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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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at Angers and Montpellier.

THEOMNESTES, an ancient Greek painter,
who flourished about 331 years before Christ, and
is mentioned by Pliny as, in some respects, the
equal of Apelles.

THEON, a painter of Samos, who flourishedm


the time of Philip of Macedon and Alexander the

painter, flourished in the first half of the 13th
century. He went to Italy and settled at Venice,
where he is said to have formed a school.

THEOPHILDS, (Theophilus Monachus, or
Theophilus Pkesbtter,) a miniaturist, and a writer
upon the processes of painting, flourished, probably
in Lombardy, in the first half of the 12th century.
His ' Schedula Diversarum Artium,' is of value as
the earliest known work on art in the middle ages.
The oldest known codex is in the Ducal Library at
Wolfenbiittel. Others are at Leipsic, Cambridge,

THEOTOCOPULI, (or Teoscopolo,) Dombnico,
called also II Greco, and El Griego, is supposed
from his name to have been of Greek origin, but
was born in one of the Venetian States. It is also
said that he was a scholar of Titian, but this is
uncertain, as he is not named among that master's
disciples, though in many of his earlier pictures
there is a manifest imitation of his style. In
most of his work the style of Tintoretto is clearly
the chosen model, and it is more than probable
that Robusti was his true master. One of his best
pictures is the ' Parting of our Lord's Raiment,'
in the cathedral of Toledo. The time of his birth
is placed about 1548, but the most authentic ac-
count of him, as an artist, commences in 1577,
when, according to Cean Bermudez, he was prac-
tising at Toledo, having been summoned to Spain
by Philip II. to work in the Escurial. It is certain
that the greater part of the pictures ascribed to
hira were painted in Spain, and he occupies an
important place in the history of art in that country.
Many of the distinguished Spanish painters were
his scholars, or at least his disciples. Theotocopuli
was also an architect and a sculptor; some will
have it that he was an engraver on wood as well,
but this is doubtful. He died in 1625. Works :
London. Nat. Gallery. St. Jerome.
Madrid. Gallery. A Dead Christ; and several

Petersburg. Hermitage. Portrait of Alouso BrolUa.
Vienna. Gallery. Portrait of a Young Man.

THERBUSCH, Anna Dorothea. See Lisc-


born at Wurzen in Saxony, in 1830. He studied
first under Friedrich Nestler, and then worked frorii
nature, in the neighbourhood of Dresden, Bavaria,
the Tyrol, and Switzerland. He died at Dresden
in 1873.

TH:^VENIN, Charles, painter, was born in Paris
in 1760. He was a pupil of Vincent, and won the
Prix de Rome in 1791. He became a member of
the Institut in 1825, and keeper of the prints
in the Bibliotheque Royale in 1829. He died in
1838. Among his works are :

(Edipus in the Storm with Antigone.

The Capture of Gaeta by Nay.

Augereau at Areola. ( Versailles.)

The Passage of the French over the St. Bernard. {Do)

The Battle of Jena.

The Martyrdom of Stephen. {Paris; S. Etienne da

And other works at Angers, Douai, and the Great

THi^VENIN, Claude NoSl, painter, was born
at Cr6mieux (Isfere), in 1800. He was a pupil of
Maricot and of Abel de Pujol, and was a frequent
exhibitor at the Salon from 1822 to 1849, in which





hitter year lie died in Paris. -At the Ministere de
rinterieur there is an ' Apostles at the tomb of the
Virgin' by him, and at Versailles the following
portraits .

Louis XI.

Lieut. -General Jean Etienne de Perz de Grassier.

Marshal Augereau.

Jean Chapelain, poet, and founder of the Comiti Central
des Artistes.

THBVENIN, Jean Charles, engraver, born at
Rome in 1819, was the son and pupil of Charles
Thevenin, and pupil also of Merouri and Henriquel.
He killed himself in 1869, at Rome, by throwing
himself from the top of St. Paul's Without the
Walls. Among his plates are :

St. Luke painting the Virgin ; after Raphael.

The Charitable Child ; after Ary Scheffer.

The ' Madonna della Tenda ' ; after Raphael (!* Domenico

The Mandolin Player ; after Ingres.

Susannah in the Bath ; after Cotregc/io.

The Children of Charles I.; after Vandyck.

Beatrice Cenci ; after Guido.

An Allegory (Alfonso d'Avalos and a young woman) ;
after Titian.

THEW, Robert, an excellent engraver in the
chalk and dotted manner, was born at Patrington,
Holdernesse, in 1758, served till 1783 as a soldier,
and then at Hull took to engraving visiting cards
and addresses. His Head of an Old Woman, after
G. Dou, first brought him into notice, and he was
afterwards employed by Boy dell on the large plates
for his ' Shakespeare. ' Of these he engraved scenes

The Tempest ; after Wriyht.

The Merry Wives of Windsor ; after Peters.

The Taming of the Shrew ; after Smirke.

A Winter's Tale ; after Hamilton.

As You Like It (the Lover in the Seven Ages) ; after

The Cauldron scene in Macbeth ; after Reynolds.

King John ; after JVorthcote.

Kichard II. (Bolingbroke entering London) ; after the

Henry IV. (the Boar's Head Tavern) ; after Smirke.

Henry IV. ^Henry asleep) ; after Boydell.

Henry VI. (Countess of Auvergne's Castle) ; after Opie.

Mortimer and Richard Plautagenet ; after Northcote.

Eichard III. (Burial of the Children) ; after the same.

Henry VIII. ; after Peters.

Timon of Atherls ; aftei' Opie.

Cymbeline, Imogen and Pisanio ; after Hoppner.

Hamlet (Ghost on the Platform) ; after Fuseli. '

Of his independent plates, the best is ' Woleey
entering Leicester Abbey,' after Westall. He held
the appointment of engraver to the Prince of Wales,
and died at Stevenage in 1802.

THIBAULT, Jean Thomas, painter and archi-
tect, was born at Montierender, Haute Marne, in
1757. He at first painted landscapes, but after-
wards took to architecture, and went as King's
Pensioner to Rome, where he studied from the
antique. On his return he became a member of the
' Inatitut,' and Professor of Perspective at the Ecole
des Beaux Arts,, and wrote a practical handbook
on that science, which was published by his pupil,
Cliapuis. He died in Paris, June 27th, 1826.

THIBOUST, BenoIt, a French engraver, born
at Chartres about the year 1655. He resided some
years at Rome, where he engraved several single
plates after Italian masters, and a set of thirty-
four from the Life of St. Turribius, after Gio.
Battieta Gaetano, entitled ' Vita Beati Turribii,
Archiepiscopi Limani in Indiis.' These were
published at Rome in 1679. He worked with the
graver only, in a style resembhng that of Mellan,


at a respectful distance. The following independent
prints by him may be mentioned :

St. Theresa ; after Bernini.

St. Bibiena; after the same.

St. Thomas d'Aquinas ; after Giacinto Calandrucci.

St. Eosa Imeeling before the Virgin ; after Baldi.

The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; ccfter the same.

St. Peter of Alcantara ; after the same.

The Crucifixion ; after Pulzone.

THIELE, Johann Alexander, was born at
Erfurt, in Saxony, in 1685. He began life as a
soldier, and is said to have been a scholar of C. L.
Agricola, but was chiefly a student from nature.
His pictures represent the beautiful scenery on the
banks of the Saal and the Elbe. He was appointed
painter to the court of Dresden, and has the credit
of having been the master of Dietrioy. We have
several original etchings by Thiele, of views in
Saxony, dated from 1726 to 1743. He died at
Dresden in 1752. His son Johann Friedeich
Alexander, born 1747, died 1803, was also a
landscape painter and engraver.

THIELEN, Jan Philip van, (from his mother
called RiGOULT.s, or Righolz,) Herr van Codwen-
BEROH, was born at Mechlin in 1618. He was of a
noble family, and was Seigneur of Cowenberch, on
which account he usually signed his pictures
J. P. Cowenberch. An early inclination for art
induced him to study in the atelier of Rorabouts,
and also to take lessons of Daniel Zeghers. In
competition with Zeghers, he was engaged to
paint a picture for the Abbey of St. Bernard, near
Antwerp, on which occasion he exerted all his
ability, and his performance was judged to be
little inferior to that of his master. He arranged
his flower-pieces with taste ; and though his pic-
tures are less brilliant than those of Zeghers, they
are highly finished and good in colour. He par-
ticularly excelled in representing insects. Poelen-
burgh and others occasionally painted figures in
the centres of his flower garlands. Several of his
best productions are in the royal collections in
Spain, and the Vienna Gallery has three pictures
by him. He died in 1667. His daughters and
pupils, Maria Theresa, Anna Maria, and Frances
Ka'IHARina, attained considerable excellence as
flower painters. Maria Theresa, the eldest, also
painted portraits with some success.

THIELENS, Jan, a Flemish painter, who
flourished at Antwerp about 1694. He painted
the interiors of studios and laboratories, in the
manner, of David Teniers.

THH5N0N, Anne Claude, painter, born in Paris
in 1772, studied in Paris and Italy, and painted
large landscapes in water-colours from the scenery
round Rome and in provincial France. He ex-
hibited at the Salon from 1798 to 1822, and died
in Paris in 1846.

THIBRRIAT, AnGUSTiN Alexandre, a French
subject and flower painter, was born at Lyons in
1789. He was a pupil of Grognard and Revoil,
and first exhibited at the Salon in 1817. In 1823
he was appointed a Professor in the Lyons
Academy, and subsequently Director of the Museum.
He also founded at Lyons the ' Galerie des Peintres
Lyonnais.' These occupations left him but little
leisure for painting in his later years. He died
at Lyons, April 14th, 1870.


THIERRY, E. J., engraver, born in Paris in
1787, was the son and pupil of Jacques Etienne
Thierry, the architect. He was chiefly engaged




on plates for books on architecture. He was the
author of a 'Cours pratique de Dessin lin^aire,
contenant 145 Planches.' He engraved the plates
for Delaborde's ' Voyage en Espagne.'

THIERRY, Joseph Feanqois DflSlKii, painter,
born in, 1812, was a pupil of Qros, and studied
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He exhibited many
landscapes at the Salon from 1833, but is better
known as scene-painter to the opera. In conjunc-
tion with Cambon, he furnished scenery for the
following operas :

Le Prophete. Joseph.

Jerusalem. Quentin Durward.

The Wandering Jew. L'Etoile du Nord.

The Bleeding Nun. Midsammet Night's Dream.

He died in Paris, November 11th, 1866.

THIERRY, WiLHELM, painter and architect,
was born at Bruchsal in 1766. He studied land-
scape at Mannheim, under Ferdinand Kobell. In
1810 he went to Carlsruhe, where he studied under
Weinbrenner, and finally devoted himself entirely
to architecture. He etched a few landscapes. He
died in 1823.

THIERS, Baron db, a French amateur engraver,
who etched a few landscapes and subjects after
Boucher. He was living about the year 1760.

THIERS, Le. See Lethiebe.

THIFERNATI, Francesco, an artist of the
Perugian School, of whom very little is known. An
' Annunciation ' in St. Domenico, a similar subject
in the cathedra], and other less important pictures
by him may be seen at Citta di Castello.

THIM, Moses, a German printer and engraver,
resided at Wittenberg about the year 1613, and is
said to have marked his plates with the initials
M. T., sometimes separate, sometimes in a mono-
gram, JlJJ^.

THIRION, Charles Viotob, a French subject
painter and engraver, born at Langres in 1833.
He was a pupil of Gleyre and Bouguereau. His
works first appeared at the Salon in 1861. He
scraped several mezzotints after Bouguereau, Lob-
richon, and others. He died in 1878.

THIRTLE, John, an English water-colour
painter, born at Norwich in 1774, of humble
parentage. He was one of the Crome circle, and
married a sister of J. S. Cotman. A member of
the Norwich Society, he contributed largely to its
exhibitions, sending on one occasion as many a,s
thirteen works. His practice included portrait
painting, and in 1816 he exhibited his own portrait
on the walls of the Society. He only once, in 1808,
appeared at the Royal Academy. His landscape
subjects were taken from Wales and the Thames,
as well as from the neighbourhood of Norwich and
the Norfolk coast. He died at Norwich, September
29th, 1839. Two of his water-colour drawings are
in the South Kensington Museum.

THIRY, LEONARD, called Leo Daven, or
D'AvESNE, was born at Bavay, Belgium, about
1500. He was both painter and engraver, and
worked at Fontainebleau with Rosso and Primatic-
cio. Bartsch enumerates sixty-nine plates by him,
of religious, historical, and mythological subjects.
He died about 1550.

THOM, James, painter, was born at Edinburgh
about 1785. After a term of study in his native
city, he came to London, where he practised for
some years. In 1815 he exhibited at the Royal
Academy. His 'Young Recruit' was engraved
by Duncan in 1825.

THOMAN, (or Thomann,) Christian Ray-
mond, a German engraver, who flourished about
the year 1730. He engraved some of the plates
for the collection of prints from the antique marbles
at Dresden.

born at Lindau in 1588. He received his first instruc-
tion in the art from an obscure painter in his native
town. At the age of seventeen he travelled to
Italy, and on his arrival at Rome became a disciple
of Adam Elsheimer, whose style he imitated with
success. During a residence of fifteen years in
Italy, he visited Naples and Genoa, where his
pictures were held in no less esteem than at
Rome. After the death of Elsheimer he returned
to Germany, and established himself at Lindau.
He painted small and neatly finished landscapes,
enriched with figures representing historical or
Biblical subjects. He died at Lindau in 1653.

the grandson of Jakob Ernst, was bom at Augs-
burg in 1657. He was a mezzotint engraver, and
painted some pictures for churches. Among his
prints one is mentioned by Laborde as being
tolerably good ; it is the half-length portrait of
Narcissus Rauner in ecclesiastic costume. He died
in 1726.

THOMAS, George Hodsman, painter, was born in
London in 1824. He worked for a time with the
wood engraver, Bonner, and then went to Paris,
where he began his career as a book illustrator.
In Paris he was commissioned to make illustrations
for an American paper in New York, and also to
supply designs for American banknotes. He after-
wards went to Italy, and being present at the
defence of Rome by Garibaldi, he supplied the
' Illustrated London News ' with a series of in-
teresting sketches, and was permanently retained
on the stafi of that journal. He was much em-
ployed by the Queen to make drawings, and Her
Majesty possesses an album of such sketches, in
which she herself and Prince Albert frequently
figure. Among his illustrations we may name
those for ' Uncle Tom's Cabin,' and for Wilkie
Collins' 'Armadale'; and among his pictures,
' Rotten Row,' ' Apple Blossoms,' &c. He died at
Boulogne in 1868, from the effects of a fall from
his horse. The following pictures are in the Royal
collection :

The Marriage of the Prince of Wales.
The Marriage of the Princess Alice.
Distribution of Crimean Medals by the Queen.

THOMAS, Jan, born at YprSs, in Flanders,
about the year 1610, was a pupil of Rubens. After
passing some years under that master, he travelled
to Italy with his friend and fellow-student,
Abraham Diepenbeeck. He afterwards passed the
greater part of his life in Germany. The Emperor
Leopold I. appointed him his principal painter in
1662. In the church of the Barefooted Carmelites,
at Antwerp, there is an altar-piece by Thomas,
' St. Francis kneeling before the Virgin and infant
Christ.' In the Vienna Gallery there is a 'Triumph
of Bacchus '; and other examples are to be seen at
Ypres. He has left a few spirited etchings ; among
them the following :

A Lady at her Toilet, holding a Portrait ; J. Thomas.

inv. etfee.
A Shepherd and Shepherdess.
A Satyr embracing a Shepherdess.
A Pastoral Group, three Men and three Women, one of

the men playing on the Bagpipes.




He was one of the first workers in mezzotint. His
plates are scarce and fetch high prices. The
following may be named :

A Female at a window, with a lantern ; after G. l)ou.
A Lady, supposed to bear some resemblance to Christina

of Sweden, attended by an armed Cupid.
The bust of a "Warrior wearing a helmet, and holdmg
a lauce over the left shoulder. Motto, Pro Deo et
Portrait of the Emperor Leopold.

Portrait of Titian. Inscribed: Dato in luce in questa
nuova invenzione in Vienna li SO Mano I'anno 1661.
(Perhaps his masterpiece.)
Diogenes the Philosopher.
Thomas died at Vienna in 1672.

THOMAS, Jean Baptiste, painter, bom^ m
Paris in 1791, was a pupil of Vincent, and received
the ' Prix de Rome ' in 1816. He exhibited at the
Salon between 1818 and 1832. His chief works are:-
' Christ clearing the Temple,' in the church of St.
Roch in Paris ; ' The Procession of St. Januarius ; '
' The Hermit in the Storm.' Under the title of ' A
Year at Rome' he published seventy-two plates of
Roman costumes, &o. He died in Paris in 1834.

THOMASSIN, Henri Simon, the son of Simon
Thomassin, born in Paris in 1688, was trained
by his father. After a two years' residence at
Amsterdam he returned to Paris, and was received
into the Academy in 1728. His plates are executed
with more freedom than those of his father, and he
made more use of the point. He died in Paris
in 1741. We have, among others, the following
prints by him :
Louis XIV., presented to the Arts by Minerva ; after
L. de Boullongne ; engraved for his reception into the
Academy. 1728.
Louis, Dauphin of France ; after Tocque.
The Bust of Cardinal de Fleury, supported by Diogenes ;

after Rigaud.
Jean Thierry, Sculptor to the King; after N. Lar-

Carlo Cignani, Painter ; after a portrait by himself.
Christ with t.he Disciples at Emmaus; after P. Vero-
nese ; for the ' Collection Crozat.'
Adam and Eve driven from Paradise; after D. Feti ;

for the same.
Melancholy; after the same; for the same.
The Magnificat, or Song of the Virgin ; after Jouvenet.
Coriolanus and his Family ; after La Fosse.
The Plague at Marseilles ; after J. F. de Troy.
THOMASSIN, Philippe, a French engraver, was
born at Troyes about the year 1560. He went to
Rome when he was young, and resided there for
the greater part of his life. According to Huber,
he was a pupil of Cornelius Cort, whose style he
followed with considerable success. He worked
entirely with the burin. His plates are numerous,
amounting to upwards of two hundred, of which
about fifty are from antique statues in Rome. In
1600 he published a ' Recueil de portraits des
Souveraius et des Capitaines les plus illustres,'
with notices in Latin. Callot and Nicolas Cochin
were his pupils. He died at Rome, very old, about
1649. The following are, perhaps, his best plates :
The Portrait of the Due de Mercosur.
' Christ and the Apostles ; ' after Raphael. A set of
' fourteen plates.
St. Margaret ; after the same.
St. Cecilia ; after the same.
The School of Athens ; after the same.
The Dispute of the Sacrament ; after the same.
The Battle of Ostia ; after the same.
The Incendio del Borgo ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after Fedenyo Zuccaro.
The Adoration of the Magi ; after the same.
The Miracle at the Marriage of Caua; after Taddeo



The Nativity ; after Ventura Salimheni.
The Purification of the Virgin ; after F. Barocci.
The Last Judgment ; after F. Vanni.
Apollo and the Muses; after Bal. Peruzzi; a frieze.
Christ before the Sanhedrim; inscribed, Ph. Thomas-
simis sc. et exc, Roma, 1649. (Probably his last plate.)

THOMASSIN, Simon, nephew of Philippe Tho-
massin, was bom at Troyes about 1652. After being
instructed in the rudiments of design at Paris, under
Btienne Picart, he went to Rome, and studied for
some time in the French Academy there. He
then devoted himself to engraving. His plates are
executed entirely with the burin, in a neat, clear
style, but without much intelligence in the matter
of chiaroscuro. He was a member of the Paris
Academy, and was one of the engravers to the king.
His most considerable work was a folio volume of
plates from the statues and other marbles in the
palace and garden of Versailles ; it was published
in Paris in 1694, and republished at the Hague in
1723. We have also, among others, the following
independent prints by him :

Louis XIV.

Louis, Duke of Burgundy. 1698.

Marie Adelaide of Savoy, Duchess of Burgundy.

Paul Beauvillier, Duo de St. Aignan. 1695.

The Due de Maine.

Charles XII. of Sweden.

Pierre Corneille ; after Le Brun.

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes ; after Raphael.

The Transfiguration ; after the same.

St. Paul taken up into the third Heaven; after N.

Christ praying on the Mount ; after Le Brun.
St. Benedict ; after Ph. de Champagne.
Christ disputing with the Doctors ; after Lesueur.
St. Ambrose and the Etnperor Theodore; after Bon

St. Scholastica ; after JauvenM.

He died in Paris in 1732.

THOME, LucA, a Sienese artist of the 14th cen-
tury, probably a pupil of Simone Martini, and the
companion of Barna and Lippo Memmi. His name
is the third on the register of the Compagnia di
S. Luca for 1356, when that guild was finally
established. He and Christoforo di Stefano re-
stored in 1357 a ' Madonna ' which had been painted
above the portal of the Duomo of Siena in 1333 by
Pietro Lorenzetti. In 1373 he painted, by order
of the general council, an altar-piece in honour of
St. Paul, to celebrate the Sienese victory over the
Cappellucoi. He was himself a member of the
council for the Duomo in 1388 and 1389. He is
known to have painted about this time some frescoes
in the church of S. Domenico, at Arezzo, but they
have wholly disappeared. In 1389 he assisted Bar-
tolo di Maestro Fredi and his son Andrea in an
altar-piece for the chapel of the Shoemakers' Guild
in the Siena Duomo. Delia Valle mentions a
' Madonna ' painted by him in 1392, for the church
of S. Francesco in Siena. The date of Luca Thome's
death is uncertain. Works :
CastelloS. I „ , f Virgin .ind Child with St. Anne.

Quirico. 1 C'.rtosa.l ^f^g^ ^
Pisa. Academy. The Crucifixion. (1366.)

THOMPSON, Charles, an English wood en-
graver, born in London in 1791. He was the
brother of John Thompson, and studied under
Bewick and Branston. In 1816 he settled in Paris,
where he obtained a large practice, and was held
in high repute, receiving a gold medal in 1824.
He introduced the practice of engraving on the Mid
of the wood, on a section across the grain, into
France. He died at Bourg-la-Reine in 1843, and




his widow was granted a pension by the French
government. Specimens of his work are to be
found in :

' L'Histoire de I'ancien et du nouveau Testament.' 1835.

' Fables de La Fontaine.' 1836.

Thierry's ' Oonqu^te de I'Angleterre.' 1841.

' Corinne.' 1841.

THOMPSON, Charles, an English engraver,
who practised in London early in the 19th century.
He engraved the illustrations for ' Mdes Althorp-
ianiB,' in 1822, and several plates for almanacs.

THOMPSON, Charles Thdestan, was the son
of John Thompson the wood-engraver, and was
born in Peckham in 1816. He was well employed
as an illustrator of books, and did much excellent
work for the publications of Messrs. Longman and
Messrs. Van Voorst. He took an important part in
the arrangements for the exhibition of 1851. He
became much interested in the newly-invented art
of photography, and was appointed by the Exhibition
Commissioners to superintend their photographic
printing at Versailles in 1852, after which time he
devoted himself to photography. He was employed
by the Science and Art Department to photograph
objects of interest in Paris, Spain, and Portugal, and
his health giving way while on his travels for this
purpose, he returned to Paris, and died there, after
a short illness, January 22, 1868.

THOMPSON, E. W., an English portrait painter,
born in 1770. He chiefly lived in Paris, where he
enjoyed a good practice. His works were only
exhibited on a few occasions at the Royal Academy
between 1832 and 1839. He was engaged on
Walmsley's ' Physiognomical Portraits,' published

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 148 of 201)