :

Ken6 Fremin, Director of the Academy ; after Latmir.
Simon Guillain, Sculptor to the King ; after N. Coypel.
The Nativity ; after Corregyio (' La Notte ').
The Virgin and Child, accompanied by St. Jerome and

two other saints ; after Guido.
The Judgment of Paris ; after Hendrik Goltzius.

He also engraved after Charles Coypel, Pater,
Chardin, Teniers, and other masters, fie died in

StJSEMIHL, Johann Konead, draughtsman and
engraver, was born at Rainrod in Hesse in 1767.
After studying for a time at the Diisseldorf
Academy, he went to Darmstadt, where he made a
reputation by his plates of birds, and, in 1800, was
appointed engraver to the court. He engraved the
plates for Drumpelmann and Friebe's work on the
' Zoology of the Baltic Provinces,' and jointly with
his son and daughter, those for Holler's 'Monu-
ments of German Architecture.' In 1839 he pub-
lished an illustrated work on the ' Birds of Europe.'
His brother Johann Theodoe, born 1773, was a
pupil of Pforr, and engraved zoological and or-
nithological plates. He practised for many years
in Paris.

SUSTERMANN, Lambeet, was called so in
error, and apparently through some confusion be-
tween him and his brother-in-law, Lambert Suster-
man or Suavius, of Li6ge (g-. v.). His real design-
ation was Lambeet Lombard. He was born at
Li%e in 1606, was a pupil of Mabuse, and after-
wards travelled with Cardinal Pole to Italy, where
he studied the pictures of Andrea del Sarto. On
his return to Lilge he opened a school which was
largely attended, and was the means of difi'using
his style through the Netherlands. He also pro-
fessed architecture, engraving, numismatics, archae-
ology, and poetry. He is not deficient in feeling
for beauty, and his execution is careful, but his




colouring is generally cold. His pictures are not
common. There is a ' Virgin and Child ' in the
Berlin Museum, and a ' Deposition from the Cross,'
in the National Gallery, is ascribed to him. He
died at Liege in 1566.

SUSTRIS, or Zustbis, Feedekik, called Pede-
RiGO Di Lamberto, and Del Pavonano, born at
Amsterdam in 1524, was the son of Lambert
Sustris, and, like his father, practised chiefly in
Italy, and married there. He settled in Florence,
and was one of the painters associated with Vasari
in adorning the catafalque of Michelangelo. He
died at Florence in 1591.

SUSTRIS, Lambert, (SUSTER, ZnsTHls,) was
a native of Germany, and flourished about the end
of the 16th century. He was first instructed in
art by Christopher Schwartz, of Munich ; but he
afterwards travelled to Italy, where he became
a follower of Titian, and an unsuccessful imitator
of that master's colour, though he still retained
the dry Gothic design. In the Louvre there is a
picture by Sustris, representing Venus and Cupid,
with Mars in the background. Sustris, Suavius, or
Sustermans, and Lambert Lombard, have been
continually welded into a single individual by
biographers, and otherwise confused.

SUTCLIFFE, Thomas, still-life and landscape
painter, was born in Yorkshire. He studied ardently
from nature, and in his works showed great artistic
talent. He first exhibited at the Academy in 1856.
Shortly afterwards he became an associate of the
Institute of Painters in Water-Co' ours, and was
thenceforth a constant contributor of landscapes to
the Society's exhibitions. He died at Headingley,
near Leeds, in 1871.

SUTHERLAND, Thomas, engraver, was bom
about 1785, and practised in London, producing
chiefly plates in aquatint of hunting scenes, views,
&c. One of his best known plates was ' The Pea-
cock Tavern, Islington,' from which the northern
mail used to start.

SUTTER, Joseph, painter, was born at Linz, in
Upper Austria, in 1782. He studied for a time
under Fiiger at the Vienna Academy, and later at
Rome. He afterwards worked for a time at Munich,
where he made several designs for frescoes for the
Basilica, two of which he himself carried out. One
was painted by his son Daniel.

SUTTERMANS, Justus, (Sustermans,) was'born
at Antwerp in 1597, and was a scholar of Willem
de Vos in that city ; and of Francois Pourbus the
second, in Paris. He travelled through Germany
to Venice, where he passed some time, and after-
wards went to Florence, where his abilities recom-
mended him to the notice of Cosmo II., Grand
Duke of Tuscany, who appointed him his painter,
and in whose service he remained until the death
of that prince, when he was favoured with the
protection of Cosmo III. In 1623 he was sum-
moned to Vienna to paint the emperor and empress,
and returned to Florence with a patent of nobility.
Suttermans painted history and portraits, and in
the latter was little inferior to Vandyck. When
Vandyck visited Florence, he expressed the greatest
admiration of the works of Suttermans, and painted
his portrait, etching it afterwards among his famous
'icones.' His historical pictures are well com-
posed, and their design correct. One of his most
important pictures is in the Gallery at Florence ;
it represents the Florentine nobility swearing fealty
to Ferdinand II. Into it he has introduced the
portraits of the most distinguished personages of

N N 2

the time. He died in Florence in 1681. Among
his works we may name :
Edinburgh. Nat. Gal. Portrait of Spinola.
Florence. Uffizi. Portrait of Galileo.

„ A Magdalen.

„ Puliciani and his wife (two

Corsini Col.



„ His own portrait.

Fitti Gal. The Crown Prince of Denmark.
„ Portrait of Ferdinand (II.) de'

„ „ Vittoria della Eo-

„ Cardinal Corsini.

„ Mary Magdalen of

Austria, wife of
Cosmo (II.) de'
Accademia. Portrait of a Young "Woman.
„ „ Cardinal Leopoldo

de' Medici.
Accademia. Catherine Cornaro ceding Cy-
prus to Venice.
Gallery. Portrait of the Archduchess

SUVfiE, Joseph BenoIt, an historical painter,
born at Bruges in 1743, was taught drawing by
Matthias de Visch. He afterwards entered the
Academy of St. Luke, in Paris, and in 1766, was
appointed superintendent of the free school of
design. In 1771 he won the prize of Rome. After
working for a year in Rome he visited Naples,
Sicily, and Malta, deferring his return to Paris
until 1778. In that year he exhibited the results
of his work in Italy, and soon after became a
member of the Academy. At the outbreak of the
French Revolution he was appointed director of
the Academy at Rome, but incurring the suspicions
of the Jacobins, he was thrown into prison, where
he painted portraits of several of his fellow-captives,
among them that of Andr6 Chenier. On the fall of
Robespierre he was released, but he did not take up
his appointment till 1801, when, under the auspices
of Napoleon, he went to fulfil its functions. He re-
organized the French school at Rome, and removed
it from the Palazzo Mancini to the Villa Medici.
He occupied the situation for about six years, and
died suddenly on the 9th of February, 1807. His
pictures are numerous. His wife was also a painter.

SUYDAM, James A., painter, was bom in New
York in 1817, and was the pupil of the American
artist M. C. Kellogg, with whom he travelled
through Greece and Turke}', and visited the East.
On his return to America he became well known
as a painter of mountain scenery and coast views.
He took a very prominent part in the foundation
and organization of the Academy at New York,
and was appointed treasurer, which post he held
till his death. His 'View on Long Island,' and
' Hook Mountain on the Hudson,' are among his
best known works. He died in 1865, bequeathing
a large sum of money, and the pictures known as
the 'Suydam Collection,' to the Academy.

SUYDERHOEF. See Suijdeehoef.

SWAGERS, Charles, the son of Frans Swagers,
painter, was born in 1792. He was professor of
painting at Dieppe in 1840. His son !^dodard
was a painter and lithographer, and practised in

SWAGERS, Feans, a landscape and marine
painter, born at Utrecht in 1756, received his
art education in Holland, but afterwards he went
to Paris, and resided there till his death. His
pictures consist chiefly of Dutch views, and marine
subjects off the coast. Prom his long residence




Swebach. de Fontaine

in Paris, his pictures exhibit a mixture of 1he
Dutch and French schools. He died in Paris in
1836. His wife, Elisa, nee M^ei, was a miniature
painter and professor of drawing at Ecouen. She
died in 1837. Her daughter and pupil, Caroline,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 143 of 201)