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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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of a baker. He was first apprenticed to a lock-
smith, then to a designer of wall-papers, and lastly
studied under the court painter Van Freese. In
1743 he went to Paris, with the aid of Count von
Stadion, and spent five years in Vanloo's ateHer ;
thence he went to Venice, and worked for a time
under Piazzetta. After continuing his studies in
Florence, Bologna, and Rome, he returned to Ger-
many in 1751, and was appointed court painter to
Wilhelm VIII. of Hesse. In 1776 he was made
Director of the newly founded Academy at Cassel.
He painted chiefly mythological pictures and por-
traits, showing in his works strong traces of the
study of the Italians, and may be looked upon as
having been first among the modem Germans to
follow after the great Venetian colourists, and to
direct attention to their method. He died at Cassel
in 1789. "Works :

Berlin. Nat. Gal. Portrait of Leasing.

Cassel S. Michael's Ch. The Resurrection.

„ Lutheran Ch. The Transfiguration.

„ Catholic Ch. Ecce Homo ; and other pic-


The Triumph of Arminius after the Defeat of Varus.

Tischbein etched several plates from his own de-
signs, among them the following :

Cupid stung by a Bee complaining to Venus.
Nymphs Bathing.
Hercules and Omphale.
Menelaus and Paris.
Thetis and Achilles.

The Resurrection ; after a picture painted for the
church of St. Michael, Hamburg.

TISCHBEIN, Johann Heinrioh, the younger,
the nephew of Johann Heinrich the elder, was bora
at Hayna in 1742, and was taught the rudiments of
design by his uncle. His genius led him to pic-
turesque landscape, though he occasionally prac-
tised portraiture. In 1775 he became Director of
the Cassel Gallery. He engraved a number of




plates both with the point and in aquatint, after
his uncle, and after Berchem, Rembrandt, &c.,
among his plates are the following :

Acis and Galatea ; after Jacob Moore.

Bacchus and Ariadne ; after the sa^ne.

A Stag-hunt ; after Rutnart.

A Landscape, with Cattle ; after P. Potter.

A Mountainous Landscape ; after Renibrandt.

A Landscape with An imals ; after J. H. Boos.

He died at Cassel in 1808.

TISCHBEIN, JoHANN Heineich Wilhelm,
painter and engraver, was born at Haj'na in 1751.
After studying for a time with his uncle, Johann
Heinrioh Tisohbein, he went, in 1776, to Hamburg,
to Johann Jakob Tischbein, who employed him in
restoring old pictures, and in copying the works of
Berchem and Wouwerman. In 1770 he went to
the Hngue and to Rotterdam, where he improved
himself by study of the old masters. In 1773 he
returned to Cassel and began to paint portraits,
working at the same time on copies from Rem-
brandt and Van Dyck, and making studies of
animals. In 1777 he visited Dresden and Berlin ;
in the latter city he painted many portraits, in-
cluding one of the Queen of Prussia ; in 1779 he
went as a pensioner of the Court of Hesee to Rome,
where he studied Raphael and the antique. In
1781 he was in Switzerland making drawings for
Lavater. In 1782 the Duke of Gotha provided
him with funds for a visit to Rome, and he there
painted the ' Conradin,' now in Sohloss Frieden-
stein, for his patron, and made the sketches for his
' Brutus,' ' Sophonisba,' and ' Helena.' In 1787 he
accompanied Goethe to Naples, where he was made
director of the Academy two years later. At
Naples he became acquainted with Sir William
Hamilton ; he painted a portrait of the Ambassa-
dor's 'beautiful wife, and carried out the admirable
engravings in outline from the Greek vases be-
longing to Sir William. This work was pub-
lished at Naples in 1791, in three volumes folio,
under the title of ' The Hamilton Vases.' On the
occupation of Naples by the French he returned
to Cassel, and settled later at Hamburg. In 1808
he removed to Butin, where he was chiefly occu-
pied in painting portraits and heads of animals.
He died at Eutin in 1829. Among his chief works
are the following :

Goetz von Berlicbingen. 1781.

Suffer Little Children to come unto Me.

Kirche, Bremen.)
The Ilape of Cassandra.
The Parting of Hector and Andromache.

{St. Ansgarii

He has left 147 etchings, 81 of which are in illus-
tration of Homer.

TISCHBEIN, Kael Ludwig, painter, born at
Dessau in 1797, son and pupil of Johann Friedrioh
August Tisohbein, also studied under Hartmann at
Dresden. In 1819 he went to Italy, where he
painted portraits and poetically-conceived genre
pictures. . He was from 1825 Professor of Drawing
at the Roman Academy. He afterwards travelled
in the Netherlands, and finally settled in Bticke-
burg, where he died in 1856.

TISCHLBR, Anton, a German engraver, who
flourished about the year 1760. He engraved some
of the plates for the collection of prints from
pictures in the cabinet of Count Briihl. He was
living in 1774.

TISI, Benvenuto, (Tisio,) commonly called
Garofalo, from the native village of his family,
Garofalo, in the district of Polesina, on the Po.

In allusion to this origin, a clove-pink (garofalo)
figured in his family arms, and he sometimes painted
one in the corner of his pictures. Tisi was born
at Ferrara in 1481, and received the first part of his
education under his uncle, Soriani, and Domenico
Panetti ; but he was afterwards apprenticed to
Boccaoci Boocaccino, at Cremona. Not satisfied
with the instruction of his master, he ran away to
Rome in 1499, and there studied under Baldini.
His father's illness recalled him to Ferrara, where
he was employed by the Duke, and for the churches.
He visited Bologna, where he came under the in-
fluence of Lorenzo Costa, and it is probable that
from 1510 to 1612 he was again in Rome, whence
the traces of Raphaelesque feeling in some of his
works. Various records show that from 1517 to
1560 he was established at Ferrara. The works of
Garofalo occasionally approach Raphael in expres-
sion, and are very correct in design. His colour is
warm, and his chiaroscuro vigorous. The churches
of Ferrara possess several of his larger works, both
in oil and in fresco; and his small pictures are
found in most of the finer collections of Europe.
He may be said to share the headship of the Fer-'
rarese school with Dosso Dossi. He became blind,
and died at Ferrara, September 6, 1559. Works :



Adoration of the Kings.



S. Jerome.


The Ascension.

The Annunciation.


The Adoration of the Magi.


Bitto ; another version.


The Entombment.


S. Salvatore.

S. Zacharias and Saints.



Virgin and Saints.



Virgin handing the Child Jesus
to S. Ceciha.

Mars and Venus.


Nuptials of Bacchus and
Ariadne ; and three others.


Nat. Gallery.

Christ clearing the Temple.



Figures in a Landscape.



Madonna and Saints.

SS. Peter and Paul.


S. Domenico.

Finding of the Cross.



Martyrdom of St. Peter.

S. Francesco.

The Nativity.


Raising of Lazarus.


Christ in the Garden.


Christ on the Mount of Olives.



The Triumph of Eeligion.


Virgin in Adoration (ascribed
to VOrtolano).



S. Nicholas of Tolentino saying


Virgin enthroned with Saints.



S. Catharine.


S. Barbara.


Nat. Gallery.

Madonna and Saints.



The Vision of S. Augustine,


The Holy Family.



The Agony of Christ.



The Crucifixion.

Morelli Coll.

His own portrait.



Virgin with Angels and Saints.



Portrait of a Young 'Womau
in Black.






Virgin and Child.

Virgin and Child with Saints.



The Deposition from the Cross.



The Circumcision.


Holy Family. (Two)
Sleep of the Child Jesus.





Adoration of the Shepherds.


A Holy Family.



Christ bearing the Cross.
The Entombment.








Fal. Qmrinale.
Pal. Borghese.

Pal. Gorsim.
Pal. Doria.

Pal. Sciarra.


The Annunciation.

Marriage of S. Catharine.

Adoration of the Magi.

Augustus and the Sibyl.

The Entombment.

Raising of Lazarus.

Christ on the way to Calvary.

The Visitation.

The Nativity.

The Vestal Claudia.

Boar Hunt.

Virgin in Glory with Saints.

Madonna with the Lily.

TISOIO, Antonio da, lived in Belluno in the
16th century, and is the author of a mutilated
altar-piece in the church of Orzes, representing the
' Virgin and Child between SS. John the Baptist,
Andrew, Sebastian, and Michael,' signed and dated
1512. It lias been suggested that he is identical
with Antonio da Cesa. Other works :

Belluno. Casa Pagani. Virgin and Child.

„ Conte Agosti. Three Fragments, each with an

Angel upon it.

TISSIER, Jean Baptistb Anqe, a French por-
trait and historical painter, _was born in Paris in
1814. He studied in the Ecole des Beaux Arts,
under AryScheflfer and Paul Delaroche. His works
appeared at the Salon from 1838 to 1876. He died
in Paris in the latter year. Several of his portraits
are at Versailles, notably one of Abd-el-Kader.

TISSOT, AMiXii^ Anqelot, a French landscape
painter, who exhibited water-colour views at the
Salon between 1835—1845. He died in 1867.

TITIAN. See Vecelli.

TITO, PoMPiLlo, an obscure engraver, who was
at work in Rome about the year 1685. His prints
are said to be marked with the initials P. T.

TITO, Santi di, painter, born at Borgo S. Sepol-
cro, in the Florentine state, October 6, 1536, was
first a disciple of Agiolo Bronzino, but, according
to Baldinucci, afterwards became a scholar of
Baccio Bandinelli. He also studied hard from
the antique at Rome, and from the works of the
Roman masters. He returned to Florence a correct
draughtsman, and distinguished himself in every-
thing but colour. Vasari says he finished a picture
of Sogliani's for S. Domenico, at Fiesole ; also that
he painted in the Belvedere of the Vatican, and on
the catafalque of Michelangelo. He excelled in
architectural perspectives, with which he gave
dignity and variety to his compositions. Among
his best works are : ' Christ with the Disciples at
Bniraaus,' in the church of S. Croce, at Florence ;
the ' Resurrection of Lazarus,' in the cathedral of
Volterra ; the ' Madonna,' in S. Salvatore, Florence ;
the ' Burial of Christ,' in S. Giuseppe ; a ' Baptism
of Christ by St. John,' in the Corsini palace,
Florence ; as well as portraits in the Uffizi and in
the Torrigiani collection. Santi died at Florence,
July 23, 1603.

TI'TO, Tibeeio di, (Valeeio,) the son of Santi
di Tito, was born at Florence in 1573, and in-
structed by his father. He did not, however, follow
the same style, but devoted himself to portrait
painting, which he practised with success. He
also excelled in small pencil portraits, on which he
was much employed by Cardinal Leopoldo de'
Medici. A considerable collection of heads drawn
by him for that prince, are preserved in the Floren-
tine Gallery. He died in 1627.

TIVOLI, Rosa di. See Roos.

TIZIANO, Girolamo di. See Dante.

TKADLIK, Fbanz, (Kadlik,) born at Prague
in 1786, was destined for the church, and became
a painter late in life. At Prague he studied under
Bergler. In 1817 he entered the Vienna Academy,
and in 1825 he was sent to Rome as a pensioner
of the Emperor. On his return to Prague he be-
came Director of the School of Fine Arts. He
died at Prague in 1840.

TOBAR, Don Alonso Miguel db, an historical
painter, and copyist of Murillo, was born at Higuera,
near Aracena, in 1678. He went young to Seville,
and placed himself under a painter of very little
ability, named Juan Antonio Faxardo. He applied
himself to copying the easel pictures of Murillo, and
became so great an adept that many passed even in
his own time as originals. In the church of St.
Isidro, at Seville, are two pictures, one representing
' The Good Shepherd,' and the other, ' The young St.
John,' which are copies, with variations, of the two
so well known in England, the latter of which is in
the National Gallery. In 1729, Tobar succeeded
Teodoro Ardemans as painter to Philip V., and
removed to Madrid, where he painted a great number
of portraits. Of his own creations, the best, perhaps,
are, ' Our Lady of Consolation,' in the cathedral of
Seville, and ' The Divine Shepherdess,' in the Royal
Collection, Madrid. Of his copies after Murillo, the
most celebrated, as such, is one in the church of
Santa Maria la Blanca de Sevilla ; which passed for
a Murillo till the original was discovered in the
palace at Madrid. Tobar died at Madrid in 1758.

TOBIN, J., an obscure English engraver, who,
about the year 1770, etched several landscapes after
H. Grimm, Both, Ostade, and other masters. Some
of his plates were printed in colours.

TOCCAGNI. See Pjazza, Albertino.

TOCQUE, Lonis, (Todcqttet,) a painter, bom
in Paris in 1696, was first a scholar of Nicolas
Bertin, and afterwards of Hyacinth Rigaud. Tocqu6
devoted himself chiefly to portraits. He became
a member of the Paris Academy in 1734. He was
invited by the Empress Elizabeth to the Russian
court, where he painted the portrait of that princess,
and met with general encouragement. He spent
two years at St. Petersburg, moving thence to
Copenhagen, where he painted several members of
the Royal Family of Denmark. He married the
daughter of the painter Nattier, and died in Paris,
February 10, 1772. The following examples of his
art are in public galleries :
Amiens. Museum. Portrait of a Young Man.

Bayeux. „ Portrait of a Lady and her

Marseilles. ,, Portrait of the Comte de Saint

Nantes. „ Portrait of a Lady.

Paris. Louvre. Portrait of Marie Leczynska.

„ „ Portrait of the Dauphin Louis,

son of Louis XV.

„ „ Portrait of Mme. de Graffigny.

And fovr in the La Caze Col-
Versailles. Mus. Hist. Portrait of the Empress Eliza-
beth of Russia.
J, „ Portrait of the Poet Gresset.

And three others.

TOEPUT, Lodewyk, (Pozzo, Pozzo-Serbato,) was
born at Meclilin in 1550. According to Descanips,
he went at an early period of his life to Italy, where
he passed the remainder of his days. He won
some reputation as a painter of landscapes, fairs,
and markets. He also had some repute as a poet.
He chiefly resided at Trevigi, in the Venetian State,
where he was still living in 1604.




TOFANELLIj Stkfano, painter, born at Lucca
in 1760, was a pupil of Niccol6 Lapiccola in Rome.
He was employed by the first engravers of the day
to make drawings for them, and among other things
drew for Volpato, Raphael's ' Parnassus,' a ' Sibyl
and two Prophets,' by Michelangelo, Guido Reni's
' Martyrdom,' Gaercino's ' Aurora ' and ' Day and
Night,' and a Landscape by Claude Lorraine ; for
Morghen, Poussin's ' Dance of the Hours,' Raphael's
'Jurisprudence,' 'The Transfiguration,' and 'Miracle
of Bolsena ; ' and Murillo's ' Magdalene.' He also
worked for Bettelini, Fontana, and Folo,and himself
painted altar-pieces, portraits, and some mythologi-
cal scenes. In 1781 he opened an Art School in
Rome, but he afterwards returned to Lucca, and in
1802 became Professor of Drawing atthe University
of S. Frediano. He died at Lucca early in the
19th century.

TOGNONE, Antonio, a fresco painter of Vicenza,
who was instructed by Zelotti, during his stay in
that city {circa 1580), where certain frescoes by
Tosnone still remain. He died young at Vicenza.

TOL, DoMlNicus VAN, was born at Bodegrave,
between 1C31 and 1642. He was the nephew and
scholar of Gerard Dou, and one of his most suc-
cessful imitators. Some of his interiors partake
of the manner of Brekelenkam. He practised for
a time at Amsterdam, but most of his life was
passed at Leyden. He died there in 1676. A
David and a Peter van Tol have been mentioned,
but there is reason to believe them identical with
Dominicus. Works :

A-nsterdam. ^^^i^y^^JThe Mouse-trap.

„ „ Portrait of Hendriok Spiegel.

„ „ A Family Scene (copy after


Copenhagen. Gallery. A Savant In his Study.

Dresden. Gallery, An Old Man eating a herring.

„ „ An Old Woman winding yarn.

Leyden. Museum. A Woman cooking pancakes.

Loudon. Bridgewat. Gat. An Old Man reading.

„ „ An Old Woman with a Book.

„ „ „ Woman caressing a Dog.

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Lace-maker.

„ „ The Bird's Nest.

TOLEDO, Juan de, a Spanish painter, was born
at Lorca, Murcia, in 1611. He was the son and
pupil of Miguel de Toledo, an obscure artist.
According to Palomino, he went to Italy when
young, and studied under Anniello Falcone at
Naples. He afterwards went to Rome, where
he became the disciple and friend of Michelangelo
Cerquozzi, called delle Battaglie. On his return
to Spain he established himself at Granada, and
acquired a distinguished reputation as a painter
of battles and sea-pieces, and also of history.
There are several of his works in the churches at
Granada, Talavera de la Reyna, Madrid, and Alcald
de Henares. At some time in his life he served
in the army, and was commonly known as el
eapitan. He died in 1665.

TOLEDO, Juan db, a pupil of Luis Tristan,
flourished from 1641 to 1645, and painted a number
of pictures in the cathedral of Toledo ; a small
' Virgin, Christ, and St. John ' by him is preserved
in the sacristy of the Capuchin Church at Toledo.

TOLENTINO, Francesco di, a painter of the
16th century, who worked in the style of Pintur-
ricchio. He was probably the author of the frescoes
in S. M. Nuova, Naples, from the life of Christ ;
of a 'Pietk', an 'Adoration of the Kings,' eight
scenes from the life of St. Barbara, and a ' Virgin


with Saints and Angels ' in the cloister church of
Liveri, near Nola.

TOLMEZZO, DoMENico, and Martino di Candido
DA, two brothers, who worked at Udine in 1479, as
painters and statuaries, overlaying their figures
with feigned draperies in paint. Messrs. Crowe and
Cavaloaselle attribute frescoes in the following
churches to Donienico: Sant' Antonio, at Mione ;
Santa Catarina, at Luint ; San Vito, at Liaris ;
San Leonardo, at Osais ; San Floriano, at Forni di
Sopra, and San Leonardo, at Forni di Sotto. A more
fully authenticated work by him is an altar-piece
in the Duomo of Udine — a ' Madonna with Saints '
above, and an 'Entombed Christ with Angels' be-
low — signed ' 1479. Opus Dominici de Tumetio.'

TOLMEZZO, Giovanni Francesco da, a painter
of Udine, was the son of one Oderioo di Daniele
of Sacchieve. He flourished towards the close of
the 15th century, and though not related in any
way to Domenico da Tolmezzo, was one of the
journeymen associated with him in the carrying
out of certain frescoes (see preceding article). In
1489 he painted the frescoes in the church of S.
Antonio at Barbeano, which still remain, though
much damaged in parts ; in 1493, those in San
Martino at Sacchieve ; there is also in this church
an altar-piece representing the patron saint dividing
his cloak, evidently painted by the same hand. At
the entrance there is the following inscription on a
pilaster : Opera di Zuane Francesco de Tolmezzo
depentor fu de M. Duri, Daniel d. Soclevo de la
Ghaxada de queli del Zoto, 1493. He was further
the author of frescoes, now partly obliterated, in
the church of Proveaano. A picture on panel of a
' Virgin and Child with Angels,' is also known as
his work, and is in the possession of Signer C,
Astori at Udine.

TOLOSANO. See Baron, Jean.

TOMASI, NiccoLA, called Colantonio deIi
FlORE, lived in the middle of the 14th century,
and was the contemporary and acquaintance of
Andrea Orcagna. He was one of the first pro-
moters of the Guild of Painters at Florence. In S.
Antonio Abbate, at Naples, is an altar-piece by
him painted in 1371. It was originally a triptych,
having in its centre, ' St. Anthony, the Abbot,
enthroned between Saints.' Of this artist's birth or
death nothing is known.

TOMBE, La. See La Tombe, Nicolaas.

TOM!^, Diego, an engraver of Toledo, who exe-
cuted, in 1726, a title-page representing ' St. Ilde-
fonso receiving the Marian chasuble,' surrounded
with an architectural design by Narciso Toni6.

TOME, LucA di. See ThomiS.

TOMKINS, Charles, painter and engraver, was
the eldest son of William Tomkins, A.R.A., and
brother of Peltro Tomkins. He was born in
London about 1750, and in 1776 gained a premium
from the Society of Arts. He exhibited several
landscape views at the Academy, some of which
he subsequently engraved. In 1782 he engraved,
jointly with Jukes, Cleveley'a ' Floating Batteries
before Gibraltar,' and in 1796 published ' A
Tour in the Isle of Wight,' containing a series of
eighty views, engraved from his own drawings.
Other works by him are : ' Review in Hyde Park,'
1799 (printed in colours) ; ' Views of Reading
Abbey, and ' Illustrations to Petrarch's Sonnets,'
the two last published in 1805. He died about 1810.

TOMKINS, Pblteo William, an English en-
graver in the chalk and dotted manner, and a
distinguished scholar of Bartolozzi, was boni in




London in 1760. Many of liis early works were
after Angelica Kauffman, and other painters of the
time ; but his best plates are those after Italian
and Dutch masters for the publication entitled
'The British Gallery of Pictures,' and for the
' Stafford Gallery.' Of the latter some impressions
were printed in colours. He also engraved the
plates for ' Original designs of the most celebrated
masters of the Bolognese, Eoman, Florentine, and
Venetian schools ' (1812) ; for Tresham's 'Gallery
of Pictures' (1814); for 'Illustrations of Modern
Scripture ' (1832) ; for a splendid edition of ' Thom-
son's Seasons,' after pictures by W. Hamilton ; and
for ' The Birth of Love,' by Bland Burgess, from
designs by the Princess Elizabeth of England. _ He
engraved, too, some plates from his own designs,
among them ' Innocent Play ' and ' Love and
Hope.' One very rare private plate by him is the
portrait of
Margaret Audley, Duchess of Norfolk ; after Lucas de

Many small ornamental prints for publications of
the day, which were probably engraved by scholars
under his direction, bear his name. He died in
London, April 22nd, 1840.

TOMKINS, William, A.R.A., an English land-
scape painter, born in London about the year 1730,
was the son of an obscure painter. In 1763 he
obtained a premium for a landscape, and was
among the first associates of the Eoyal Academy.
He exhibited at the Academy from 1769 to 1790,
his subjects being chiefly views, with birds and
dead game. Six views of Windsor by him were
engraved. He painted numerous landscapes and
views of gentlemen's seats in England and Scot-
land ; there are also some copies of Hobbema and
other Dutch landscape painters by him. He died
in London, January 1st, 1792.

TOMLINSON, J., an English engraver, who
practised in London in the early part of the 19th
century. Receiving a good offer of employment
in Paris, he settled there, but falling into bad
company, he took to drinking and debauchery, and
finally drowned himself in the Seine in 1824. His
works were principally landscape views.


TOMMASO, Bar'J'Olommbo di. See Babtolommeo.



TOMMASO DI MARCO, a native of Florence, and
a pupil of Orcagna ; none of whose works are
known to be extant. Vasari mentions a picture
by him painted in 1392, in Sant' Antonio at Pisa,
but this has been long destroyed.



TOMMASO DI STEFANO, architect, painter, and
miniaturist, born at Florence about 1496, was a
scholar of Lorenzo di Credi, and the friend of
Sogliani. His surname is said to have been Lunetti.
He successfully imitated the manner of his master,
and excelled particularlyin the painting of draperies.
He painted an altar-piece for the Villa d'Arcetri,
representing the 'Nativity,' which is still to be
seen in the chapel of the Capponi della Rovinate
family, and carried out many architectural works
in Florence and its neighbourhood. He died at
Florence in 1564.

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 151 of 201)