Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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born at Conflans in 1802, (1804.) studied in Paris
under Hersent. In 1831 he painted the 'Condemn-
ation of Galileo,' and sent it to the Salon of that
year. He shortly afterwards made his first essays





in sculpture, to which he finally devoted himself.
The mosaic decorations in the Albert Memorial
chapel at Windsor are by him. He was also the
author ofa work on ' The Three Museums of London.'
He died at Windsor in 1874.

TEISTAN, Luis, a Spanish painter, born at a
village near Toledo in 1686, was a scholar of Do-
nienioo Theotocopuli, called II Greco. He painted
a 'Last Supper 'for the monks of La Sisla, near
Toledo ; also a series of pictures for the church of
Yepes, in 1616, when he was in his thirtieth year ;
and in 1619, the portrait of Cardinal Sandoval,
Archbishop of Toledo, in which he united the
elaborate execution of Sanchez Coello with some
of the Venetian spirit. The churches of Toledo
possess many of his pictures, and others are to be
found at Madrid. He died at Toledo in 1640. _

TEIVA, Antonio, painter, was bom at Reggio in
1626, and studied under Guercino, at Bologna. He
was a reputable painter of history, and distinguished
himself by some pictures in churches at Reggio
and Piacenza, which have been celebrated by
the poet Boschini. He visited Venice, taking
with him his sister and assistant Flamminia. He
was invited to the court of the Elector of Bavaria,
and died at Munich about 1699. He painted as
well with his left hand as with his right, and
was a good etcher. Bartsch has described four
etchings by him with the following titles : 1.
Susanna and the Elders. 2. A Repose in Egypt.
3. The Virgin, half-length, seated, holding the
Infant Jesus in her arms. 4. An Allegory ; a
young Man looking in a Mirror, and seeing Sensu-
ality, the Furies, and Death. All these are signed
with his name. Filssli mentions five more; four
views in Italy, and a frontispiece to a book.

TROGER, Paul, a German painter and engraver,
born at Zell, in the bishopric of Brixen, in 1698.
After acquiring the rudiments of design in his
native town, he visited Fiume, and became a
scholar of Dom. Giuseppe Alberti, passing after-
wards to Venice and Bologna. He finally established
himself at Vienna, where be was made Director of
the Imperial Academy. Of his pictures, we have,
'Christ on the Mount of Olives,' 'St. Joseph with
the Child,' and ' St. Francis in a Cave.' Others are
, in the cathedral at Brixen, and in the Ferdinandeum
at Innsbruck. He has left several original etchings
of historical subjects and landscapes. Among them
the following :

The Holy Family ; Fattl Tivger,fec. 1721.
St. Joseph embracing the Infant Jesus.
The Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin.
Six Landscapes, with ruins and figures.

Troger died in 1777.

TROGLI, GlULlo, an Italian painter, born 1613,
was a pupil of Gessi. He published a work on
' The Paradoxes of Perspective,' which gained for
him the nickname of ' II Paradosso.' He died in

TROIJEN, Jan van, a native of the Netherlands,
who flourished about the year 1650. He engraved
some of the plates for the 'Teniers Gallery,' from
the copies by that master after pictures in the col-
lection of the Archduke Leopold. Tliey are slight
in execution, and the drawing is incorrect.

TROIJEN, RoMBOUT, (Troyen, Rontbouts,) van,
painter of the 17th century, was a native of Fries-
land. He painted landscapes with ruins, palaces,
and other build ngs in the Italian style. His pic-
tures bear some resemblance to those of Cuylenburg,
and, like the wor^s of that artist, have darkened


considerably since they were painted. He also
painted portraits ; for Suyderhoef engraved one
after him. He died at Amsterdam in 1650. There
are pictures by him in the Galleries of Brunswick
and Augsburg.

TROILI, GnsTAv Uno, a Swedish portrait painter,
born at Ransbergsbruk, in 1815, was first a soldier,
then studied under Sodermark, and visited Italy in
1845. In 1850 he began to practise portrait paint-
ing, and soon achieved success, his works being
distinguished by fine colour and keen appreciation
of character. He died in 1875. Two of his pictures
are in the Stockholm Gallery.

TROLL, Johann Heinbich, bom at Wintertliur
in 1756, studied at Dresden for seven years under
A. Zingg, and drew landscapes from nature. He
went to Paris and the Hague, in 1794 he travelled
through Switzerland, and in 1796 visited Rome.
He afterwards returned to Paris, where he published
a number of Swiss landscapes in aquatint. Towards
the close of his life he practised flower-painting.
He died at Winterthur in 1826.

TROMBA, II. See Santo Rinaldi.

TROMETTA, Niccola, (or Nicoola da Pesaeo,)
flourished in Italy in the 17th century, and was a
pupil of F. Zuccaro. Some of his works still exist
in Rome, where he painted in the Ara Coeli. His
best picture, however, is a ' Last Supper,' painted
for the Church of the Sacrament at Pesaro. He
died during the Pontificate of Paul V. (1605 to

TRONCHON, A— E— , a French engraver, who
flourished from 1740 to about the year 1760. He
engraved after Noel Nicholas Coypel, and other

TRONO, Giuseppe, bom at Turin in 1739, was a
pupil of Alessandro Trono, but completed his
studies in Rome. He was long portrait painter to
the court of Naples, and later became court painter
at Turin. In 1785 he went to Lisbon in a Uke
capacity, and gained a reputation by his copies of
the great masters. He died in 1810.

TROOST, CoRNBLis, born at Amsterdam in 1697,
was a scholar of Arnold van Boonen. He painted
conversations, in which he was faithful to the
customs of the people of Holland, and so won the
appellation of the Dutch Watteau. He also distin-
guished himself as a portrait painter, being much
employed on groups for the halls of the different
companies in Amsterdam. He worked in pastel as
well as in oil. He died at Amsterdam in 1750.
Works :

Amsterdam. R. Museum. Two Portraits of himself.

„ „ Alexander the Great at the

Battle of the Grranicus.

„ „ The Anatomy Lesson.

„ „ Three Chiefs of the Surgeons'

Guild at Amsterdyn in 1731.

„ „ The Governors of the Asylum

called the ' Aalmoezenier-

„ „ Portraits of Inspectors of the

Collegium Medicum, Amster-
dam. 1724.

„ „ Children playing with a

Rotterdam. Museum. L' AccouchSe.
The Hague. „ Nine Scenes from Dutch


„ „ The Meeting at the House of

Biberius. (Forming a series
of five pictures called the
'Nelri,' from the initial letters
of the Latin inscriptions on
the frames.)




The Hague. Museum. Portrait of himself.

!, „ The Epiphany Singers.

„ „ The Love Song.

We have a few plates by Troost, chiefly mezzo-
tints ; among them the following :
Portrait of Pietro Locatelli, Painter.
Bust of an old Man with a Beard. 1734.
A Girl drawing by the Light of a Lamp.
A Woman on the Steps of a Door, holding a light, and
taking leave of a Gentleman in black.

Saea, the daughter of Cornelius Troost, was born
at Amsterdam in 1731. She painted pastel portraits,
and made drawings from her father's pictures and
from those of Steen, Dou, and Dujardin. She be-
came the wife of Ploos van Amstel, and died at
Amsterdam in 1803.

TROOST, WiLHBLMUS, portrait and landscape
painter, was born at Amsterdam in 1684. He was
a scholar of Johann Glauber, but went to Dtisseldorf
to complete his studies, and there married the
daughter of J. Van Nikkelen, painter to the
court. After visiting several German courts, he
returned to his own country, where he practised
for ten years at Haarlem, and afterwards settled at
Amsterdam. He occasionally painted portraits, but
chiefly devoted his time to landscapes, both in oil
and Indian ink ; the latter are considered valuable.
His style in landscape partakes of that of his first
master, Glauber. He died at Amsterdam in 1759.
His wife, Jacoba Maeia van Nikkelen, was also a
painter ; she had been a scholar of Van der Mijn,
and excelled in fruit and flower-pieces.

TROOSTWIJK, WouTEB Johannes van, a land-
scape and cattle painter, born at Amsterdam, May
28, 1782, studied drawing under Anthonie Andries-
sen, and painting under Jurriaan Andriessen. His
pictures have a resemblance to those of Paul Potter,
Karel Du Jardin, and Adrian Van de Velde, and some
are worthy to rank with theirs. He practised in
Amsterdam, where he died September 20, 1810.
There are landscapes by him in the Museums of
Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

TROPPA, GlEOLAMO, painter, flourished in Italy
about 1700. He was a successful imitator and
probably a pupil of Maratti. He left many works
in Rome, both in oil and fresco, and painted in the
church of S. Giacorao delle Penitenti, in competi-
tion with Romanelli. In the Copenhagen Gallery
there is a ' Penitent Magdalen ' by him.

TROSCHEL, Hans, a German engraver, born at
Nuremberg about 1592, was a disciple of Peter
Iselburg, but afterwards studied in Italy under
Francesco Villamena. His style, however, is in-
ferior to that of Villamena, and his plates, though
neat, are stifE and laboured. He engraved emblems
after various Italian masters, as well as frontispieces
and other plates for books, together with some
portraits ; among the latter one inscribed, Fortunius
Licetus, Philosoph. He frequently marked his
plates with a cipher composed of an H and a T,

thus, J^. He died in 1633. He sometimes

added the figure of a thrush to his monogram, in
allusion to his name. Among his works are :

The Conception ; after Gastelli.

The Emperor Julian ; after II Pomerancio ; and the
Portrait of Louis XIV.

TROSCHEL, Petee Paul, son of Hans Troschel,
practised at Nuremberg about the year 1650, and
appears to have been chiefly employed by the book-
sellers. He engraved some frontispieces and other
book ornaments, which are executed with the graver

in an indifferent style. He usually marked his
plates with the initials P. T. He was still living in

TROST, Andeeas, engraver and painter of homely
subjects, was a native of Carniola, and flourished
about the year 1680. He usually marked his plates

with the cipher j^ . He was living in 1695.

TROST, CoENELis. See Teoost.

TROTTER, S— C— , an Irish portrait painter,
who flourished in the second half of the 18th cen-
tury, is chiefly to be remembered for his portraits
of Dr. Johnson, one of which was engraved in 1784.

TROTTER, Thomas, an English engraver and
draughtsman, born in London about the middle of
the 18th century. Brought up to trade, he pre-
ferred art. After some instruction from Blake,
he engraved a few plates after Stothard, and ob-
tained a considerable reputation for his portraits.
Failure of sight compelled him in his later years to
give up engraving, and to devote himself to archi-
tectural and antiquarian draughtsmanship. He died
at Westminster, February 14, 1803. Amongst his
best plates are :

Lord Morpeth ; after Sir J. Reynolds. 1787.

Dr. Shipley, Bishop of St. Asaph ; after the same. 1792.

TliOTTI, Giovanni Battis'J'A, Cavaliere, called
II Malosso, was born at Cremona in 1555, and
brought up in the school of Bernardino Campi, of
whom he was the most distinguished disciple. He
was employed by the court of Parma, in conjunc-
tion with Agostino Carracci ; and though the works
of the latter were preferred, Agostino allowed that
he had found in Trotti " a hard bone to crack," on
which account he acquired the name of II Malosso.
Perhaps it was from a desire to perpetuate this
acknowledgment of his ability by Agostino Car-
racci, that he inscribed one of his pictures Jo.
Baptista Trottus dictus Malossus Cremon.faciehat
an°. apartu Virginis, 1694. Other pictures by him
are : ' The Decapitation of St. John the Baptist,' in
S. Domenico, at Cremona ; a ' Conception,' in
San Francesco Grande, at Piacenza ; a ' Crucifixion,'
in the Duomo at Cremona ; and a ' Descent from
the Cross,' in the Brera, Milan. His best works are
his frescoes in the cupola of S. Abbondi, after de-
signs by Campi, and in the Palazzo del Giordani,
at Parma. For these he was rewarded with the
title of Cavaliere. One of his last works was a
' Pietk,' in the church of S. Giovanni Novo, at
Cremona, which bears the date 1607.

TROTTI, EucLiDE, a native of Cremona, who
lived in the 16th century, was the nephew and
pupil of Giovanni Battista Trotti, whose manner he
successfully imitated, as may be seen by two pic-
tures in S. Sigismondo at Cremona. An ' Ascension '
in S. Antonio at Milan is also ascribed to this artist.
He died young in prison, where he was confined on
a charge of high treason.

TROUGHTON,Thomas, draughtsman and painter,
practised towards the middle of the 18th century.
A voyage to Africa, on which he set out in 1747,
resulted in his shipwreck on the coast of Morocco,
and his detention in slavery for thirty-three years.
On his liberation and return to England he pub-
lished an account of his experiences. He died in

TROUVAIN, Antoine, a French engraver, born
at Montdidier in 1656. His plates al-e executed
entirelj' with the graver, which he handled with
great neatness and dexterity, and his prints pro-





duoe a very pleasing effect. He was a pupil of
G6iavd Kdelinck, and became an Academician in
1707. He died in Paris in 1710. Among others,
we have the following prints by him :

Pierre Daniel Huet, Bishop of Avranches. 1695.
Francois le Boutellier, Bishop of Troyes.
Jean tesne, Painter and Engraver. 1698.
Eeu6 Antoine Houasse, Painter ; after Tortehat.
Jean Jouveuet, Painter ; after a picture by himself.
The Chauoine Claude da Moliaet ; after a drawing ly

Armande de Lorraine d'Haroourt, Abbesse de Soissons.

{His best plate.)
The Annunciation ; after Carlo Maratti.
Christ restoring Sight to the Bhnd ; after Ant. Coypel.
The Marriage of Marie de' Medici with Henry IV. , and

tlie Minority of Louis XIII.; after the pictures by

Rubens in the Louvre.
Silenus drunk; after Ant, Coypel.

TROUVB, Nicolas Edgene, painter, was born in
Paris in 1808. He was a pupil of Berlin and of
Picot, and entered the Jijcole des Beaux Arts in
1827. He exhibited landscapes and village scenes
at the Salon from 1836 onwards, and gained a medal
in 18i6. He died in 1886.

TROY, FRANgois de, painter, born at Toulouse in
1646, was the son of Nicolas de Troy, from whom
he received the first rudiments of design. He was
sent to Paris when young, became a disciple of
Nicolas Loir, whose sister he married, and for some
time applied himself to the study of historical
painting. In 1674, he became a member of the
Academy in Paris, painting Mercury and Argus
for his reception picture. The brilliant success of
Claude Le Fevre as a portrait painter induced him
to attach himself to that more lucrative branch of
art. In 1693 he was appointed a professor at the
Academy, and in 1708 Director. He was sent by
Louis XIV. to the court of Munich, to paint the
portrait of Maria Christiana, of Bavaria, afterwards
Dauphiness of France, which was placed in the
Apollo gallery of the Louvre. The portrait of
Frangois de Troy, painted by himself, is in the
gallery of artists at Florence, his portrait of Mansart
is at Versailles, and that of the Due de Maine at
Dresden. The galleries of Angers, Grenoble, Mar-
seilles, Montpellier, Orleans, Rouen, Toulouse,
Troyes, and Valenciennes also possess examples of
his work. A good example of his art in the Jones
Collection at South Kensington -is ascribed to
Watteau. Very many of his pictures have been
engraved, and he himself has left an etching of the
Catafalque for the funeral of Maria Theresa, the wife
of Louis XIV., which took place in 1683. He
died in Paris in 1730.

TROY, Jean de, painter, born at Toulouse in
1640, was the eldest son of Nicolas Tro.y, whom he
succeeded as painter to tlie municipality. It has
been asserted by Toulousain historians that he never
quitted his native town, but from a statement in the
' liistoire Gen^rale du Languedoc,' it appears that
he obtained permission from the States of the Pro-
vince, and a grant of monej', towards the establish-
ment of an Art Academy at Montpellier in 1679,
and it is probable that he settled and died there.
The date of his death is unknown. At the Toulouse
Museum there is a ' Conception ' by him ; at
Montpellier, in the Palais de Justice, ' Louis XIV.,
supported by Justice and Religion ; ' and in the
Basilique de S. Pierre ' The Charge to Peter,' and
' S. Peter healing the Paralytic.'

TROY, Jean FKAN901S de, painter, the son of
Francois de Troy, was born in Paris in 1679. After
receiving the instruction of his father, until he had


made considerable progress in art, he competed
without success for the prix de Home, and his father
sent him to Italy at his owji cost. His stay was
prolonged by the Marquis de Villacerf, who procured
him a royal pension for four years. He reluctanlly
returned to France, by his father's desire, in 1708,
and soon afterwards was made a member of the
Academy. He was employed by Louis XIV., for
whom he painted a series of cartoons for tapestry,
representing the history of Esther; and several
large allegorical subjects for the Hotel de Ville.
He also carried out some decorative work for the
hotels of Samuel Bernard and M. de la Lire, and
for the Seignorial chapel at Passy. In 1719 he be-
came a professor, and in 1727 took part in the com-
petition ordered by the king between the Acade-
micians, sharing a prize with Le Moine. In 1738,
the king appointed him Director of the French
Academy at Rome, where he completed a second
set of tapestry cartoons, consisting of seven scenes
from the ' History of Jason.' These were exhibited
in the Apollo Gallery of the Louvre in 1748. Some
fancied grievance against the court caused de Troy
to resign his Roman appointment in favour of
Natoire, and he was on the eve of returning to
France, when he died suddenly at Rome in 1752.
Of his easel pictures the following are in French
galleries :

Besanijon. Museum. Portrait of the Marquis de

Marignan ; and two other

Dijon, „ Pilate washing his hands before

the People.
Montpsllier. „ Apollo and Diana slaying

Niobe's Children.
Nancy. „ Diana in the Bath.

Nismes. „ The Keaper ; and two others.

Orleans. „ Portrait of the Abbe Desfriches.

Paris. Louvre. Henri IV. presiding at the first /

Chapter of the Ordre du Saint

Esprit. ,'

„ La Gaze Coll. A Female Head with powdered

„ „ Portrait of a Man.

„ „ Portrait of an fehevin,

Eouen. Museum. Portrait of the DuehesSfe de la


TROY, Nicolas de, painter, was born at Toulouse
early in the 17th century, and studied in his native
town under Chalette. He subsequently went to
Paris, and entering the atelier of Claude Lefebvre,
he became a successful painter of portraits. After
a sojourn of some years in the capital, he returned
to Toulouse, and endeavoured to establish a life-
school, but provincial prudery took fright at the
idea of nude models, and the enterprise had to be
abandoned. Troy nevertheless gathered round him a
large circle of pupils, his two sons being among the
most distinguished of his scholars. After the death
of Chalette, he succeeded to the post of municipal
painter. His works, which were numerous iu his
native town, nearly all perished in the Revolution.
In the Toulouse Museum there is a portrait of Pierre
Godolin, a poet of Languedoc, by him. The date
of his death is not known.

TROYA, Felix, a Spanish painter, born at San
Felipe, near Valencia, in 1660. He was a disciple
of Gaspar de la Huerta, and painted history. His
pictures, which are to be found in almost every
church and public building in the neighbourhood of
Valencia, are more remarkable for vigour of colour
than correctness of design. His best works are in
the church of S. Agostino, at Valencia, where he,
died in 1731.




TROYEN, EoMBODT van. See Tboijen.

TROYON, Constant, a prominent member of
the modem French landscape school, was born at
Sevres, in 1810. His father was employed in the
porcelain manufactory, and in his early years he
worked there himself; but he aimed at higher
things, and after a period of study under Riocreux,
he devoted himself to landscape and animal paint-
ing. At first one Poupart, a pupil of Bertin, and
member of David's school, had much influence on
his proceedings. One day, however, as Troyon was
sketching at St. Cloud, he fell in with Camille
Roqueplan, who introduced him to Theodore Rous-
seau, Camille Flers, Diaz, and Jules Dupr6. Thence-
forward Troyon was a romantique, and soon took
his place as one of the leaders of the movement.
His first appearance at the Salon was in 1833, when
he exhibited 'La Maison Colas, Sevres;' 'Fete at
S&vres ; ' and ' A Nook in the Park of St. Cloud.'
For several years his subjects were taken from the
country in the neighbourhood of Paris, and through-
out his life his brush was chiefly inspired by French
scenery. Trips to Belgium and Holland in the
latter part of his career exercised but little in-
fluence on his art. He won the usual honours at
the Salon and at the Universal Exhibition of 1855.
His reputation was not confined to his native
country. His works were quickly appreciated in
England and in the Netherlands ; he was elected
a member of the Amsterdam Academy in 1847,
and received the Cross of the Belgian Order of
Leopold in 1861. His industry was untiring. He
seldom devoted himself continuously to a single
picture, but had many works in various stages of
progress at the same time. So assiduously did he
work that at one period his sight was endangered.
A few months before his death he lost his reason,
and his friends were compelled to place him under
restraint. Although he recovered liis senses his
general health never returned, and he died in Paris,
March 20, 1865. Troyon yields to few in the har-
mony which pervades his works, though this has in
some cases, owing to his love for cool tones, pro-
duced blackness in his colour. An English critic
(W. E. Henley) thus writes of his work: "His
drawing is loose and inexact ; and he composes not
as an inheritor of Claude but as a contemporary of
Rousseau. But he had the true pictorial sense ;
and, if his lines are often insignificant and ill-
balanced, his masses are perfectly proportioned, his
values are admirably graded, his tonality is fault-
less, his effect is absolute in completeness. His
method is the serene and large expression of great
craftsmanship ; and with the interest and the grace
of art, his colour unites the charm of individuality,
the richness and the potency of a natural force."
His pictures are at present chiefly in the possession
of private collectors. The following works by him
are, however, to be found in public galleries:

View from the Pare de Neuilly.
Oxen going to Work.
Sheep in a Landscape.
Landscape at Sunset.
Cows at Pasture. 1851.
Forest Scene at Fontainebleau.
The Drinking-Place of La

Landscape, with Cattle drinking.
Cattle. 1852.
The Wateriog-plaoe
Oxen going to Labour. 1855.
The Return to the Farm. 1859.
Cows Drinking.















TRUCHOT, , a French painter of laiidscapes

and architectural views, of whose life little is
known ; he died in 1823. Among his recorded
pictures are, a ' View of Canterbury Cathedral ; '
' View of St. Michael's Mount, in Normandy ; '
' Abelard reading a letter from Eloisa,' and ' Eloisa
in Prayer before an Altar ; ' ' The Grand Staircase
of the Palais Royal ; ' and ' Henry, Count de Bou-
change, in a Cloister.' Some of his pictures have
figures by Xavier Le Prince.

TRUCHY, L., a French engraver, was born in
Paris in 1731, and settled in London. He engraved
twelve plates inconjunction with Guillaume Philippe
Benoist, from Joseph Highmore's designs, in illus-
tration of ' Pamela ' ; 'A Village Dance,' after
Teniers, and several plates for Boydell. He died
in London in 1764.

TRUFFIN, Philippe, (or Philippot,) one of the
best painters of the school of Tournai, was a
pupil, of Louis le Due in 1457. He was received
master painter in 1461, and was Dean of the Cor-
poration in 1479 and 1501. In 1474 he engaged
to paint an altar-piece for the church of Warchin,
which the contract bound him to make in every

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 154 of 201)