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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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18th century. He studied under James Nixon,
and was awarded a prize in 1766 by the Society of
Arts. From 1775 to 1788 he exhibited miniatures
at the Royal Academy, but, succeeding to property
on the death of his father, a jeweller, he retired to
Lymington, where he died towards the close of
the century.

TOUZB, Jean, born in Paris in 1747, was a
pupil of Greuze, whose manner he successfully
imitated. He painted domestic scenes, and was
also much employed in making drawings for en-
gravers. He died in Paris in 1809.

TOWNE, Charles, an English landscape and
cattle painter, born in the latter part of the 18th
century. His works were occasionally exhibited
at the Royal Academy and at the British Institution
between 1795 and 1828, after which he settled at
Liverpool for some years, and became Vice-President
of the Liverpool Academy in 1813. He is supposed
to have returned to London and to have died about
1850. There is a picture of Everton village by
him in the Liverpool Corporation Gallery.

TOWNE, Feanois, an English landscape painter,
born in 1740. He studied under W. Pars, and
was awarded a prize by the Society of Arts in
1759. His works first appeared at the Free
Society and in Spring Gardens, but he afterwards
exhibited at the Academy and at the British
Institution. He spent several years of his life
in Italy and Switzerland. He died in London in

TOWNLEY, Charles, an English painter and
mezzotint engraver, was born in London in 1746.
He studied in Rome and Florence, and engraved
portraits and historical subjects. He also painted
portraits, both in oil and pastel ; some of the latter
were exhibited with the Free Society in 1782. In
1789 he visited Berlin, where he painted miniatures
and engraved portraits, among the latter those of
Frederick WiUiam II., Catharine II., and Ziethen.


He was appointed court engraver at Berlin. In
1790 he went to Hamburg, and thence returned to
England. He died about 1800. Among his plates
are the following :


Leonardo da Vinci ; t^ter apictTire ascribed to the master.

Annibale Carracci ; after himself,

Domenichino ; the same.

Peter Paul Rubens ; the same.

Rembrandt ; the same.

Sir Joshua Reynolds ; the same.

Percival Pott, Surgeon, F.R.S. ; after Reynolds.

Joseph Allan, M.D. ; after Romney.

Sir Hyde Parker, Vice- Admiral ; after the same.

Agrippiua weeping over the Tomb of Germanicus ; after

Bulls fighting ; after Stuhbs.

And others yter Hoppner, Opie, and Dance.

TOWNSHEND, George, Marquis, amateur
etcher, had a great reputation for his humorous
sketches and caricatures, some of which he etched
himself. He was bom in 1724, and in 1767 became
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. It was during his terra
of office that many of his best drawings were made,
notably a clever caricature of the Duchess of
Queensberry. He died in 1807.

TEABALLESI, Francesco, a native of Florence,
flourished at Rome in the pontificate of Gregory
XIII. (1572—1585). In the Chiesa de' Greci, which
was founded by that pope, are two altar-pieces by
this painter, an ' Annunciation,' and a ' Christ dis-
puting with the Doctors.' His brother Baetolom-
MBO was an assistant of Vasari.

TRABALLESI, Giulio, (Giuliano,) an Italian
designer and engraver, born at Florence in 1726.
He made most of the drawings for the collection
of portraits of illustrious Florentines, which were
engraved by Allegrini and others. We have several
etchings by him, after Bolognese painters ; among
them are the following :

The Communion of St. Jerome ; after Agos. Carracci.

The Conversion of St. Paul ; after L. Carracci.

St. A16 and St. Petronlus kneeling before the Virgin ;

after Cavedone.
The Circumcision ; after Guide.
The Communion of St. Catharine ; after F. Brizzio.

Traballesi died in 1796.

TRAIES, William, an English painter, born at
Crediton in 1789. In his early years he was a
clerk in the Post OSice. He at length devoted
himself entirely to art, and gained a considerable
local reputation as the " Devonshire Claude." His
atmospheric effects are good, but his foliage is
heavy. He formed a close friendship with GAi-
dall, another Devonshire painter, with whom he
sketched much. Only four of his works appeared
at the Royal Academy. He died at Exeter, April
28, 1872. There is a landscape, ' On the Ockment,'
by him in the South Kensington Museum.

TRAINI, Francesco, a native of Pisa, who
flourished in the 14th century, was a distinguished
disciple of Andrea Orcagna. Vasari mentions a
picture by him, in the church of S. Catarina at
Pisa, representing 'S. Thomas Aquinas triumphing
over heresy,' which is still in situ. The other
works of this artist are : four scenes from the life of
S. Dominic, in the Academy of Florence, once
an altar-piece ; it was completed in 1346 ; and the
banner of the Fraternita della Lauda, painted for
the church of S. Maria Maggiore at Pisa; in 1341.




TRAMAZZINO, Fhanco, is noticed by Florent
le Comte as the engraver of a print, dated 1661,
representing a solemn entry into the city of Rome.

TRAMBLIN, Denis Charles, was scene-painter
to the king's private theatre and to the opera in
Paris, and flourished towards the middle of the
18th century. In 1751 he became a member of the
Academy of S. Luke ; and in 1762 he was appointed
to a post at the Gobelins in succession to his
father-in-law, De Neumaison.

TRAMULLES, Fbanoisco, bom at Perpignan at
the commencement of the 18th century, was the son
of a Catalonian sculptor, who was employed at the
time in the cathedral of Perpignan. He was first
sent to Paris to study painting, and afterwards to
Barcelona to the elder Viladomat. After devoting
two years to copying the works of the old masters
at Madrid, he returned to Barcelona, opened a
school of design, and obtained a great number of
scholars. He was employed to paint three large
pictures for the cathedral at Perpignan. He also
painted for the city of Gerona, and for Barcelona.
He died in the latter city about 1760, in the fifty-
sixth year of his age.

9> TRAMULLES, Manuel, bom at Barcelona in
1715, was the elder brother of Francisco. Like
him, he studied under Antonio de Viladomat, whose
manner he closely imitated. Like his brother, he
opened a school, which was frequented by many
scholars. He was very studious, and very patient
in his teaching. He died July 3, 1791. His chief
works are in the churches and convents at Barce-
lona ; and there are a few at Tarragona and Gerona.

TRANFURNARL See Tzanfdbnari.

TRASI, LoDOVico, painter, born at Ascoli in
1634-, was a scholar of Andrea Sacchi, at the same
time with Carlo Maratti; and afterwards became
the disciple of his fellow-student. In his easel
pictures he resembles Maratti ; but in his larger
works and altar-pieces he imitated the less laboured
manner of Sacchi. His 'S. Niccol6,' in the church
of S. Cristoforo, at Ascoli, is esteemed his best
work. He died about 1694.

TRAUT, Hans, a Nuremberg painter of the 15th
century, the contemporary of Wolgemut, in whose
manner he painted. His name occurs in the city
rate-books in 1477. His principal work, the decor-
ation of the cloisters of the Augustine Convent,
into which he introduced portraits of many famous
Nurembergers, is no longer in existence. But an
exiimple of his art is preserved in the University
Collection at Erlangen. It consists of a large
coloured drawing, the painter's name written upon
it by Diirer.

TRAUT, Wolfgang, an engraver on wood, was
a native of Nuremberg, but practised chiefly at
Frankfort a.M., where he settled in 1647. He
died in 1662. Of his forty-four fine and rare prints
the best are : ' The Scourging of Christ,' ' The
dead Christ with an Angel,' 'Head of Christ,' and
' A Head of the Virgin.'

TRAUTMANN, Johann Geoeq, painter, born at
Zweibriicken in 1713, studied at first with F. F.
Bellon at Zweibriicken, and then under Schlegel
and Kiesewetter at Frankfurt, and in 1761 was
made painter to the court of the Palatinate. He
painted principally pictures with fire-light efiects,
such as his ' Burning of Troy,' portraits in eastern
costume, and peasant gatherings. Examples of his
art are to be found in the Stadel Institute at Frank-
fort, and in the Augsburg and Cassel Galleries.
He etched six plates, and made a number of pen

and ink drawings. He died at Frankfort in 1769,
His son, Johann Peteb Tbadtmann, born in 1745,
painted in the style of his father. He died in 1792.

TRAUTMANN, Karl Friedrich, landscape
painter, born at Breslau in 1804, studied at the
Academy of Berlin. He worked for some time in
the duoliy of Cassel, and from 1844 alternately in
Breslau and Waldenburg. He also practised as a
lithographer. In the Berlin National Gallery there
is an ' Oak Forest ' by Trautmann. He died at
Waldenburg, in Silesia, in 1875.

TRAUTSCHOLD, Wilhelm, painter, was born
at Berlin in 1815. He studied at the Diisseldorf
Academy, and painted a few genre pictures, but
was best known as a portraitist. He died in 1876.
His best work is a portrait of Liebig. There is a
chalk-drawing of Black Forest scenery by him at
South Kensington.

TRAVI, Antonio, bora at Sestri, in the Genoese
territory, in 1613, was generally known by the
name of II Sordo di Sestri, on account of his deafness.
He was originally a colour-grinder to Bernardo
Strozzi, who instructed him in design, and he after-
wards studied landscape painting under Godfrey de
Waals. He died in 1668. His son Antonio was
also a landscape painter.

TRAVlfeS, Charles Joseph, painter and litho-
grapher, was born at Wintherthur, in Switzerland,
of French parents, in 1804. He studied first at
Strasburg, and went later, to Paris, where he
worked for a time at the Eoole des Beaux Arts,
and under Heim. He made his dihut as a portrait
painter, but finding that his bent lay rather towards
caricature, he devoted himself almost entirely to
drawings of that class. He was a prolific con-
tributor to the ' Charivari ' and ' La Caricature,' and
assisted in the illustration of Balzac's novels. His
burlesque studies of Parisian low life were full of
humour and observation, and had a great popu-
larity. He was perhaps best known in this genre
by his invention of the little hunchback ' Mayeux,'
a still popular type. Other works were : ' Les
Fran9ais peints par eux-mlmes,' 'Les Rues de
Paris,' ' Le Miroir Grotesque.' He died in Paris,
August 13, 1869.

TRELLENKAMP, Wilhelm, historical painter,
was born at Sterkrade, near Ruhrort, in 1826. He
began hfe as a schoolmaster at Crefeld, and after-
wards studied art at the Academy at Diisseldorf.
He painted a number of sacred pictures, and many
portraits. He died at Orsoy on the Rhine in 1878.

TREML, Johann Friedrich, born at Vienna in
1826, studied at the Academy of that city under
Fendi, and painted military scenes in oil and water-
colours with much animation. He died at Vienna
in 1862.

TREMOLLIERE, Pierre Charles, (Treimo-
LiiRES,) painter, born at Cholet, Maine et Loire,
in 1703. He studied in Paris under Jean Baptiste
Van Loo, and in Rome, as king's pensioner. While
in Rome he married Isabella Tibaldi, the miniature
painter, and sister to Maria Subleyras. On his return
from Italy he resided some time at Lyons, where
he painted three pictures for the church of the
Carmelites, a ' Nativity,' an ' Adoration of the Magi,'
and a ' Presentation in the Temple.' In 1734 he re-
turned to Paris, and in 1737 was made a member of
the Academy ; his reception picture was an ' Ulysses
shipwrecked on the Island of Calypso.' He
painted several historical and fabulous subjects for
the H6tel de Soubise, and was engaged to prepare





cartoons for a set of tapestry for the king, repre-
senting the ' Four Ages of the World,' when he died
of consumption, in Paris, May 10, 1739. Tr6molliere
etolied a set of studies after Watteau, and had
commenced ' The Seven Worlss of Mercy,' from his
own designs, but only lived to finish two.

TRENCH, Henry, an Irish historical painter,
born towards the close of the 17th century. He
studied in Italy, and gained a medal at the Academy
of St. Luke. Settling in England in 1725, he died
young in London, in the following year.

TKENN, Eduard, a German landscape painter,
born at Saohsenhausen in 1839. He studied at the
Berlin Academy, and under Eschke. In 1866 he
accompanied an exploring expedition into the in-
terior of Africa, and was killed in an attack made
upon his party by the natives.

TRENTO, Antonio da (Antonio Fantuzzi ;
Antoine Fantose), engraver, was born at Trent, in
the Venetian States, about the year 1508. He
studied painting for a time under Parmigiano, but,
on the recommendation of that master, turned to
the art of engraving on wood, in the manner
known as chiaroscuro. It is supposed that he was
instructed in' this process by Ugo da Carpi, its re-
puted inventor. His practice was to use three
blocks to each print ; the first for the outline, the
second for the dark shadows, and the last for the
demitiiit. He continued to work at Bologna under
Parmigiano for some time, and about 1530 he en-
graved several blocks after designs by his master.
But shortly afterwards he disappeared from Par-
luigiano's atelier, carrying off a number of drawings,
engravings, and wood-cuts. Henceforth we hear
no more of him in Italy. But in France there ap-
peared among the workers at Fontainbleau one
Antoine Fantose, who designed grotteschi for the
decoration of the Gallery, and etched a number of
plates upon copper. There seems little doubt as
to the identity of the two, and Bartsch and others
base their opinion to that eflEect upon the agreement
of names and dates, and upon — (1) the strong re-
semblances in style observable between the Italian
wood-outs and the French etchings ; (2) the simil-
arity between the monograms on the wood-cuts
and those on etchings dated 1540, 1542, 1544, and
1545 ; (3) the partiality shown by the French artist
for subjects after Parmigiano. Zani, however, dis-
sents from this view, pointing out that Fantose
confined liimself to reproductions upon copper, and
that these are inferior in quality to the Italian
wood-cuts. Fantose died after 1550. The follow-
ing list gives some of the best both of the wood-
cuts and etchings. Wood-cuts :

The Virgin embracing the Infant Jesus ; after Seccafumi.

The Holy Family ; aftei- A. del Sarto.

The Martyrdom of St. Peter and St, Paul ; after Par-

The Tiburtine Sibyl showing the Virgin and the Infant

Christ to the Emperor Augustus ; aft&r the same.
Circe receiving the Companions of Ulysses; after the

Psyche saluted by the People as a Divinity; after

St. John in the Wilderness ; after the same.
The Philosopher ; after the same.
The Lute Player ; after the same.
A Naked Man, seated, with his back turned.

Among his best etchings we may name :
Hercules ; after Prtmaticcio.
The Draught of Fishes ; after Raphael.
The Fight between the Horatii and the Ouriatii ; after

G. Romano.
Eegulus ; after the same.

TRESHAM, Hbnky, was born at Dublin about
1749. He received his first iijstruction in the
rudiments of art in West's academy, in his native
city. He came to England in 1775, and was for
some time employed in drawing small portraits.
He afterwards won the patronage of Lord Cawdor,
and was invited to accompany that nobleman in
his travels to Italy. During a residence of four-
teen years on the continent, chiefly at Home, he
prosecuted his studies with success. He had
produced designs for some of the principal public-
ations of his time, when Boydell formed his
Shakespeare project and invited Tresham to paint
three scenes from ' Antony and Cleopatra.' In
1791 he sent three pictures to the Academy, an
' Adam and Eve,' a ' Phryne,' and a subject from
St. Luke's Gospel. After this he was elected an
A.R. A. In 1799, when he became an R.A., he con-
tributed a 'Christ and Nicodemus.' In 1807 he
was appointed Professor of Painting, a post he
resigned two years later on account of ill-health.
Tresham was a better designer than painter; his
drawings in ink and black chalk are his best pro-
ductions. On his return from Rome he devoted
much of his time to amateur picture-dealing, and
had a gallery, in which the connoisseurs of the day
miglit find Correggios, Raphaels, and Carraccis
always on sale. He was also a writer of some
reputation, and, till his death, edited for the Long-
mans the publication known as the 'British Gallery,'
and wrote descriptions for it. Soon after his return
from Italy, his health became considerably im-
paired, and for years before his death he was re-
duced to a state of infirmity which incapacitated
him for any arduous undertaking. He died in
London, June 17, 1814.

TREU, Johann Nikolaus, (Tret,) was bom at
Bamberg in 1734. He studied science and paint-
ing under his father Marqnard Treu, and later under
Van Loo and Pierre in Paris. He subsequently
became court painter at Wiirzburg. Thence he went
to Rome, where he lived several years, painted a
portrait of Pope Pius VI., and was crowned by the
Academy of St. Luke. On his return to Wiirzburg
he painted portraits and pictures for churches. He
died at Wiirzburg in 1768.

TREU, Joseph Christoph, (Tkby,) born at Bam-
berg in 1738, was another son and pupil of Marquard
Treu. He painted landscapes and sea-pieces. In
1780 he was appointed inspector of the gallery of
Pomraersfelden. He died at Bamberg in 1798.

TREU, (Trey,) Katharine, painter, was born
at Bamberg in 1743. She was the daughter of
Marquard Treu, and at a very early age showed
talent in the representation of flowers, fruit, and
insects. In 1764 she was appointed painter to
the Court Palatine at Mannheim, and later became
professor of painting at Diisseldorf. She died at
Mannheim in 1811.

TREU, Marquard, painter, bom at Bamberg in
1712, was a Jew by birth, but while studying at
Prague embraced the Catholic faith. In the Augs-
burg Gallery there is a picture by him. He died
in 1796.

TREU, Martin, a German engraver, who flour-
ished about the year 1540. He was contemporary
with Johann Sebald Beham and Heinrich Alde-
grever, and, from the small size of his prints, is
sometimes placed among what are called the little
masters. His plates are from his own designs, and
they prove him to have been a man of some genius.
He appears to have attentively studied Lucas van




Lcyden. He sometimes marked his plates with
the initials M. T. with the date, and sometimes
with a monogram composed of those letters, thus,

]yj . He engraved moral and allegorical subjects,

to the number of about sixty in all. The following
are among the best :

The Judgment of Solomon. 1540.

The I'ive Wise Virgins. 1540.

History of the Prodigal Son ; twelve plates. 1541 — 1543.

Peasants Dancing ; twelve (?) plates. 1542.

Gentlefolks Dancing ; twelve plates. 1542.

The Surprise — Peasant finding his wife in the arms of

a Monk. 1540.
' La Polissanerie.' 1540.
Tlie ill-used Husband.
Design for a Dagger Sheath. 1540.
A Poniard in its Sheath. 1540.

Thirteen plates of Christ and His Apostles, with

the mark _^3/ . may also be by Treu. [It is to

be noted that the identity of one Martin Treu with
the 16th century master whose, prints are signed
M.T., rests entirely on the somewhat arbitrary
decision of Professor Christ.]

TREU, Rosalie. See under Dorn, Joseph.

TREVETT, Robert, an English draughtsman
and engraver, born towards the close of the 17th
century. He was master of the Paper-Stainers'
Company, and worked in conjunction with Vertue.
He died in 1723, leaving unfinished a work illus-
trating St. Paul's cathedral, and a large view of
London from Southwark.

TREVIGI, GiBOLAMO DA. See Pennacchi.

TREVIGT, LoDOVico da. See ToEruT.

TREVIGLIO, Beknardino Zenalb da. See
Martini, Bernardino.

TREVILLIAN, William. The name of this en-
graver is affixed to a portrait of Oliver Cromwell's
porter, dated 1650.

TREVINGARD, Anna, an obscure painter, prac-
tised in London in the second part of the 18th

TllEVISANI, Angelo, born at Venice in 1669,
was a pupil of Celesti. Though he occasionally
painted historical subjects, he was more employed
as a portrait painter, by which branch of art he
acquired both fame and fortune. Among his sub-
ject pictures were : ' The Expulsion of the Money-
changers from the Temple,' in SS. Cosmo e Da-
niiano, Venice ; ' Tiie Dream of S. Theresa,' in San
Pietro in Oliveto, at Brescia ; and a Madonna, in the
Gallery at Madrid. He died about 1763.

"TREVISANI, Francbsoo Cavaliere, painter,
born at Capo d'Istria in 1656, was the son of An-
tonio Trevisani, an architect of some reputation, by
whom he was instructed in the first rudiments of
design, pe afterwards became the disciple of An-
tonio Zanchi, at Venice. He visited Rome, where
he studied under Maratti, and was favoured with the
patronage of Cardinal Chigi. Chigi employed him
in several considerable works, and recommended
him to the protection of Pope Clement XL, who
not only commissioned him to paint one of the
Prophets in S. Giovarmi Laterano, but engaged
him to decorate the cupola of the cathedral at
Urbino. There he represented, in fresco, allegories
of the four Quarters of the World, in which he
displayed much invention and ingenuity. The
public buildings of Rome abound wilh his works.
He showed talent in imitating the style of the old
masters, and was employed by the Duke of Modena,
in copying the works of Correggio, Parmigiano,

and other favourite p.iinters. He died at Rome,
July 30, 1746. His principal pictures are :

Cassel. Gallery. Diana and Endymiou.

„ „ Portrait of himself.

Dresden. „ A Holy Family.

Florence. VJi'i- Madonna.

„ „ ' Noli me Tangere.'

Paris. Louvre. Sleep of the Child Jesus.

Kome. Tal, Spada. Antony and Cleopatra.

And others at Brunswick,
Madrid, Munich, Stockholm,
and Vienna.

TREVISO, Dario da, was living in the 16th
century, and in 1446 is mentioned in the account-
books of the Santo, Padua, as one of Squarcione's
disciples. His only known existing picture is a
Virgin of Mercy in the Gallery of Bassano. He
was a very poor artist, and seems chiefly to have
been employed in decorating the fronts of houses
in Serravalle, Treviso, and Conegliano, with designs,
mottoes, and arabesques. Many of these still exist.
The dates of liis birth and death are unknown.

TREVISO, Gieolamo da, bom of respectable
parents, was the brother of Lodovico Aviani, a
poet. He finished an altar-piece and frescoes for
a chapel of S. Niccolo, Treviso, in 1470 ; it has
since disappeared. A small arched panel with
the dead Virgin in the tomb, surrounded by the
Apostles, painted by him about 1478, is in the
possession of Signer Fabrizio Pieribondi, at Lonigo.
In the Duomo of Treviso is an enthroned Virgin and
Child with SS. Sebastian and Roch, and two Angels,
dated 1487. In 1496 he painted a Madonna with
four Saints, in San Salvadore of Colalto. The Casa
Rinaldi, Treviso, has a ' Christ at the Column ' at-
tributed to him. The dates of his birth and death
are alike unknown. Other works :

Montebelluno. iS. Vigilio. Virgin with Saints.

Paese, near Treviso. Church. S t. Martin sharing his Cloak.

TREVISO, Girolamo da. See Pennacohi.

TREZEL, PiERRE-F^Lix, painter, was born in
Paris in 1782. He was a pupil of Lemire, and
painted historical and mythological subjects and
saints in the style of Prudhon. In 1830 he accom-
panied a scientific expedition to the Morea, where
he made numerous drawings. He died in Paris,
June 16, 1855. Works:

Angers. Musee. Phaedra.

Bordeaux. „ Hector and Andromache.

Versailles. „ Portrait of Lautrec.

TRICOMI, Bartolommbo, a Messinese, who
flourished in the first half of the 17th century. He
was a scholar of Barbalunga, (Ricci,) and the
master of Andrea Zuppa, and is described by Lanzi
as an excellent portrait painter.

TRIBRE, P., an obscure French engraver, who
flourished about the year 1780.

TRIMOLET, Anthf.lmr, painter, born at Lyons
in 1798, was a pupil of Revoi), and became pro-
fessor of drawing in his native town. In the Lyons
Museum there is an ' Interior of a Mechanician's
Work-room,' and in the Nantes Museum a ' Por-
trait of a Man,' by him. He died at Lyons in 1866.

TRINGHAM, — , engraved a portrait of the
Reverend Samuel Clark, and several plates for
books, about the year 1750.

TRIOSON. See Girodet-de-Rohssy-Teioson.

TRIQUETI, Henri de, painter and sculptor,

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