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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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respect equal to a ' History of St. Anthony' executed
by him for the church of St. Catharine at Tournai.
The result seems to have failed to satisfy the
parishioners, for they cited him to answer for its
shortcomings before the niagistrates. Truflin had
a large following of pupils, who came to his atelier
not only from neighbouring cities, but even from
Spain. He died at Tournai in 1506 or 1507.

TRUMBULL, John, born at Lebanon in Con-
necticut about 1756, worked at art, and afterwards
went to the University of Cambridge, U.S. Shortly
after leaving college he painted a ' Battle of Cannse,'
which attracted much attention. He served with
distinction in the War of Independence as ad-
jutant to Washington and Gates. In 1778 he re-
tired with the rank of colonel, and in 1780 went
to London to study under Benjamin West. In
London he painted his 'Battle of Bunker's Hill,'
and 'The Death of Montgomery at Quebec' In
1789 he returned to America, where he painted a
'Sortie from Gibraltar,' 'Burgoyne's Capitulation,'
' Comwallis' Capitulation,' and portraits of many
heroes of the War of Independence. He received a
commission to paint four historical pictures for
the Capitol at Washington, and eventually became
President of the Academy of Arts at New York.
He died at New York in 1843.

TSCHAGGENY, Edmond J. B., painter, was born
at Brussels in 1818. He was a pupil of E. Ver-
boeokhoven, and became well known for his studies
of animals, to which he chiefly devoted himself.
Among his best known works are a series of 100
water-colour drawings, entitled 'The Anatomy of
Cattle,' ' A Horse in a Burning Stable,' ' Giotto
drawing his Sheep,' ' Oxen at a Ford,' ' Arabs with
Cattle,' &c. He died at Brussels in 1873.

TSCHEDRIN. See Schtsedrin.

TSCHERMEZOW, Iwan, draughtsman and en-
graver, was born at Petersburg about 1730. He
was a, pupil of G. F. Schmidt, and engraved several
portraits, among them the Empress Elizabeth, after
Tocque ; Iwan Schuwaloff, after Eotari ; his own
portrait ; and that of the actor Wolkow.

TSCHERNEZOW, Gregok and Nicanor, brother
painters, were born in Russia, and studied at the
Petersburg Academy. Nicanor visited the Caucasus
in 1830-1831, and the Crimea in 1834-1835, and

589



Tscheruingk



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAEY OF



Tura



brought away above five hundred drawings of
scenery, buildings, and costumes in these districts.
In 1838 the two brotliers explored tlie Volga from
Ribinsk to Astrakhan, and in 1841 they visited Italy,
painting many pictures in oils and water-colours
of Florence, Rome, and Naples. Gregor died at
St. Petersburg in 1865.

TSCHERNINGK, David, a German engraver,
who flourished about the year 1639. He engraved
several frontispieces and other plates for books,
which are executed with the graver in a slovenly
style.

TSCHERNINGK, Johann, of the same family
with David Tscherningk, engraved portraits and
other plates for books in a neat, formal style. He
was alive in 1634. A portrait painter of the name
of Andreas, probably of the same family, flourished
in 1660.

TSCHERNINGK, Johann, engraver and pub-
lisher, son of Johann Tscherningk, was living in
1686.

TSCHESKI, Iwan Wassiliewitsch, engraver,
was born at Mohilew in 1770, and became a member
of the Imperial Russian Academy. By him we
have, 'The Interior of the Temple at Jerusalem,'
after Worobiew, and a landscape, after Poussin.
He also engraved several plates after designs by
Tilesius for Krusenstern's ' Journey round the
World.' He died at St. Petersburg in 1848.

TUAIRE, Franqois, painter, was bom at Aix,
Provence, in 1794, and seat at the age of fourteen
to Paris, where he studied under Prudhon, and
afterwards worked in Paris as a teacher. He
painted a ' Venus and Cupid ' for the Empress
Josephine, and a ' Psyche in Prison ' for which he
received a gold medal. In the Aix Museum there
is a portrait of Louis XVIII. by him. He died in
1823

TDBACH, Paul, a Flemish painter of the 16th
century, who was attached to the suite of Margaret
of Austria, in 1526. He is mentioned in an old
document as having made the designs for some
glass-paintings in the church of Our Lady of
Seven Sorrows, near Bruges.

TQBlilRES, Philippe C. A. de. See Caylus.

TUCCARI, Giovanni, born at Messina in 1667,
was the son and pupil of Antonio Tuccari, an ob-
scure painter. He excelled in painting battles and
skirmishes, and possessed extraordinary facility of
execution. Many of his works are in Germany.
He died of the plague in 1743.

TDCCI, BiAGio d'Antonio, was a Florentine
painter, born 1446, who assisted Perugino in the
decoration of the Palazzo della Signoria. He died
in 1515.

TUCCI, Giovanni Maeia, painter, was a member
of the school founded at Siena by Sodoma. He
accompanied his master to Pisa in 1542, and assisted
him in some of his works there. He painted chiefly
for the churches of Siena and its neighbourhood,
where many of his pictures still exist.

TUCKER, Nathaniel, an English portrait
painter, practising in London between 1740 and
1760. Some of his works were engraved by Johan
Faber the younger.

T UDOT, Louis Edmond, painter and lithographer,
was born at Brussels in 1805, of French parents.
He was a pupil of Gros, and in 1836 founded the
Art School of Moulins (Allier), of which he became
the professor. He was the author of several
technical manuals, illustrated by his own designs.
He died at Moulins, December 8, 1861.

690



TUER, Herbert, an English portrait painter of
the 17th century. He was of good family; his
mother was related to George Herbert, the poet.
During the Commonwealth, he migrated to Holland,
where he practised, and is supposed to have died at
Utrecht before 1680. He painted many portraits
of his rulatives. There are by hhn :
London. Nat. Portrait \ Sir Leoline Jenkins. {Painted at

Gallery, j Nimeguen.)
Oxford. Jesus College. Sir Leoline Jenkins. {Duplicate
of the first.)

TUILERIES, Bernard des. See Palisst.

TULDEN. See Thulden.

TULL, N , landscape painter, was the master

of Queen Elizabeth's School, Borough. He painted
portraits and rustic scenes, and made drawings in
black and white chalk. He exhibited with the
Society of Artists in 1761, and six plates were en-
graved after him by Vivares and Elliott. He died
in 1762.

TULLIO da PERUGIA, an Italian painter of the
13th century, who in 1219 journeyed to Assisi to
paint a portrait of Saint Francis. No trace remains
of the portrait, which is said to have borne this
inscription : lo Tullio, pittore di Perugia, essendo
stato guarito da qiiesto beato huomo, F. Francesco
d' Assisi, di una grandissima apoplesia, sono
andato quest' anno MGGXIXal capitolo delle store
alia M. deli Angeli, et ho fato il presente suo
ritratto sopra di lui per divodone che io ho in
questo beato huomo.

TUNICA, Johann Christian Ludwio, painter,
born at Brunswick in October 1796. After com-
pleting bis studies at the Dresden Academy under
Rosier, he returned to Brunswick to practise, and
became painter to the court. He occasionally
painted genre, but his principal works were por-
traits of distinguished living persons and historic
characters. Among those of the latter class we ■
may mention his portrait of the Elector Palatine
Heinrioh, for the ' Rittersaal ' at Hanover. His
son and pupil, Hermann, is well known in Bruns-
wick as a painter of battle-pieces and horses.

TUNNER, Joseph, painter, was born at Graz in
1792. He first studied at the Academy in Vienna,
then at Prague under Fiihrich, and afterwards at
Rome, where he devoted himself to religious paint-
ing. In 1840 he was appointed director of the
picture gallery in the " Johanneum " at Graz. His
' Crucifixion ' is in the church of S. Antonio at
Trieste. He died in 1877.

TUNNICBLLI, Jacopo, painter, born at Villa-
franca, near Verona, in 1784, studied under Saverio
della Rosa, and at the Academy of Milan, and
became one of the first miniaturists of his day.
He also painted a few oil pictures. He died in
1826.

TURA, (or TuRRA,) Cosimo, called CosmJi da
Ferrara, was born at Perrara about 1420, and be-
came a pupil of Galasso Galassi. He was to -the
school of Ferrara much what Mantegha waste that
of Padua, or Giov. Bellini to that of Venice. He
was in the service of the Dukes of Ferrara from
1451 until the close of his life, obtaining a per-
manent appointment at court in 1458. In 1457 he
produced some cartoons for tapestry. He painted
in a style characterized by vigour in design, by
lumpy, spasmodic forms, by sometimes violent
colours, and by a general harshness of effect. His
works are common enough. Several remain in the
churches and public edifices at Ferrara, and picture
galleries out of Italy are not deficient in them. It



Turbido



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Turner



has been said, perhaps erroneously, that he was
much employed in illuminating missals. Between
1468 and 1471, Tura was employed by Duke Borso
of Bste, in decorating the Schifanoia palace, a
pleasure retreat of the Duke's in a retired part of
Perrara. On this he was associated with Francesco
Gossa. Their works, which were in fresco, have
now in great part disappeared, but those remaining
are of much value for their details of costume and
architecture. In 1471 he decorated the library of
the Picos of Mirandola, and the new chapel at Bel-
riguardo, the latter with paintings which have now
vanished ; in 1473 he painted the portraits of the
Duke Alfonzo and Beatrice d'Este as a present for
Lodovico Sforza (II Moro) of Milan; and in 1481
he executed a series of nude studies in oil for the
Duke's study. He also worked for private patrons,
but much of what he did for them disappeared.
His most important picture is the ' Madonna with
Saints,' at Berlin. Many of his works have been
assigned to Mantegna, Marco Zoppo, Lorenzo Costa,
and others. After a long life he died between
1494 and 1498, leaving large legacies, for some un-
explained reason, to the poor of Venice. Works :

Bergamo. LoehisCar-} . „• • j /~.i..ij i

vara Gall, f ^ ^"^S*" '"'^ ^Jhild ; tempera.
Berlin. Museum. Madonna and Saints.

Ferrara. Cathedral. St. George (on the organ doors).
„ „ The Annunciation.

„ „ The Nativity.

„ Cappuccini Gall. Christ praying in the Garden.
„ „ St. Jerome.

„ CostaUli Coll. Figure of Autumn.
London. Nat. Gallery. Christ placed in the Tomb.

„ „ Fnthroued Madonna with Angels.

„ „ St. Jerome in the Wilderness.

„ „ The Virgin, with a book.

Paris. Louvre. A Deposition.

„ „ tunette of the enthroned Ma-

donna in the National Gallery.
„ „ Man in a Religious Habit.

Venice. Correr Mus. A dead Christ on the lap of the
Virgin.

TURBIDO. See Tokbido.

TURCHI, Alessandro, called L'Orbbtto and
Alessandro Veronese, was born at Verona in
1682. He is said to have acquired the. name of
L'Orhetto, from having been employed, when a boy,
as conductor to a blind beggar. A more probable
explanation is given by Passeri, who says that he
was so called from a defect in one of his eyes. In
his poverty he was noticed by Eiccio (Brusasorci),
who discovered in him so decided a gift for art,
that he took him under his protection. On leaving
tlie school of Riccio, he went to Venice, where he
worked for a time under Carlo Cagliari, and after-
wards to Rome. In competition with Andrea Sacchi
and Pietro da Cortona, he painted some pictures in
the church of La Concezione, as well as several
altar-pieces for other churches, of which the best
are, a 'Flight into Egypt,' in S. Romualdo; a
' Holy Family,' in S. Lorenzo in Luoina ; and a ' S.
Carlo Borroraeo,' in S. Salvatore in Lauro. He
was much employed on cabinet pictures, repre-
senting historical subjects, which he frequently
painted on black marble. He died at Rome in 1648
or 1650. His two pupils, Giovanni Ceschini and
Giov. Bat. Rossi, practised at Verona, the former
painting copies of his master's works, which were
often taken for originals. Other works :
Dresden. Gallery. The Nativity ; and two others.
Hague. Museum. Venus, an allegory.

Madrid. „ A Penitent Magdalene.

„ „ Flight into Egypt.

Milan. Srera. Maidonna adored by a Pope.



Munich. Pinakuthek. Heroules and Oniphale.

„ „ Hercules Mad.

„ „ Salome.

Paris. Louvre. Samson and Delilah.

„ „ The Woman taken in Adultery.

„ ,, Death of Cleopatra.

FeteTshutg. Hermitage. Christ bearing the Cross.

„ „ Bacchus and Ariadne.

Verona. Museum. The Nativity ; and two others.

Vienna. Belvedere. The Entombment.

TURCO, Cesare, born at Ischitella, Naples, about
the year 1510, was first a d sciple of Giovaimi
Antonio d'Amato, but afterwards studied under
Andrea S'abbatini. He painted for the churches
and public buildings of Naples. An altar-piece, iji
S. Maria delle Grazie, representing the Baptism of
Christ by St. John ; and a ' Circumcision,' in the
Jesuits' church, may be mentioned. Turco died at
Naples about 1560.

TURK, The. See Liotard.

TURNER, Charles, one of the most eminent of
English engravers, was born at Woodstock in 1773.
He entered the Academy in 1795, and at first
worked for Boydell in Bartolozzi's style. He alrter-
wards turned his attention to mezzotint, and aqua-
tint with a partial uae of the point, and produced
a large number of fine plates. He was particularly
successful as an interpreter of Turner, for whom he
engraved twenty-lhree numbers of the ' Liber
Studiorum.' In 1828, having already been appointed
mezzotinto engraver in ordinary to the King, he
was elected an associate engraver of the Royal
Academy. He died in London, August 1, 1857.
His principal works are :

Charles X. ; after Lawrence.

The Duke of York ; after the same.

The Marquis of Anglesey ; after the same.

Lady Georgiana Fane ; after the same. {From the picture

in the National Gallery.)
Duke of Newcastle ; after the same,
James "Watt ; after the same.
Sir Robert Peel ; after the same.
Sir Walter Scott ; after Baehurn.
Lord Newton ; after the same.
Mme. Malibran as Desdemona ; after Decaisne.
The Cottage Girl ; after Gainsborough.
The Spanish Contrabandista ; after J. F. Lewis.
Rembrandt's Mill ; after Semlirandt.
Mecaenas's ViUa ; after Richard Wilson.
The Satyr and the Traveller ; after Jordaens.
The Choir of Westminster Abbey, daring the coronation

of George IV. ; after F. Nash. (Some of these were

pj'inted in colour.)
The Marlborough Family ; after Reynolds.
The Age of Innocence ; after the same.
The Little Fortune-Tellers ; after the same.
The Beggar ; after Given.
The Wreck ; after Turner.
The plates in the ' Liber Studiorum ' engraved by

Charles Turner are the following : Bridge and Cows ;

Woman and Tambourine ,; Flint Castle ; Basle ; Jason ;

Straw-yard ; Oakhampton Castle ; St. Gothard ; Ships

in a Breeze ; Holy Island Cathedral ; Pembury Mill ;

Sun between Trees ; Dunstanborough Castle ; Lake

of Thun ;. The Fifth Plague ; Farm-yard with Cook ;

Falls of Clyde ; The Devil's Bridge ; Guardship at

theNore; Morpeth; London from Greenwich; Norham

Castle ; Inverary.

TURNER, David, an English draughtsman and
engraver, was born in the latter part of the 18th
century. He learnt his art from John Jones, and
devoted himself to landscape, architectural, and
antiquarian subjects, occasionally exhibiting at the
Free Society arid the Academy between 1782 and
1801. The subjects of his exhibited pictures were
mostly taken from London and the Thames. No-
thinar is known of him after 1801. He left a few

591



Turner



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Turner



etcliings of Scottish castles and abbeys, one of
Peterborough Cathedral, and one of St. Ouen, Rouen.

TURNER, James, an English portrait painter,
who practised between 1760 arid 1806. He fre-
quently exhibited with the Society of Artists after
1760. In 1806 his name appears in a catalogue for
the last time.

TURNER, Joseph Mallord William, was born
April 23, 1776, at 26, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden.
His father, William Turner, was a, barber ; of his
mother, nee Mary Marshall, it has been asserted,
upon no grounds that can be verified, that she was
of gentle blood. Her sister was married to the
Rev. — Harpiir, curate of Islington, and grand-
father to that Mr. Henry Harpur who was one of
Turner's executors. It is believed that Mrs. Turner
died mad, and that she was identical with one Mary
Turner, admitted into Bethlehem Hospital in 1800,
and discharged uncured a few months later.
Turner began his career as a sort of infant prodigy
in his father's shop. His earliest known drawing
is one of Margate Church, made when he was nine
years old. Shortly afterwards he went to his first
school, at New Brentford, where he drew trees
and poultry while his school-fellows did his sums.
About this time, too, he began to make copies of
engravings, which were exposed for sale in the
barber's window. Tliese indications of a call to
art determined his father to give him such facilities
as he could. There is a vague tradition that he
spent £200 in placing his son with an architectural
draughtsman, perhaps Malton. On the whole
it is not surprising that Turner never had any
facility in the use of an educated man's instru-
ment, language. Early in his teens he was em-
ployed in colouring prints for John Raphael
Smith ; in making drawings at Dr. Monro's, in the
Adelphi, and in the fields and streets, with Girtin ;
and in washing in backgrounds for Mr. Porden.
For a time he was in the studio of Thomas Mal-
ton, junior, the architect, who dismissed him for
incapacity to learn perspective — a curious com-
mentary by anticipation on his appointment, many
years afterwards, as Professor of Perspective to the
Royal Academy. The most interesting passage in
Turner's early life is his friendship or acquaintance
with Girtin, and his intense admiration for that
artist's work. How great the degree of intimacy
may have been between them it is now im-
possible to say, and so with Turner's patron and
" true master," as Mr. Ruskin calls him, Dr. Monro.
Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse sums up the education of
Turner thus : " He learnt reading from his father,
writing and probably little else at his schools at
Brentford and Margate, perspective (imperfectly)
from T. Malton, architecture (imperfectly and clas-
sical only) from Mr. Hardwick, water-colour draw-
ing from Dr. Monro, aud perhaps some hints as to
painting in oils from Sir Joshua Reynolds, in whose
house he studied for awhile." i Like other men of
those pre-photographic days, he spent much of his
time in making topographical drawings, to be re-
produced in magazines, and he was less eager to
shake himself free from such work than one might
have expected. In 1789 he became a student of the
Royal Academy, and the year after exhibited a ' View
of the Archbishop's Palace at Lambeth.' Four years
later he received a commission from J. Walker, the
engraver, to make drawings for his ' Copperplate
Magazine.' , This was the first of the long series of
engraved wvrks for which he supplied material.
Acting, perhaps, on the strength of this commission,



he took a studio, in Hand Court, Maiden Lane, close
to the paternal shop. There he remained until his
election as an Associate of the Academy, in 1799.
Between 1790 and 1797 he explored nearly all
England south of the Humber, as well as Wales, in
search of subjects for his drawings. So far he had
given proof of taste rather than of any more robust
artistic faculty, but a tour in the North in 1797
stimulated his powers into stronger display. Either
during this tour, or as a result of it, Turner made
the acquaintance of many who were afterwards
among the best of his friends : Dr. Whitaker the
historian of Whalley, Mr. Fawkes of Farnley, Lord
Harewood, Sir John Leicester, aftei'wards Lord de
Tabley, and Mr. Lister Parker of Browsholme Hall.
After Turner's election to the R.A.-ship in 1802,
he practically ceased to make drawings for en-
gravers, and until the commencement of the ' South-
ern Coast,' fifteen years later, confined himself to a
heading for the Oxford Almanac and to a few draw-
ings for books. He marked too his sense of his
changed position by migrating from Hand Court to
64, Harley Street. It is to the work of these few
early years of the century that Mr. Ruskin applies
the ourious statement that Turner's manner " is now
stern, reserved, quiet, grave in colour, forceful in
hand. His mind tranquil ; fixed, in physical study,
on mountain subjects ; in moral study, on the
Mythology of Homer, and the Law of the Old
Testament." A sonorous pronouncement, but
difficult in the application. The truth of this time,
seems to have been, that conscious of low birth, of
an unattractive person, of an ill-furnished mind,
he deliberately set himself to conquer fame by those
gifts of imagination, of perception, of manual
skill, that he also knew to he his, and that, with
the narrowness of his class, he could not separate
success for himself from the conquest of his
rivals. Claude, Wilson, Nicolas aud Gaspar Pous-
sin, Titian, and Vandevelde, even Loutherbourg,
had one by one to be equalled or surpassed.
This is the key to his choice of subjects and their
treatment from the first year of the century down
to about 1830. In 1801 he appears to have paid
an unrecorded visit to Scotland, for the Academy
of 1802 contained three Scotch Views. In 1802
he made his first tour on the continent, and the
year afterwards exhibited six pictures of foreign
subjects, one of which was the ' Calais Pier,' in the
National Gallery. In 1807 he began the 'Liber
Studiorum,' a confessed but completely illogical
stroke at Claude's ' Liber Veritatis.' This, accord-
ing to his own prospectus, was intended " as an
illustration of Landscape Composition, classed as
follows : Historical, Mountainous, Pastoral, Marine,
and Architectural.") His method was to make
sepia drawings of the subjects, and then partly
with his own hand, partly with the help of pro-
fessional engravers, to transfer them to coppCT by
a mixed process of etching and mezzotint/xhe
whole series forms the most satisfactory moDftinient
of Turner's genius. Forced into concentration in
his own despite, he creates with a certainty not to
be found in his oil pictures or his water-colour
drawings, while the metier leaves no room for that
proneness to exceed the limits of his material
which lessens our pleasure in his pictures. Com-
mercially, the ' Liber ' was unsuccessful, as indeed
it was foredoomed to be by Turner's methods of
doing business. The publication dragged on inter-
mittently until 1819, when it was allowed finally
to drop. The original plan was for a hundred



Turner



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Turner



plates, excluding the frontispiece. Of these seventy
were published, while of the remaining thirty, some
were finished, some were only etched, and a few
stopped short at sketches. Perhaps the most fault-
less work Turner ever did is to be found in the
etchings for these plates. The engravers employed
for the mezzotinting were Charles Turner, William
Say, Dunkarton, Clint, Easling, Lupton, Dawe, S.
W. Reynolds, W. Annis, and Hodgetts. The first
plate executed, however, ' A Bridge and Goats,' is
an aquatint, by P. 0. Lewis.

From 1808 to 1811, Turner had a house at Ham-
mersmith. In 1812 he moved to Queen Anne Street
West, to a house near the corner of Harley Street,
which has lately (1887) been pulled down and re-
built. This remained his oificial address to the
end of his life, although Solus, or Sandyoombe,
Lodge, at Twickenham, is also given in some of the
catalogues. In the years between 1803 and 1815,
the wars with Napoleon compelled him to depend
on his own country for his subjects, and his yearly
excursions were into Devonshire and other rich
corners of England. During these years he spent
much of his time with the Trimmers, at Heston,
about three miles from Sandycombe. In 1819 he
paid his first visit to Italy, and from that moment
dates the commencement of his bolder excursions
into colour. Just before it he had exhibited such
pictures as the 'Apuleia and Apuleius,' and had
seemed, for the moment, to be falling into a mannered
key. But the sight of the Venetians at home seems
to have lifted him from this at once, and after his
return he began the series of works, in oil and
water-colour, on which his fame as a colourist
must chiefly depend. Much of the best work of
these years was done for Dr. Whitaker's ' History
of Richmondshire ' (1823), and for the ' Rivers of
England' (1824). In 1823 he sent the 'Bay of
Bai», with Apollo and the Sibyl,' to the Academy.
Together with the ' Caligula's Palace and Bridge '



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 155 of 201)