Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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TOMMEL. See Tjsmmel.



TOMOLIUS, LucA, an engraver, whose name
is affixed to a small portrait of F. Laelius Contesino,
coarsely executed with the grayer. He was pro-
bably identical with Lucas Toniolus, whose name
appears on a portrait of Antonius Paulutius.

TOMPSON, Richard, mezzotint engraver, prac-
tised in London towards the close of the 17th
century. He kept a shop for the sale of engravings,
and also a printing oflSce, which has caused it to be
questioned whether the excellent prints which bear
his name were really his productions, or merely sold
by him. His engravings are chiefly after Kneller
and Lely. A print of Nell Gwynne and her two
sons, signed by him, is extant. His own portrait,
painted by Soest, was engraved by Francis Place.
Tompson died in 1693. Other plates :

Elizabeth, Countess of Southampton ; after Van Dyck.

Mary Davis, with a guitar.

Prince Eupert ; after Lely.

Gilbert Shelton, archbishop of Canterbury.

Lady Ann Montagu ; after Lely.

Admiral Sir W. Berkeley.

Admiral Sir Joseph Jordan.

TOMS, Peter, the son of W. H. Toms, was
a scholar of Hudson, and drapery painter to Sir
Joshua Reynolds, Cotes, and West. He was one of
the first forty Royal Academicians, and also held
a situation in the Herald's Office. He went to
Ireland to practise as a portrait painter, hut not
meeting with encouragement, he returned to Eng-
land. The death of Cotes is said to have so deeply
afEected him, that he fell into a state of melancholia,
and destroyed himself in 1776.

TOMS, W. H., an English engraver, who flour-
ished about th^ year 1740. He engraved several
views and architectural subjects, some plates for
books, and a few portraits. He died about 1750.
The following are among his best prints :

The Portrait of Sir Philip Percival ; after Fan Dyck.

Two Views of Greenwich Hospital; after Lawramon.

Four Views of Gibraltar ; after Mace.

A set of eight Views in the Island of Jersey.

A series of English Views ; after Chatelain. 1747.

A series of perspectives of ancient London churches ;

after R. West. 1736—39.
Twelve Views of Shipping.

TONDUZZI, GiULio, painter, a native of Faenza,
who flourished in the first half of the 16th century.
He was a pupil of Giulio Romano. Lanzi mentions
a ' Stoning of S. Stephen ' by him in the church at
Faenza, which from its resemblance to the works
of his master, had been attributed to Romano.

TONELLI, Giuseppe, an Italian painter of per-
spectives and theatrical scenery, who flourished
about 1668. He was a pupil of Chiavistelli. He
worked chiefly at Bologna and Rome.

TONNO, , a Sicilian painter, the servant

and pupil of Polidoro Caravaggio, whom he
assassinated in order to get possession of his money.
He was executed for this crime in 1543, at Messina.

TOOKEY, James, an English engraver in the
beginning of the 19th century. Specimens of his
work will be found in Church's ' Cabinet of Quad-
rupeds, ' and Bell's ' British Theatre.'

TOORENBURGH, Geekit, born at Amsterdam
about 1737, was a scholar of J. Ten Compe, and of
C. Pronk. He painted landscapes and views of
cities, and his drawings are good. He also,
decorated the interiors of houses, among them that
of the Baron Van Esse, called the Old House of
Schefifelaar. Toorenburgh died at Nykerk about




1785. In the Museum at the Hague there is a
view of the Araatel at Amsterdam by him.

TOORENVLIET, Abraham, son and pupil of
Jakob Toorenvliet, was bom in 1685. He painted
portraits, and died in 1735.

TOORENVLIET, Jakob, (Toebnvliet,) called
Jason, was bom at Leyden in 1641. He was in-
structed in design by his father, Abraham Tooeen-
VLiBT, a glass painter, and for some time ap-
plied himself to painting portraits. With these
he had acquired some reputation, when, in 1670,
he was induced to accompany his friend Nicholas
Eosendaal in a journey to Italy. On his arrival at
Rome, the works of Raphael became the particular
objects of his study. To improve his colour he
visited Venice, where he resided some time, and
after an absence of six years x-eturned to Holland,
where his success was unequal to his hopes. He
was the first master of Prans Mieris. He died at
Leyden in 1719. Works :

Brunswick. Gallery. A party of men and women

with books.
Dresden. „ A Woman singing while a man

plays the hurdy-gurdy,
„ „ A Fishwoman.

„ „ A Jew holding a book.

Vienna. „ A Butcher's Shop.

TOPFFER, Adam Wolfgang, born at Geneva
in 1765, studied in Paris under Suv6e and Delarive,
and drew and painted landscapes, genre pictures,
and scenes of peasant life, treating the latter with
much drollery and humour. He died in 1847.

TOPFFER, J. RuDOLB', a draughtsman and art-
writer, born at Geneva in 1799, was the son of
Adam TopfFer. He was destined for his father's
profession, but a weakness of eyesight prevented
his becoming a painter. He devoted himself,
however, with great success to draughtsmanship,
and published a number of humorous works, illus-
trated with original drawitigs. Among these were
a ' History of M. Jabot,' a ' History of M. Crispin,'
and a pleasantly written book of travels, ' Voyages
en Zig-Zag.' He was also the author of various
critical writings on art, and was Professor of
.Slsthetics at the Academy of Geneva. He died
at Geneva, June 18th, 1846.

TOPHAM, Francis William, an English subject
painter in water-colours, was bom at Leeds in 1808.
His early years were devoted to the practice of
engraving. Coming to London at the age of
twenty-one, he gradually devoted himself, self-
taught, to painting. He was elected an Associate
of the New Water-Colour Society in 1842, and a
member in 1843, but resigned in 1847, and was
elected an Associate of the Old Water-Colour Society
the same year, becoming a full member in 1848.
Here his works chiefly appeared, though he occa-
sionally exhibited at the Royal Academy, the British
Institution, and the Society of British Artists. His
early subjects were much taken from Wales and
Ireland, but in his later years, Spanish scenes
greatly attracted him, and he travelled much in
the Peninsula. He had at one time considerable
practice as a draughtsman : amongst the works he
illustrated were Mrs. S. C. Hall's ' Midsummer Eve,'
Moore's 'Melodies,' 'Burns' Poems,' and his own
'Angler's Souvenir,' for he was a disciple of the
gentle craft. He died at Cordova, during one of
his Spanish trips, in March 1877. Amongst his
pictures we may name :

Dublin. Nat. Gall. The Irish Mother.
Liverpool, Corp. Gall. Group of Children.
P P 2

Liverpool. Corp. Gall. Voices of the Sea. 1 .,
„ „ The Irish Pattern. J °"-

London. <S. Ken. Mus. Galway Peasants,

„ „ Irish Peasant Girl at the foot of a

„ „ Peasants at a Fountain, Bas

PyrSnfes. 1858.
„ „ South "Weald Church, Ssser.

TOPINO-LEBRUN, FRANgois Jean Baptists,
born at Marseilles in 1769, is remembered for his
picture of the ' Death of Caius Gracchus,' painted
in 1797, which was purchased by the government
and placed in the Museum at Marseilles. He had
been a pupil of David, both in Rome and Paris,
and imitated him in painting and politics. In
1793 he became a member of the Revolutionary
Tribunal, and was guillotined at Paris in 1801, for
conspiring against the life of the first consul.

TORBIDO, Francesco, called II Moro, painter,
was bom in Verona about 1486. His sobriqicet
seems to have been suggested by his personal
appearance; for his portrait in red chalk, in the
Christ Church collection at Oxford, represents him
with thick lips and crisp hair. In his youth he
went to Venice to study under Giorgione, but
having quarrelled and come to blows with some
Venetian, he returned to Verona, where he gained
the friendship of Liberale, who made him his heir.
From his custom of imitating the manners of
various masters, notably Giorgione, Oariani, Palma,
and Giulio Romano, his easel pictures are often
wrongly ascribed. Crowe and Cavalcaselle point
out three conspicuous instances : the ' Flute Player '
in the Casa Maldura, Padua, ascribed to Pordenone;
the picture called ' General Gattamelata with his
Esquire,' in the Uffizi Gallery, and a ' Flute Player
crowned with laurel,' in the Paduan Gallery, both
ascribed to Giorgione, the latter with a forged
signature. The same writers point out that the
' Woman taken in Adultery,' at the Hermitage,
(No. 12), ascribed in the catalogue to an unknown
Venetian master, is by Torbido. The Munich
Pinakothek possesses a portrait by him, dated 1616.
A portrait of a gray-bearded man is in the Museum
of Naples; in the Verona Gallery there is a 'Virgin
enthroned ' by him, dated 1542 ; in the church of
St. Zeno, at Verona, and in the cathedral of Sal6,
there are altar-pieces. In 1534 Torbido painted
the frescoes of the 'Nativity,' 'Presentation,' and
'Assumption,' in the choir of the Duomo of
Verona, from cartoons by Giulio Romano. In 1535
he was at Friuli, where, in the choir of the church
of Rosazo, he left frescoes representing ' SS. Peter
and Paul,' the ' Virgin and Child,' the 'Transfigur-
ation,' ' Peter walking on the Sea,' the ' Call of SS.
James and Andrew,' and the symbols of the Evan-
gelists. The date of his death is imcertain, but
that he was alive in 1546 is proved by a letter of
Pietro Aretino's. Torbido was also an engraver.
A list of his plates is to be found in Passavant's
'Peintre Graveur.'

TORELLI, Cesaee, painter, was a native of
Rome, and a pupil of Giovanni de' Vecchi. He
flourished in the pontificate of Paul V,, and was
employed both as a painter and a mosaicist in the
library of the Vatican, and in the Scala Santa, at San
Giovanni Laterano, He painted two sibyls in the
church of La Madonna del Orto. He died in 1615.

TORELLI, Felice, a painter of Verona, born

in 1670, was of the school of Giangioseffo dal

Sole, but had previously studied art under Santo

Pmnati. His altar-pieces are to be found at

I Rome, Turin, Milan, and other cities of Italy.





That in the church of the Dominicans, at Faenza,
is one of his best works. It represents ' St.
Vincent in the act of curing a female Lunatic'
He died in 1748. His wife Lucia, nee Casalini,
also painted some pictures for churches, in which
she imitated the style of her husband ; but her
chief excellence lay in portraits. Her own hangs
in the Uffizi at Florence. She was born in 1677,
and died in 1762.

TORELLI, FiLiPPO di Matteo, a Florentine
miniaturist, who flourished between 1440 and 1468.
In the 'Lorenziana' at Florence there is a finely
illuminated ' Evangelistarium ' by him, with mini-
atures of the ' Adoration of the Kings,' the ' Cruci-
fixion,' the 'Resurrection,' &c. In conjunction
with Zanobi Strozzi, he illuminated some choir-
books for the Duomo and for San Marco, at
Florence. These miniatures were at one time
wrongly attributed to Fra Benedetto, the brother of
Fra Angelico.

TOBELLI, GlACOMo, Cavaliere, a celebrated
painter of architecture and theatrical scenery, was
born at Fano in 1608. He was the first, it is said,
to invent shifting scenes and machinery for dra-
matic representations, and, for the surprise they
occasioned, was named il gran Stregone, the great
magician. He died at Fano in 1678.

TORELLI, Stbfano, painter, was born at Bo-
logna in 1712. He studied first under his father,
Felice Torelli, and then under Francesco Soliraena.
Augustus III., the future King of Poland, brought
him to Dresden in 1740, and he there painted
altar-pieces and ceiling decorations, many of which
were destroyed in the Seven Years' War. He
painted the figures in Canaletto's twenty-nine
views of Dresden (1741). In 1762 he was sum-
moned to the court of Petersburg, where he painted
ceilings in the Royal Palace, and some portraits,
among the latter one of the Empress Elizabeth in
armour. He was a clever caricaturist, and etched
a few plates. He died at Petersburg in 1784,

TORENBURG. See Tookenbukgh.

TORENVLIET. See Toohenvliet.

TORESANI, Andrea, an Italian painter, and
native of Brescia, who flourished between 1727
and 1760, practising chiefly at Venice and

TORNIOLI, Niccol6, was born at Siena, and
flourished about the year 1640. He resided some
time at Bologna, where he painted two pictures
for the church of S. Paolo, a ' Cain slaying Abel,'
and a ' Jacob wrestling with the Angel.' Some
of his pictures are on variegated marble.

TOROND, , an English engraver and hu-
morous draughtsman, practising about the middle
of the 18th century, of whom nothing is known.

TORRE, Babtolommeo, a fresco painter of
Arezzo, who flourished about the beginning of
the 17th century, and died young.

TORRE, Flaminio, called degli Ancinelli,
bom at Bologna in 1621, was first a scholar of
Jacopo Cavedone and Guido Reni, but afterwards
studied under Simone Contarini. His chief excel-
lence was as a copyist. He painted, however,
some pictures of his own for the churches at
Bologna ; the best is a ' Deposition from the Cross,'
in S. Giorgio. Bartsoh describes the following
seven prints by Flaminio Torre :

Samson ; after Guido.

The Virgin accompanied by the Infant Jesus and St.
John ; from his own design ; dated 1639.

The Virgin with St. Jerome and St. Francis; after

Lodovico Carracci.
The Virgin with the patron Saints of Bologna ; after

St. John the Evangelist ; from his own design. Signed

F. T. F.
Three Children bearing a Plateau, on which are two

vases and a glass ; signed G. R. T.
Pan conquered by Cupid ; after Ag. Carracci.

Flaminio Torre died at Modena in 1661.

TORREGIANI, Babtolommeo, a pupil of Salva-
tor Rosa, painted landscapes and portraits. He is
supposed to have died in 1674.

TORRENTIUS, Johann, bom at Amsterdam
or Haarlem in 1589, was not less remarkable for
the talents he possessed as a painter, than for the
depravity of his morals. In the early part of his
life he painted conversations, domestic subjects,
and still-life ; and his pictures were greatly ad-
mired for beauty of finish and delicacy of colour.
But he afterwards fell into a dissolute course of
life, and selected obscenity for his subject. To
profligacy he added impiety, and attempted to
justify his art by preaching tenets subversive of
every moral principle. He was accused of being
a leader of the Rosicrucians, waB arrested, ' ques-
tioned,' and sentenced to twenty years imprison-
ment. By the intercession of some persons of
consideration, among whom were Sir Dudley
Carleton and Charles I., who addressed a letter on
his behalf to the Prince of Orange, he obtained his
liberty, and, after an unsuccessful visit to England,
lived in hiding at Amsterdam till his death in 1640.
Two pictures by him are mentioned in the White-
hall Catalogue. They were presented to Charles I.
by Sir Dudley Carleton.

TORRES, Clemente de, born at Cadiz in 1665,
was a pupil of D. Juan de Valdes Leal, in
Seville. By his talent and application he became
one of the best painters of his time, both in oil and
fresco. In the latter manner he painted the S.
Fernando over the principal door in the convent
of St. Paul, Seville, and three colossal Apostles,
with groups of angels above each, in other parts of
the same convent. For the Mercenaries Calzados,
he painted in oil the two Saints John, and the Virgin.
He went to Madrid about 1724, where he formed .a
friendship with Antonio Palomino, in whose praise
he wrote a sonnet : Palomino returned the compli-
ment by describing him as a distinguished painter,
and a laurelled scholar of the Muses. In the.church
of S. Felipe Nori, Cadiz, he painted a ' God the
Father.' In the Hermitage there is a ' St. Joseph
with the Infant Christ' by him. He died at Cadiz
in 1730.

TORRES, Matias de, born at Espinosa de los
Monteros in 1631, studied under his uncle, an
indifferent painter, and in the Madrid Academy.
He also received lessons from the younger Herrera.
He imitated and exaggerated the style of Cara-
vaggio. He, however, painted landscapes, and
battle-pieces, in a graceful and free manner, which
were esteemed by the amateurs of his time. He
died in 1711.

TORRITI, Jacobus, (Turbiti,) is known by his
signature on mosaics in San Giovanni Laterano, and
Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome. Those in the Lateran
were carried out in conjunction with the Franciscan
monk, Jacobus de Camerino. They were executed
between the years 1287 and 1292, and though in
imitation of the style of Cimabue, they display a
great advance on the old mosaicists of Rome.




TORTEBAT, FRANgois, painter and engraver,
was born in Paris in 1616. He was a disciple o£
Simon Vouet, whose daughter he married, and be-
came a reputable painter of portraits. He was
received into the Academy in 1663, his reception
picture being a portrait of Vouet, now at Versailles.
There are twenty-iive spirited etchings by Tortebat,
executed in a style resembling that of Michael
Dorigny. He engraved the plates for ' I'Anatomie
des Peintres,' by De Piles, from designs by Johannes
Calcar. The following independent plates are also
by hira :

Peace descending upon earth ; after S, Vouet.

St. Louis carried up to Heaven by Angels ; after the

Samson breaking the Pillars of the Temple of the

Philistines ; after the same.

He died in Paris, June 4, 1690.

TORTEBAT, Jean, painter, one of the twenty-
nine children of Franqois Tortebat, was bom in
Paris in 1652. He became a member of the
Academy in 1699. His reception picture, a portrait
of Jouvenet, is now at Versailles. He was a suc-
cessful portrait painter, and many of his works
were engraved by Edelinck. He died in Paris,
November 10, 1718.

TORTIROLE, Giovanni Battista, painter, was
a native of Cremona, and flourished in the first
part of the 16th century. He was a pupil of
Mainardi, and worked for a time both at Rome
and at Naples. He died at the age of thirty.

TORTOLERO, Pedro, a Spanish painter and
engraver, was born at Seville about the beginning
of the 18th century, and died from an accident in

TORTOEEL, Jean, a native of France, who
flourished about the year 1570, and engraved both
on wood and on copper. In conjunction with
Jacques Perrissim, he executed a set of twenty-
four large prints, representing the ' War of the
Huguenots.' They are engraved coarsely, but not
without some spirit.

TORY, GoDBFEOlD, a famous miniaturist, draughts-
man, engraver, and printer, was born at Bourges
about 1480. lie began life with the study of
philosopliy and letters, and was a professor in
various colleges. Determining to devote himself
to art, he visited Italy, and, on liis return to Paris,
set up a printing-press, and published a number of
translations from Greelc and Latin authors, with
illustrations by himself. He took for the sign of
his house a broken jar, which he frequently placed
on his plates. Hence he is known as the " Maitre
au pot cass^." .He was appointed printer to the
king, and is looked upon as a reformer of typography
in Prance. A ' Caesar's Commentaries ' and a
' Petrarch's Triumphs,' with miniatures by him, are
still extant. To his brush is also ascribed a minia-
ture at the head of a Codex of Diodorus Siculus.
He died in Paris in 1533.

TOSCANI, Giovanni di Francesco, (Tossicani,)
a painter of the 14th century, was the pupil of Giot-
tino, in whose style he painted. His masterpiece
is said to have been an ' Annunciation,' in a chapel
of the Bishop's palace at Arezzo. It was restored
by Agnolo di Lorenzo, and later by Vasari. Tos-
cani died May 2, 1403, and was buried in Santa
Maria del Fiore.

TOSCHI, Paolo, draughtsman and engraver,
bom at Parma in 1788, studied in Paris under
Bervic, and first made a reputation by a fine
etching of Henry IV., after G6rard. In 1837 he

was appointed Professor of Engraving and Director
of the Academy of Parma, and shortly afterwards
was commissioned to carry out the reproduction of
Correggio's and Pamiigiano's injured frescoes in
S. Giovanni, and in the Delia Steocata at Parma,
in water-colour and engraving. The results were
published in forty-eight plates. Otlier fine plates
by Toschi were :

lo Spasimo ; after Raphael.
The Madonna Delia Tenda ; after the same.
The Descent from the Cross ; after Daniele da Volterra.
The Madonna della Scodella ; after Carreggw.
Venus and Adonis ; after Albano.
Portraits of the Grand Duke of Tuscany; the Duo
Descazes ; Machiavelli ; Alfieri.

^ He died at Parma, July 30, 1854.
* TOSCHI, PiEE Francesco d' Jacopo di Domenico,
was the son of a painter living outside the Porta
Romana at Florence. He was a pupil of Andrea
del Sarto. Three pictures by him, an ' Assumption,'
a 'Transfiguration,' and a 'Resurrection,' are in
the church of S. Spirito, Florence. He was also
much engaged on decorative work. He died on
September 17, 1567, and was buried in S. Spirito.

TOSS, J. The name of this artist is aflBxed to a
spirited etching, representing the adoration of the
Shepherds ; after C. Hochfidd.

TOTO, Anthony, painter and architect, was an
Italian \iy birth, but came to England about 153J,
and was naturalized in 1643. Henry VIII. ap-
pointed him Serjeant-Painter. None of his works
are known.

TOUR, Maubioe Qubntin de la. See De la

TOURFAUT, L^on Alj;xandrb, engraver, was
a native of Paris, and a pupil of Sotain. He en-
graved chiefly on wood, and reproduced portraits,
etc., for ' Le Monde Illustre,' and other publications,
principally after designs by contemporary artists.
He committed suicide by hanging liimself, No-
vember 16, 1883.

TOURNEMINE. See Vachbr de Tournemine.

TOURNEUX, Jean FRANgois, painter, was born
at Banthouzel (Nord) in 1809. He was a pupil of
Mar^chal, at Metz, and painted realistic pictures
with a certain vigour. He was also the author of
several volumes of verse. In the Metz Museum
there is a pastel picture by him, ' The Gipsy
Camp,' and at the Grenoble Museum, an ' At the
Organ.' He died in Paris in 1867.

TOURNIER, , a French painter, born at

Toulouse about 1604. He was a pupil of Valentin,
and is said to have afterwards studied in Italy
under Caravaggio, whose blackness he imitated to
an absurd degree. In the Toulouse Museum there
are two pictures by him ; a ' Descent from the
Cross,' and an 'Entombment.' He died about 1670.

TODRNER. See Touenieres.

TOURNIER, Jban Jacques, a French engraver
of the 17th century, a native of Toulouse. He
engraved several plates for ' Les Edifices Antiques
de Rome,' by Antoine Desgodets. He also en-
graved a set of vases from the designs by Charles
Errard, and some Madonnas, after Guide.

TOURNIERES, Robert, bora at Caen, in Nor-
mandy, in 1668. He received his first instruction
from Lucas de la Haye, a Carmelite friar, but went
young to Paris, and entered the school of Bon
Boullongne. In 1702 he was received by the
Academy as a portrait painter, and in 1716 as a
painter of history. He was made professor in 1735.
He painted several large pictures for churches, and
^ 581




the portraits of some persons of distinction ; but
he also imitated the manner of Gerard Dou and
Godfrey Schalcken, and his li ttle genre pictures be-
came so popular, that he eventually gave up his-
torical painting. He exhibited occasionally at the
Salon between 1704 and 1748. He was a favourite
■with the Regent Duke of Orleans, who took great
delight in seeing him paint. Several of his viforks
have been engraved. In 1750 Tournieres returned
to Caen, where he died in 1752. Among his pupils
were Huliot the younger, Eomagnesi, and Le Moine.
His ' Origin of Painting ' is in the Louvre, and his
portraits of the Maupertuis family in the Nantes

TOUKNY, Joseph-Gabeiel, a water-colour
painter and engraver, who was born in Paris M)
1817, studied under Martinet, and became tapissiei'
at the Gobelins in 1836. He gained the ' prix de
Home ' for engraving in 1846, and then took up
his residence in the Papal city. While in Italy
he made many copies in water-colour of paintings
by the old masters. He was alio succesKful as a
portrait painter. He died at Montpellier in 1880.

TOUESEL, AuGUSTE, a French painter of land-
scapes and historical subjects, born at Arras in
1812. He was the pupil of Lordon and of Gros.
He exhibited a few pictures at the Salon between
1840-60, and there are several of his works in the
museum of his native town. He died in Paris,
February 12, 1883.

TOUSSAINT, Augustus, an English miniature
painter, born in London towards the middle of the

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 152 of 201)