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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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practised in Paris, and exhibited frequently at the
Salon from 1831 onwards.

SWAINE, Francis, an- English marine painter,
who practised in London from about 1760 to
1782. He painted small sea-pieces in the style of
Willem Vandevelde, and moonlight scenes. He
was a member of the Free Society in 1763, and
gained medals from the Society of Arts in 1764
and 1765. He was chiefly employed by the
dealers, who sold his copies of Vandevelde as
Unglish Vandeveldes. He died at Chelsea in 1782.
One MoNAMY Swaine, probably his son, painted the
same class of subjects.

SWAINE, John, engraver, was born at Stanwell,
Middlesex, in 1775. He was a pupil of Jacob
Schnebellie, and later of Barak Langmate. He
worked chiefly on antiquarian subjects, and pro-
duced some well-executed facsimiles of old por-
traits. He died in London in 1860. His son,
John Barak Swaine, was also educated in his
father's art, but died in 1828, at the age of twenty-

SWANENBDRCH, Isaac Klaassen van, called
NicOLAl, painter, was born at Leyden in 1534.
He was the master of 0. Van Veen and of Jan
Van Goyen, and in 1596 was burgomaster of Ley-
den. His only known works are designs for the
painted windows for the church of St. John at
Gouda, and for the Town Hall at Leyden. He
died in 1614. His three sons, Jakob, Willem, and
Nicolas, were also painters.

SWANENBURCH, Jakob Isaaksz van, son of
the last-named, is chiefly known as the first master
of Rembrandt, to whom he was probably related.
He was bom at Leyden, apparently about 1580.
After having learnt the elements of art from his
father, he travelled in Italy, and, in Naples, married
Margherita Cordona, by whom he had four children.
He returned to Leyden in 1617, and died there on
the 17th of October, 1638. The Copenhagen
Gallery has a picture signed Giacomo Swanen-
burch, and dated 1628, representing the Pope
crossing the square of St. Peter's at Rome in pro-
cession ; in the Court House at Leyden there is a
'Pharaoh crossing the Red Sea.' See Vosmaer's
' Rembrandt,' p. 33.

SWANENBURCH, Willem van, brother of
Jakob, was a Dutch engraver. He was born at
Leyden about the year 1581. His style of en-
graving is bold, and his prints bear some resem-
blance to those of HendrikGoltzius. He occasionally
painted a picture, but it is as a master of the burin
that he demands notice. He had a great command
of the graver, but his drawing is not con-ect. The
following are among liis more esteemed plates :

Esau selling his Birthright] to Jacob ; after P. Moreehe.

The Resurrection ; after the same.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Ah. Bloemaert.

The six Penitents ; after the same.

St. Jerome in the Desert ; after the same.

St. Peter penitent ; after the same.

Lot and his Daughters ; after Ruhens.

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after the same.

The Judgment of Paris ; after M. Mierevelt.

Perseus and Andromeda ; after J. Saenredam.

A Village Festival; after D. Vinckehooms.

A set of fourteen Plates, entitled The Throne of Justice ;
after Joachim Vitewaal. 1605, 1606.
He died at Leyden, the 15th of August, 1612.


SWANEVBLT, Herman, landscape painter and
engraver, was born at Woerden in 1620. He is
said to have been a scholar of Gerard Douw, but he
left that master and travelled to Italy, while still
very young. On his arrival at Rome, he was in-
defatigable in his studies, studious and solitary
promenades procuring him the nickname of 'the
Hermit.' In 1640 he became the disciple of Ciaude
Lorraine, with whose help he soon became one of
the most celebrated painters of landscape of his
time. His better works are not seldom ascribed to
his master. A ' Classic Landscape ' in the Berlin
Museum is probably a case in point. The date of
his death is doubtful. According to the registers of
the French Academy, it took place in 1665, but
the year 1690 has also been given, while Passeri
says he died in Venice in 1669. Works :
Copenhagen. Gallery. Summer Evening.
Dresden. Gallery, iliver Landscape.

Florence. Uffi-^^i. Landscape.

Hague. Museum, Italian Landscape.

Hampton Coiirt. Landscape with Cattle (and

two others).
Jjon&on. Bridgewatei' Ho. Landscape, with Figures load-
ing a Ship.
„ Dulwich Gall. Three Landscapes.

Herman Swanevelt has also left the following
etchings : they are better, on the whole, tlian his

A set of eighteen small oval plates, representing Views
in Italy, and rural subjects ; entitled Varim campeslri
fantasia a Jlermano Swanevelt, invent, et in lucem

A set of thirteen Italian Landscapes, including the
title ; dedicated to Gideou Tallemeut.

A set of twelve Views in and near Rome ; entitled I)i-
verses Vues dedans et dehors de Borne, ^c. 1653.

A set of seven PJates of Animals, with landscape back-
grounds, and figures.

A set of four Arcadian Landscapes, with Nymphs and

A set of four Landscapes with Biblical subjects.

A set of four Mountainous Landscapes, with different
representations of the Flight into Egypt.

A set of Four Views of the Apennines; with pastoral

A set of six grand Landscapes, with the history of Venus
and Adonis.

A set of four Landscapes, with Mary Magdalene and
different Saints.

SWART, Jan, (Schwartz,) painter and engraveri
was born at Groeningen in 1469. It has been
stated that he was a pupil of Scorel's, which seems
improbable, as he was considerably the elder. He
spent some time in Venice, and afterwards settled
at Gouda, where he died in 1535. A fine wood-
cut, 'Christ preaching from the Ship,' bears his
monogram, and shows great similarity in style to
the ' St. John Baptist ' in the Pinacothek, and the
' Adoration of the Kings ' in the Antwerp Museum,
ascribed to him. Waagen has described an 'Adora-
tion of the Kings,' in the possession of Queen
Victoria, as a typical example of the master.

JoSBPH, a prolific painter of battles, marches, en-
campments, and landscapes, was born at Metz in
1769. Many of his pictures were exhibited in Paris,
where he chiefly resided. He was in England, too,
for a short time. In 1814 the Emperor of Russia
made him director of his Porcelain Works, but he
was unable to stand the climate, and soon returned
to France. J. Swebach etched a great number of
his own compositions, which were published in
Paris, in five volumes, quarto, under the title 'En-
cyolop^die Pittoresque ; ou, Suite de compositions.




caprices, et (Etudes utiles aux Artistes.' He died in
Paris in 1823. There are pictures by him in the
Museums of Lyons, Marseilles, and Montpellier.

SWEBACH, Bernard Edouaed, painter and
engraver, the son of Jacques Swebach, was born
in Paris, August 21, 1800. He was taught by his
father, and at the Scole des Beaux Arts. He
painted the same class of subjects as his father,
but without attaining equal excellence. He ex-
hibited at the Salon from 1822 onwards. In the
Besangon Museum and at Cherbourg there are
examples of his work. He died at Versailles.
March 2, 1870.

SWEERTS, Michael, (Sweets,) a Dutch
painter nnd engraver, who flourished about the
year 1655. His pictures have disappeared, but he
etched some nineteen plates, chiefly from his own
compositions, among which are the following :
Jan van Bronckhorst, Painter (?).
Herman Saftleven, Painter (?).
His own Portrait.

The dead Christ, supported by the Marys and St. John.
A Man seated in a chair, smoking, and a Boy standing

by him.
An Indian shooting with bow and arrows.
SWELINCK, Jan, a Dutch engraver, who re-
sided at Amsterdam about the year 1620. He en-
graved a set of emblems, after A. V. Venne. They
are executed with the graver in a style resembling
that of the Wierixes. He engraved some subjects
from the ' Life of the Virgin,' a 'Raising of Lazarus,'
and a ' St. John the Evangelist ' ; these are in ovals
with arabesque borders, and are signed J. S.

SWERTS, Jan, painter, born at Antwerp in
1820, was a pupil of N. de Keyser. He painted
historical and religious subjects, and frescoes for
churches, of which there are examples in the
church of Notre Dame, at St. Nicholas, in the church
of St. George, at Antwerp, in the town-halls at
Ypres and Courtrai, and in the chapel at Ince-
Blundell Hall. He settled at Prague, where he
becanje director of the Academy, and corresponding
member of the Institute of France. He died at
Marienbad in 1879.

SWIDDE, WiLLBW, a native of Holland, born
about 1660, chiefly resided in Sweden. In 1695
he engraved several of the plates for a work en-
titled 'Sueoia Antiqua et Hodierna.' We have
also by him a set of six landscapes, with figures
and cattle, after Dirk Dalens ; the plates for
Puffendorf s ' Life of Charles Gustavus ' ; and some
large marine pieces with the date 1680. He
usually marked his plates with the initials W. S.
SWIFT, John Waekup, marine painter, was
brought up at Hull, and was for some- years a
sailor, but gave up the sea and obtained employ-
ment as scene-painter to an amateur dramatic
society. He afterwards settled at Newcastle-on-
Tyne, where he practised successfully for many
years, painting such subjects as, 'The Channel
Fleet running into Sunderland,' 'Shields Harbour,'
&c. Some of his works were reproduced in chromo-
lithography. He died in 1869.

SWITSER, Joseph, or The Swiss, was a pupil of
Johann von Aachen, and worked for the Emperor
about 1580.

SWITZER, Ohristoph, a German engraver on
wood, who resided in England about the year 1614.
He was employed by Speed to cut the coins and
seals for his ' History of Great Britain,' from the
originals in the Cottonian collection. Speed calls
him the most exquisite and curious hand of that
age. In the Harleian Library was a set of wood-

outs, representing the broad seals of England, from
the Conquest to James I. inclusive, neatly executed,
which Vertue believed to have been cut by Chris-
toph Switzer; they were the originals from which
Hollar copied those published by Sandford. He
had a son named Cheistopheb, who also en-
graved on wood, and whose works are sometimes
confounded with those of his father.
^ SWOBODA, Karl, painter, was born at Prague
in 1823. He studied first under Ruben, and secondly
at the Viennese Academy. He painted a number
of historical pictures, but was more successful as an
etcher and illustrator. He died at Venna in 1870.
SWOBODA, Rudolph, born at Vienna in 1819,
was a painstaking painter of landscapes and
animals. He became a member of the Vienna
Academy in 1848, and died in 1859.
SYDER, Daniel. See Saitbr.

SYKES, , an English portrait painter, who

practised in the early part of the 18th century.
He was of considerable repute in his day, and was
one of the painters who valued Thornhill's works
at Greenwich Hospital. He was an art patron as
well, and formed a collection of pictures, which
was sold after his death in 1733. The Duke of
Bedford has a miniature by him.

SYKES, Godfrey, painter, ornamental designer,
and decorator, was born at Malton in 1825. He
was educated at the art school of Sheffiuld. He
was also a pupil of Alfred Stevens, and was
employed on the decoration of South Kensington
Museum. While at Sheffield he painted interiors
of rolling-mills, smiths' shops, &c., also a few
landscapes. There is a ' Smith's Shop ' by him, in
water-colour, in the South Kensington Museum.
He died in London in 1866.
SYLVESTER, Don. See Silvesteo.
SYLVESTRE. See Silvestee.
SYLVIUS. See Silvius.
SYMBRECHT. See Zymbrecht.
SYME, John, R.S.A., portrait painter, was a
nephew of Patrick Syme. He was born in Edin-
burgh in 1795, studied in the Trustees Academy,
and was afterwards a pupil of Raeburn, some of
whose unfinished works he completed. He was
one of the foundation members of the Scottish
Academy, and his portrait, painted by himself,
hangs in the Academy Gallery. There is also an
excellent portrait by him in the Scottish National
Gallery. He suffered much from ill-health in his
later years, and died in Edinburgh in 1861.

SYME, Patrick, R.S.A., flower painter, was born
at Edinburgh, September 17, 1774. He devoted
himself to art at an early age, and on the death, in
1803, of an elder brother, who was a teacher of
drawing in Edinburgh, succeeded to his practice.
He was a man of various attainments, an accom-
plished botanist and entomologist, and also a
writer. In 1823 he published a 'Treatise on
British Song Birds,' and later an edition of Wer-
ner's ' Nomenclature of Colour.' He exhibited
with the Society of Associated Artists from 1810
to 1816. He died at Dollar, N. B., July 1845.

SYSANG, Johann Christopher. To this en-
graver we owe several portraits, executed in a
neat, clear style, for 'Portraits Historiques des
Horames illustres de Danemark,' published in 1746.
SYTICUS. See Soye.

SZOTAIKOW, , a Russian engraver, born

1777. He studied at the Petersburg Academy,
and died in 1843.






TABAR, Fbanqois Germain LiSopold, painter,
born in Paris, 1818, was a pupil of Paul Delaroche.
In the early part of his career he painted chiefly
historical subjects, but later produced many genre
pictures and military scenes. His ' S. Sebastian,'
exhibited at the Salon in 1851, attracted much
attention. In the Bordeaux Museum there is an
' Episode in the Egyptian Campaign,' by him, and
at Saumur an 'Ambulances with Wounded.' He
exhibited frequently at the Salon between 1842
and 1869, in which latter year he died at Argenteuil.

TABORDA, Jose da. See Da Cunha Tabokda.

TACGONE, Innooenzio, a native of Bologna,
was a disciple and, according to Baglione, a rela-
tive of Annibale Carracci. In 1600 he accompanied
that artist to Rome, where he assisted him in
many of his works. In the vault of the church of
S. Maria del Fopolo he painted three large frescoes,
from the desigos of Annibale, representing the
'Crowning of the Virgin,' 'Christ appearing to St.
Peter,' and 'St. Paul taken up into the third
heaven.' Of his own compositions the most
considerable are some pictures in S. Angelo in
Pescheria, in the chapel dedicated to S. Andrew,
representing the principal events of the life of that
Apostle. He died at Rome, in the prime of life, in
the pontificate of Urban VIII. (1623—1644),

TACCONI, Francesco, of whose life little is
known, flourished from 1464 to 1490, and was an
artist of some importance at Cremona in the 15th
century. He and his brother, Filippo Taoconi,
executed several frescoes in a loggia in the Palazzo
Pubblico of their native city. In 1464 their fellow-
citizens exempted them from all taxes on account
of these frescoes, which have since, however, been
whitewashed over. In 1490 Francesco was em-
ployed in St. Mark's, at Venice, where he painted,
on the organ doors then in use, the Epiphany, the
Resurrection, and the Assumption. These paint-
ings, though much damaged, are still preserved,
and are said once to have been signed and dated.
In the National Gallery there .is a ' Virgin En-
throned,' signed OP. FRANOISI TACHONI 1489
OCTU. It is a free copy from a 'Madonna' by
Giov. Bellini, in the Scalzi, Venice.


TAFI, Andrea, a Florentine painter, and con-
temporary of Giotto. That he floarished in the
early years of the 14th century, and that his real
name was probably Bicchi, appears from the regis-
ters of the Guild of Physicians and Apothecaries,
which then included painters. He is there in-
scribed, in 1320, as Andreas vocatus Tafiis, olim
Bicchi. That the Florentines were indebted to
him for the revival of the art of working in mosaic,
has been stated on the authority of Vasari, who says
that some Greek painters in mosaic being em-
ployed in ornamenting the church of S. Marco at
Venice, Tafi visited that city, in hopes of becoming
acquainted with their mystery, and succeeded so
well that one of them, named Apollonio, not only
instructed him in the art, but was prevailed on to
accompany him to Florence, where, in conjunction
with others, they were employed on the mosaics in
the Baptistery. The parts traditionally assigned


to Tafi are the innermost of the concentric bands in
the dome, containing groups of angels, and the
immense ' Christ Enthroned.' But several inaccu-
racies have recently been pointed out in Vasari's
account of this artist, whose death he places in
1294. It may be doubted whether Tafi was really
the author of any frescoes in the Baptistery
at all.

TAGLIASACCHI, Giovanni Battista, painter,
a native of Borgo S. Donnino, near Piacenza,
flourished about the year 1730. He was a scholar
of Giuseppe dal Sole, and for some time painted
history in the manner of liis teacher, but after-
wards modified his style by studying Correggio,
Parraigiano, and Guido. He was an excellent por-
trait painter. He died in 1737. His principal
works are at Piacenza.

TAGPRET, Peter, (Dachbbbtt,) painter, a
native of Ravenshurg, who flourished about 1480.
Two works by him, painted in the style of Zeitblom,
are extant — the one, a ' Gregory the Great, Joseph
of Arimathea, and the Virgin ' ; the other, ' John
the Evangelist, Nicodemus, and a Bishop.'

TAIG, Sebastian, painter, bom at Nordlingen,
worked from 1516 to 1560 with J. Herlin and Jan
Schaufelin, and imitated Dtirer. Works by him are
at Nuremberg, Nordlingen, and Schleissheim.

TAILLASSON, Jean Joseph, painter, born at
Blaye, near Bordeaux, in 1746, went in 1764 to
Paris, where he entered the atelier of Vien. From
1791 to 1806 he painted classical pictures, wrote a
critical work on painting, and also poetry in the
style of Ossian. He died in 1809.

TAILLEVENT, Talleven, (or Talven,) Fran-
gois, an obscure Flemish painter of the 17th

TALAMI, Orazio, born at Reggio in 1625, was
a scholar of Pietro Desani. He afterwards visited
Rome, where he spent some time in the study of
Annibale Carracci. On his return to his native city
he distinguished himself as a reputable painter of
history and architecture, both in oil and fresco.
He died in 1699.

TALFOURD, Field, the younger brother of Mr.
Justice Talfourd, was born at Reading in 1815.
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1845,
and from that time onwards was an occasional
contributor to the exhibition. His works were
chiefly portraits, but from 1865 to 1873 he ex-
hibited landscapes. He died in London in 1874.

TALMAN, John, amateur draughtsman, was the
son of William Talman, the architect. In 1710 he
went with Kent to study in Rome, and there made
a number of pen and ink sketches and washed
drawings, from churches and other buildings;
some of these are in the possession of the Society
of Antiquaries.

TALPINO. See Salmeggia.

TAMAGNI, ViNCENZO, usually called Vincenzo
DA San Gemignano, was born at San Gemignano in
1492. He went to Rome and entered the school
of Raphael, where, according to Vasari, he was
called on to assist his master in the Loggia of the
Vatican. The statements of Vasari with regard to
Tamagni are open, however, to much doubt. He




was really a member of the Sienese school. His
earliest works, some frescoes at Montalcino, a small
town near Siena, were once signed and dated 1510.
Two signed altar-pieces are still at San Gemig-
nano ; and in the apse of S. Maria d'Arrone,
Umbria, he painted frescoes in conjunction with
Lo Spagna, on which the names of both artists
appear. Tamagni died about 1630.

Bolognese painter of the early 16th century, the
pupil of Francia. Two of the frescoes in the ora-
tory of S. Cecilia at Bologna were painted by him
— ' The Baptism of Valerian,' and ' The Martyrdom
of St. Cecilia.' It has been suggested that these
were painted from designs by Francia or Costa,
so superior are they in conception to execution. A
signed picture by Tamarozzo, ' The Madonna and
Child, with the little S. John,' is in the Poldi
Pezzoli collection at Milan.

TAMBURINI, Giovanni Maria, painter and
engraver, a native of Bologna, who flourished
about 1640, was first a scholar of Pietro Pacini,
and afterwards of Guido Reni. He painted history
with some success, and was employed for several
of the churches at Bologna. His best works are
his ' S. Antony of Padua,' in the church of La
Morte, and an 'Annunciation,' in S. Maria della

TAMM, Franz Werner, (called Dapper,) was
born at Hamburg in 1658, studied at first under
Von Sosten and Pfeiffier, and then went first to
Rome, and afterwards to Vienna, where he became
court painter. The Vienna Gallery contains seven
and the Dresden Gallery four of his works, represent-
ing chiefly fruit, flowers, dead game, and similar sub-
jects. His works show good drawing, careful and
highly finished execution, and colour, which though
heavy at first, became clearer and more brilliant as
time went on. He died at Vienna in 1724.

TANCREDI, FiLiPPO, born at Messina in 1655,
studied some time at Naples, and afterwards visited
Rome, where he entered the school of Carlo
Maratti. He spent a great part of his life at
Palermo, where he painted the ceiling of the church
of the Teatini, and that of II Gesu Nuovo. He
died at Palermo in 1722.

TANJE, Pieter, a Dutch engraver, was born at
Bolsward, in Friesland, in 1706. At first a water-
man's boy, he studied at the age of twenty-four
under Folkema, and became a most industrious
artist, engraving a great number of portraits and
other subjects, as well as vignettes for books. The
most considerable of his works are five large
plates, after the famous windows of the church of
St. John at Goada. He a'so engraved some plates
for the ' Dresden Gallery.' Among others we have
the following prints by him :

Portraibs of the Dutch Stadtholders {Jointly with

George II., King of England, &c. ; afte)- Faber. 1752.

Charles VII., Emperor of Germany ; F. Tanje, sc.

Christina, Queen of Sweden ; after S. Bourdon.

His own Portrait ; after J. M. Quinckhard.

A Dead Christ ; after Francesco Salviati.

The Chastity of Joseph ; after Carlo Cignani.

Children Dancing ; after Aliano.

The Card-players ; after M. Angela Garavaggio.

Tarquin and Lucretia ; after Luca Giordano.
(The last five are in the ' Dresden Gallery.')

Tanje died at Amsterdam in 1760.

TANNER, Rddolph, painter, born at Richtens-
weil, on the Lake of Zurich, in 1775, was a sword
cutler by trade. He studied art without a teacher,

but in 1814, when he was already thirty-nine, he
went to Munich to study, and there he died in

TANNEUR, Philippe, painter, was born at
Marseilles in 1795. He was a pupil of Horace
Vernet, and painted marine and battle pieces, coast
views, etc. He exhibited at the Salon from 1827.
There is a sea-piece by him in the Luxembourg, and
other examples of his art in the museums of Mar-
seilles, Montpellier, and Nantes. He died in 1873.

TANNOCK, James, a Scottish portrait painter,
was born at Kilmarnock 1784. Of humble parent-
age, he was brought up as a shoemaker, and then
worked as a house-painter. With a strong pre-
dilection for art, he painted some portraits in
Kilmarnock, and after receiving some instruction
from Alex. Nasmyth, eventually succeeded in form-
ing a practice as a portrait painter in Greenock
and Glasgow. In 1810 he migrated to London,
and from 1813 to 1841 exhibited forty -four portraits
at the Royal Academy. He died in London in 1863.
His portraits of Professor Geo. Jos. Bell, of Henry
Bell, and of George Chalmers, are in the Scottish
National Portrait Gallery. His younger brother
William Tannook also practised as a portrait

TANZIO, Enrico Antonio, (called Tanzio
D'Alaqna, or Tanzio di Varallo,) bornat Alagna,
near Novara, in 1574. He was a competitor with
the Oarloni in several public works at Milan, and
painted a ' Destruction of Sennacherib,' in the
church of S. Gaudenzio at Novara. He is supposed
to have died in 1644.

TAPARELLI D'AZEGLIO, Massimo, Marchese,
statesman, soldier, poet, and painter, and brother
of Roberto, Marchese d'Azeglio, was born at Turin
in 1798. In Rome he devoted himself for some
time to painting landscapes, which were frequently
combined with historical subjects. He also painted
the scenes for an opera composed by himself. He
died at Turin in 1866.

TAPARELLI D'AZEGLIO, Roberto, Marchese,
who was born at Tin-in in 1790, painted historical
works after the manner of Gaudenzio Ferrari.
He was director of the Turin Gallery, and wrote
several books on art. He died at his birth-place in

TAPIA, Don Isidoro De, a painter of historical

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 144 of 201)