Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

. (page 147 of 201)
Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 147 of 201)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


been free from incident. He died at Deventer, the
8th December, 1681, leaving no children. His
pictures are comparatively few in number. The
following is a list of the more accessible :

His own Portrait.
Portrait of Geertjen Mat-

thijssen, his Wife,
Paternal Counsel.
The Mandolin Player,
Paternal Admonition,
Portraits uf his Wife and

his Wife's Pather.
The Physician's Visit,
Two Male Portraits,
The Smoker.
The Grinder's Family,
The Officer and the Trum-
peter.
Young Lady washing her

hands.
Young Lady playing the

lute.
Young Lady in white satin

with her back turned.
Portraits of M. and Mme.

Colenbergh.
The Message.
His own Portrait.
Portrait of Gaspar von

Kinsohot.
The Music Lesson.
The Peace of Miinster.
The Letter.
The Trumpeter and the

Letter,
Boy and Dog,
Soldier offering Money to

a Young Woman.
The Music Lesson.
The Concert,
Meeting of Ecclesiastics,
Learning to read [La Caze

Col).
Cavalier and Lady,
The Jew Musician,
The Letter.
The Rustic Messenger.
The Duet.

Interior of an Inn, with
an Officer and a Young
Woman.
The Apple-peeler,
Portrait of a man in black,
659



Amsterdam,



Antwerp.
Berlin,



Dresden,



Gallery.



Haarlem,
Hague,

»
London.

»
Munich,

Paris.



Museum.

Museum.

ft

Nat. Gall.

Buckingham Pal.
Gallery.



Louvre.



Petersburg.



Hermitage.



Vienna.



Gallery.
Liechtenstein Gal.



Terbruggen



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Terzi



TERBRUGGEN, Hendeik, born at Deventer in
1588, was brought up in the school of Abraham
Bloemart, at Utrecht. He resided ten years at
Rome and Naples, where he painted many pictures
for the churches and for private collections. When
Rubens made his tour through Holland, he pro-
nounced Terbruggen to be one of the aWest painters
of his country. Of his works we may name : at
Deventer, 'The Four Evangelists ;' in the Copen-
hagen Gallery, ' Christ Crowned with Thorns ; ' and
in the Wallraf Museum at Cologne, ' Esther and
Vashti.' He died at Utrecht in 1629.

TBRENZI DA URBINO, Tbeenzio, called also il
RoNDOUNO, was a native of Urbino, and flourished
about the year 1600. He was a scholar of Barooci,
and, according to Baglione, visited Rome, where he
was favoured with the protection of Cardinal Mont-
alto. He is said to have possessed an extra-
ordinary talent for imitating the works of the
great masters, and to have thus deceived some of
the best judges. Having practised one of these
deceptions on his benefactor, imposing on him
a picture painted by himself for a work of Raphael,
he was disgraced. There is a picture of his own
composition in the church of S. Silvestro, at Rome,
representing the Virgin and Infant Christ, with
several Saints. He died in 1620.

TERH IMPEL, Anthonis, a painter of landscapes
and kermesses, flourished at Delft about 1650. He
painted much on porcelain, and many drawings
by him are still extant.

TERLEE, — Van, born at Dort in 1636, is said to
have been a scholar of Rembrandt, and to have
paioted a few historical pictures of slight merit.

TERMISANO, Decio, a Neapolitan, and pupil
of Giovanni Filippo Criscuolo, and of Pittone and
Marco da Siena, was born in 1665. Dominici, in
his ' Lives of the Neapolitan Painters,' mentions
a picture by this master in the church of S. Maria
detta a Cliiazza, at Naples, representing the ' Last
Supper ; ' it is signed and dated 1697. He died
in 1600.

TEKNITE, WiLHBLM, painter, was born at Neu-
Strelitz in 1786. He served in the army during
the War of Deliverance, and later studied in Paris
^.nder Gros. He afterwards went to Rome and
Naples, and made drawings from the Pompeian
frescoes, which he published as lithographs. On
his return to Germany, he devoted himself to
portrait painting. Among his portraits are : ' The
Emperor Francis II. of Austria,' ' Queen Louisa
of Prussia,' and ' The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-
Strelitz.' Ternite died in 1871.

TEROL, Jayme, a Spanish painter, and pupil of
Fray Nicolas, who from 1604 to 1607 assisted
Rodriguez Espinosa on the high altar of the church
of St. John Baptist at Muro, Valencia.

TERRY, G., an English engraver in mezzotint,
who flourished from 1770 to 1788. He was chiefly
employed in engraving portraits ; among others,
we have the following by him :

The Eev. John Towers ; after Fisher. 1770.

The Eev. "William Huntingdon. 1786.

The Rev. Eichard Johnson. E.A., Chaplain at Botany

Bay. 1787.
George Saville Carey, prefixed to his Lectures on

Mimicry.

TERRY, H— J—, was born in England, but
studied under Calame, in Geneva, and was for
several years engaged in reproducing his master's
vvorks by lithography. He subsequently turned
his attention to landscape painting in water-colour,

560



in which he was successful. He practised at Basle,
Miilhausen, and Lausanne, exhibiting his works
in Switzerland. He died at Lausanne in 1880.

TERSAN. See Campion, Charles Philippe.

TERWESTEN, Augustyn, painter, was born at
the Hague in 1649. Without the help of an in-
structor, he made sufficient progress in art to
be employed by the goldsmiths as a chaser, which
profession he followed until he was twenty, when
he turned to painting. He then became the
pupil of an artist named Wieling, who had some
reputation as an historical painter. Under him
he studied two years. He afterwards placed him-
self under Willem Doudyns, and in a short time
found himself in a position to undertake a journey
to Italy. He travelled through Germany to Rome,
where he met with sufficient employment to keep
him for four years. He afterwards visited Florence
and Venice, and in 1678 returned to Holland. He
was chiefly employed in painting ceilings at the
Hague, Amsterdam, and Dort, with subjects from
Ovid. He was a principal agent in the re-estab-
lishment of the Hague Academy, which had for
years been in a state of decay. In 1690 he was
invited to the court of the Elector of Brandenburg,
afterwards King of Prussia, who appointed him his
principal painter, and made him director of the
Berlin Academy. He died at Berlin in 1711. He
etched a few plates.

TERWESTEN, Elias, younger brother of Au-
gustyn Terwesten, was born at the Hague in 1651,
became the disciple of his brother, and for some
time applied himself to figure subjects ; but not
succeeding to his expectation, he turned to animals,
flowers, fruit, and still life, in which he was more
successful. Following the example of his brother,
he travelled to Italy, and settled at Rome, where
his works were held in considerable estimation.
He was employed by the Elector of Brandenburg
to collect works of art. By artists he was called
'■The Bird of Paradise." He died at Rome in 1729.

TERWESTEN, Mattheus, the youngest brother
of Augustyn Terwesten, born at the Hague in
1670, was for some time instructed by his brother,
but afterwards studied successively under Daniel
Mytens II. and Willem Doudyns. On the de-
parture of Augustyn Terwesten for the court of
Berlin, he completed some of the pictures left
unfinished by the latter. In 1694 he went to Italy,
and worked three years in Rome. He also visited
Berlin. Soon after his return to Holland he was
received into the Hague Academy, and, early in
the 18th century, appointed its director. One of
his best works is a ' Christ on the Mount of Olives,'
in the church of the Jansenists, at the Hague.
In the Museum at Amsterdam there is a portrait
by him of the Princess Anna, consort of William
IV. of Orange. He died at the Hague, June 11th,
1767. His two sons, Adgdstyn the younger, and
PiETER, were also painters. Augustyn, born at the
Hague in 1711, was a member of the 'Pictura'
Society. He practised at Delft and in his native
town, and died in 1781. Pieter combined literature
with his work as a painter. Born at the Hague in
1714, he became secretary of the ' Pictura ' Society
in 1762. He wrote sequels to Hoet's catalogues
and various notices of Dutch artists. He died in
1798.

TERZI, Ceistoforo, a native of Bologna, was
born in 1692. He was a scholar of Guiseppe
Maria Crespi, and acquired considerable reputation
as a painter of history. There are several of



Terzi



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Testelin



his works at Bologna, among which the most
worthy of notice is his ' S. Petronio Icneeling
before the Virgin,' in the church of S. Giacomo
Maggiore. He died at Bologna in the prime of
life in 1743.

TERZI, Feancesco, born at Bergamo about the
year 1525, was a disciple of Giovanni Battista
Moroni. According to Tassi, he painted history
with some success, and distinguished himself,
while still young, by two pictures for S. Francesco,
at Bergamo, a ' Nativity of Christ,' and an 'Assump-
tion of the Virgin.' He was invited to the court
of the Emperor Maximilian II., who appointed him
his painter. Terzi passed the greater part of his life
in Germany, but died at Rome, at an advanced age,
in 1600. A series of portraits by him of the Austrian
arch-ducal family was afterwards engraved.

TESAURO, Beknaedo, born at Naples in 1440,
was of the same family with Filippo Tesauro. He
was a disciple of Silvestro dei Buoni, and an artist
in great fame in his time. His chief picture was
an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' in the church of S.
Giovanni Maggiore. Frescoes by him still exist
in the chapel of S. Aspreno, in the Duomo of
Naples ; and in the Chiesa dei Pappacodi. He
died at Naples about 1600.

TESAURO, Filippo, or Pippo, a Neapolitan
painter, born about 1260, to whom is assigned a
picture in the Museum at Naples, the Virgin with
the Infant Saviour holding a basket of cherries,
in the midst of Saints, with a lunette above, repre-
senting the Martyrdom of S. Lawrence. He also
painted some frescoes in the church of S. Restituta,
at Naples. He died about 1320.

TESAURO, Raimo Epifanio, born at Naples
about 1480, was the son (or nephew) and disciple of
Bernardo Tesauro. He painted several considerable
works in fresco in the public buildings of Naples.
He died at Naples in 1511.

TESCHNER, Alexander, painter, born at Berlin
in 1816, began his studies at the Berlin Academy
in the atelier of Professor Herbig, and studied later
under Waoh. On the death of the latter he turned
his attention from historical to religious art, by
which be soon acquired a reputation. Among
other works he designed cartoons for the choir
windows in Magdeburg Cathedral, and a ' Magda-
len and Christ,' for the church of the Magdalen at
Breslau. He visited Rome in 1857. His inter-
course with Cornelius had an influence upon his
art which is perceptible in his cartoons for windows
in the cathedrals of Stralsund and Aix-la-Chapelle.
Other works by him are : ' Ecce Homo,' in the
church of Perleberg ; ' Christ and the Four Evange-
lists ' in the church of Teplitz ; ' Angels ' in the
church at Baden-Baden. He died at Berlin in
1878.

TESI, Mauro Antonio, painter and engraver,
born at Montebianco in Modena in 1730, first worked
with the heraldic painter Morrettini. By study
of the great masters, and by copying the designs
of men like Metelli, Colonna, an^ others, be raised
himself to a higher place in art. His pictures
were chiefly interiors, with much elaborate decora-
tion. Some of them were painted after the notions
of Count Algarotti, Tesi's patron, and among his
engravings was a portrait of his patroness, the
Countess Algarotti. He also left many plates of
vases, foliage, arabesques, etc. He died in 1766.

TESTA, Giovanni Cesare, the nephew of Pietro
Testa, bom at Rome about the year 1630, is sup-
posed to have been taught by his uncle, after

VOL. II.



whose designs he etched. He died in 1655. We
have, among others, the following plates by him :

Portrait of Pietro Testa ; J Cesai' Testa, sc.

The Death of Dido ; after P. Testa.

The Centaur Chiron teaching Achilles to throw the

Javelin ; after the same.
The Emperor Titus consulting Basilides respecting his

expedition against Jerusalem ; a,fteT the same.
The Communion of St. Jerome ; after Domenichino.

TESTA, Pietro, called II Lucchesino, born at
Lucca in 1617, was a pupil of Pietro Paolini. He
afterwards studied in Rome, first under Domeni-
chino, and afterwards under Pietro da Cortona ; but
having spoken disrespectfully of the latter, he was
dismissed from his school. He worked hard from
the classical remains in Rome, but is said to have
been of a morose disposition, making many enemies
by his tongue. Testa was drowned in the Tiber in-
1650. Of his works at Rome the best are, a ' Death
of S. Angelo,' in the church of S. Martino a Monti ;
and the 'Sacrifice of Iphigenia,' in the Palazzo Spada.
Many of his pictures are at Lucca. As an engraver,
Pietro Testa is of some importance. Mariette had
ninety-two etchings by him. He sometimes marked
his plates, which are from his own designs, with the

cipher \J^ • The following are perhaps the best :

Abraham sacrificing Isaac ; P. Testa, fee.

The Holy Family, with Angels.

A ' Madonna,' the Child embracing the Cross.

The Adoration of the Magi.

The Crucifixion.

Four scenes from the Parable of the Prodigal Son ; F.

Testa, fe. Boma.
The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus.
St. Jerome praying.
St. Eooh and two Bishops praying for the cessation of

the Plague.
Thetis directing the infant Achilles to be plunged into

the river Styx; J*. Testa, fecit.
Achilles dragging the Body of Hector round the walls

of Troy ; P. Testa, aq.for.
Socrates at Table with his Friends ; P. Testa. 1648.
The Death of Cato.
The Sacrifice of Iphigenia.

Four plates of the Seasons, with the Signs of the Zodiac.
The Triumph of Bacchus.
Faith, Hope, and Charity.
Magdalen in the Desert.
A young 'Woman in a Swoon, surrounded by Cupids.

TEST ANA, GiosEFFO, a relation of Giovanni Bat-
tista Testana, was born at Genoa about the year
1650. He was established at Rome in 1680, and
engraved some of the plates for a work entitled
'EfiBgies of the Cardinals now living,' published
in that year. We have also, among others, the
following prints by him :

St. Margaret ; after P. da Cortona.

An allegory of Religion holding the Portrait of Pope
Alexander VII. ; after the same.

TESTANA, Giovanni Battista, an Italian en-
graver, born at Genoa about the year 1645, resided
chiefly at Rome, where, in conjunction with Guil-
laume Vallet and Etienne Picart, he engraved
some plates from medals and antique gems, for the
work of Canini. There are also a few independent
plates by him, among them the following :

The Guardian Angel ; after Pietro da Cortona.

The Baptism of Constantino ; after Agost. Carracci.

He was living in 1700.

TESTELIN, Henri, (Tettelin,) the brother of
Louis Testelin, was born in Paris about 1616. A
scholar of Simon Vouet, he was at once portrait
painter, engraver, and writer on art. He wrote a

561



Testelin



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Thelott



work entitled ' Sentimens des plus habiles peintres
snr la pratique de la peinture et de la sculpture,
mis en tables de pr^ceptes, aveo plusieurs discours
acad^miques, on Conferences tenues en I'Acad^mie
Royaledesdits Arts,' &c., and filled it with illustra-
tions engraved, and in some cases designed, by
himself. Henri Testelin held the office of secretary
to the Academy of Paris, of which he was a found-
ation member, and at the death of hie brother, suc-
ceeded him as professor of painting. In 1681,
however, he was excluded as a Protestant. He died
at the Hague in 1695. At Versailles there are two
portraits of Louis XIV. and one of Siguier by him.
TESTELIN, Louis, (Tettelin.) a French painter
and engraver, born in Paris in 1615, was a pupil of
Simon Voiiet. He painted history with success, and
was a foundation member of the Paris Academy in
1648. His principal pictures are the ' Resurrection
of Tabitha,' and the ' Scourging of Paul,' in the
church of Notre Dame, Paris. Pictures by him are
to be seen also in the museums of Rennes, Rouen,
Grenoble, and Versailles. He etched a plate of
' The Holy Family,' after his own design. He died
in 1655.

TETAR VAN ELVEN, Jan B., painter and en-
graver, was born at Amsterdam in 1806. He studied
at Antwerp under Meulemeester, and in Brussels
under Francois. His portrait plate of the Prince of
Orange, published in 1833, was the first engraving
on steel executed in the Netherlands. In 1834, he
became Director of an Art School at Amsterdam, and
Member of the Academy in 1836. He was further
known as a painter of portraits and genre pictures,
and as an illustrator of books.

TEUCHEB, JoHANN Christoph, a German en-
graver, who practised in Paris about the year 1750,
where he engraved the ' Virgin of the Rose,' aflfer
Parmigiano, for the publication known as the
' Dresden Gallery.'
TEUFEL. -SeeTnuFEL.

TEDFEL'S MULLER. See Muller, Friedrich.
TEUNISSEN. See Anthoniszoon, Cornelis.

TEXIER, G , a native of Paris, and pupil of

Ph. Le Bas, who flourished about the year 1780.
He engraved several landscapes and genre pictures
of the Watteau school in a neat, clear style. He
was still living in 1824.

TEXIER, Andr^ Louis Victor, was born in
1777, at La Rochelle. He was a pupil of Fr. Pira-
nesi and of Pierre Laurent. He engraved views of
the Alhambra, of chemists' laboratories, and other
Buoh interiors. Some of the plates for the 'Mus6e
Frangais,' and for De Clarac's ' Mus6e de Sculpture
antique et moderne,' are by him. He died in Paris
in 1864, from the effects of a carriage accident.

THACKER, Robert. By this English engraver,
who signs himself designer to the king, we have a
large print, in four plates, representing Salisbury
cathedral. He flourished about 1670.

THACKERAY, William Makepeace, claims
mention in a work like this by his artistic as-
pirations rather than by his art. Born at Calcutta
in 1811, he was educated at the Charterhouse and
at Cambridge. For some time he wavered between
literature and art, but he soon found his true
vocation. Amongst the works he illustrated him-
self are ' Comic Tales and Sketches,' ' The Irish
Sketch Book,' 'The Paris Sketch Book,' ' Memoirs
of Mr. Charles Yellowplush,' 'The Book of Snobs,'
' Catherine, Little Travels, and the Fitzboodle
Papers,' 'Christmas Books,' 'Vanity Fair,' ' Pen-
dennis,' ' Denis Duval' (jointly with F. Walker), and
562



' Burlesques ' (jointly with E. Doyle). He died at
Kensington, December 24, 1863. There is a col-
lection of his original drawings in the Forster Col-
lection at South Kensington. A selection of nearly
600 of his sketches was published in 1875.

THATER, Julius Caesar, engraver, born at
Dresden in 1804. He had in his youth to struggle
with poverty, and for a time made a scanty living
by any humble employment that came to hand. In
1818, however, he was enabled to enter the Dres-
den Academy, and from 1826 to 1828 he worked
in Nuremberg ; he was for - time at Berlin, and
also studied in Munich under Amsler, but in 1834
he settled in Munich, where he engraved seven
plates for Count Raczynski's ' History of Art.' In
1842 he went to Weimar as a teacher in the Art
School, and in 1843 returned to his native town,
where, in 1846, he was appointed teacher at the
Academj' ; three years later he became professor of
engraving at Munich. Thater died in Munich in
1870. His principal plates are the following :

Barbarossa in Milan ; after Schnorr.

Barbarossa in Venice ; after the same.

Designs for Faust ; after Schioind.

Hitter Curb's Brautfahrt ; after the same.

St. Elizabeth's Works of Mercy ; after the same.

Cinderella ; after the same.

Barbarossa in Milan ; after M'ucke.

The Battle of the Giants ; after KauUach.

Chrimhild and Siegfried's Corpse ; after Schnorr.

The Fates ; after Carstens.

Charon ; after the same.

The Battle of the Saxons ; after Kaulhach.

Rudolph of Hapsburg ; after Schriorr.

Designs for the Campo Santo in Berlin ; after Cornelius.

The Four Eiders of the Apocalypse ; after the same.

The Golden ABC; after Kortig.

The Psalms ; after the same.

THEER, Robert, miniature painter and litho-
grapher, was bom at Johannesberg, in Silesia, in
1808. Among bis best miniatures were those of
the engraver Desnoyers, and of H. Ratakowski.
He died at Vienna in 1863.

THELOTT, Ernst, portrait painter, born in 1802,
was son and pupil of Ernst Karl Gottlieb Thelott.
He studied at the Academies of Dusseldorf and
Munich, and afterwards painted portraits. He died
at Augsburg in 1833.

THELOTT, Ernst Karl Gottlieb, engi-aver,
bom at Augsburg in 1760, studied at Augsburg
and Munich, and then settled at DUsseldorf, where
he was named professor,and engravedseveral plates
for the 'Diisseldorf Gallery.' He worked chiefly
for almanacs. His beet independent plates are :

The Sleeping Girl ; after Amorosl.
The Sick Lady ; aftei' Jan Steen.

He died at Augsburg in 1839.

THELOTT, Jacob Gottlieb, (sometimes called
Johann Gottfried,) a German engraver, was bom
in 1714. He engraved several portraits ; among
others, that of ' Guido Patten, M.D., Paris.' He
also engraved som^of the plates' for a work entitled
' R6pr&entation des Animaux de la Menagerie de
Prince Eugene,' published in 1734. He died in
1773. His father Johann Andreas, a famous gold-
smith of Augsburg, (bom 1654, died 1734,) is also
known as a draughtsman and etcher of some merit.

THELOTT, Karl, engraver and portrait painter,
born at Diisseldorf in 1793, was the son and pupil
of his father, Ernst Karl, and went to Munich in
1814 to study portrait painting under Langer. In
1821 he was employed in Diisseldorf by Prince



Thgnot



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Thevenin



Frederick of Prussia, and was afterwards engaged
in painting portraits of various princely personages
in Frankfort, Berlin, and Westphalia. He died at
Augsburg in 1830.

THENOT, Jean Pierre, a French water-colour
painter and draughtsman, was born in Paris in 1803.
His art training was obtained at the Ecole des
Beaux Arts, (which he entered in 1819,) and under
Thibault. He first exhibited at the Salon in 1827.
Much of his attention was devoted to lithography, in
which medium he produced many landscapes, hunts,
and animal subjects. He also delivered courses of
lectures on anatomy and perspective, and pub-
lished ' Essai de Perspective ' (1826), ' Cours de
Perspective Pratique ' (1829), and ' Regie de la
Perspective Pratique' (1839). He died in Paris,
October 11, 1857.

THEOBALD, Henry, an English water-colour
painter of little note. He was elected an associate
of the Institute of Painters in Water-colours in 1847,
and died in 1849.

THEODORE, , was a scholar of Fran9ois

Millet, in whose style he painted landscapes. He
etched twenty-eight plates from the designs of his
master, which are inscribed Francisque pinxit avec
privilege du Roys or Francisque pinieit, Simon
excudit cum privilegio Regis.

THEODORE, A , is mentioned by Strutt as

the designer and engraver of a Dutch Procession,
etched and retouched with the graver, in a style
resembling that of Hollar. It is dated 1636.

THEODORE, Caspar. See Fderstenbebg.

THEODORICH of PRAGUE, a painter employed
by the Emperor Charles IV. at Prague, flourished
from about 1348 to about 1375. A series of 126
colossal half-length figures of saints, teachers, and
rulers of the Church, executed in tempera, on panel,
for the church of the Holy Cross, at Sohloss Carl-
stein in Bohemia, are ascribed to him. One of the
series, St. Ambrose, is now in the Imperial Gallery
at Vienna. Akin to these pictures is an altar-piece
in the Gallery of the Estates of Bohemia at Prague,
from the Provost's House at Raudnitz, containing
the Virgin and Child adored by the Emperor
Charles IV. and his son Wenceslaus, with Saints
and the donor. There is also a 'Crucifixion' by
the same artist in the Gallery at Vienna.

THEODOROS, a native of ancient Athens, was
a painter of considerable celebrity. Among his
principal works were the following: ' Clytemnestra
and jEgisthus slain by Orestes ; ' several pictures
of events from the Trojan war, which were after-
wards taken to Rome, and a ' Cassandra,' preserved
in the Temple of Concord. Several other artists
of the same name, both painters and sculptors, are
mentioned by Pliny and by Diogenes Laertius.

THEOLON, £tiennb, (or THiAULON,) a French
painter of interiors and conversations, was born at
Aigues-mortes in 1739. He was a scholar of Joseph
Vien, but did not follow his manner. Being of a
delicate constitution, he was a slow worker, and his
pictures are not numerous. Hfs works were in
great request during his life, and he was a member
of the Paris Academy. He died in Paris, May 10,
1780. In the Louvre there is a ' Portrait of an Old
VV^oman,' by him. Other examples are to be found



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 147 of 201)