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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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LILLY, Henry, an English illaminator and
draughtsman, flourished in the early part of the
17th century, and held the office of Rouge-Croix
pursuivant at arms. There is a genealogy of the
Howard family by him containing portraits, &o.
He died in 1638.

LIMBORCHT, Hendrik van, was born at the
Hague in 1680, and studied under H. Brandon,
Robert Du Val, and Adriaan van der Werffi, whom
he imitated with success. Limborcht excelled in
painting landscapes, historical subjects, and por-
traits. He died in 1758. There are by him : ,

Amsterdam. Museum. Cupid and Psyche.

„ „ Children playing.

„ „ The Shepherds.

Dresden. Gallery, Venus and Cupid.

Paris, Louvre. The Eepose in Egypt.

„ „ The Golden Age.

Eotterdam. Museum. Ulysses at the Court of Lyco-

Two engravings by him are known — ' Pandora'
and ' Hercules and Lichas.'

LIMOSIN FAMILY. The history of this family
of enamel painters of Limoges is veiled in a cloud
of obscurity, which the researches of M. Maurice
Ardarit among the archives of Haute-Vienne, and
of M. A. Thomas in the mnnicipal archives of
Limoges, have not been able entirely to dispel.
Nevertheless, the following genealogical table will
show approximately the relationship which existed
between several members of the family of Limosin,
but there are others also who practised the art of
enamel painting, whose lineage has not yet been
ascertained. Three only of these are of sufficient
importance to merit separate notices, viz. Leonard
I., Jean I., and Franjois I.

Fran(;ois Limosin

(1606 ?-d. before isrr).

(d. 1571?).

•Teak L

Leonard II.
(1550?— 1626?).

Francois Jean Martial Francois
(b. 1689). (1). 1601 (b.lOOr). (b. 1616).

Francois I.

(b. before 1664:

d. 1646).


(b. 1619).


(b. 1620).





LIMOSIN, Francois, the younger son of Martin
Limosin, was born before 1654, and with his
brother, Leonard II., was co-heir of his uncle,
Leonard I. He died in 1646. His enamels are
more like those of the De Courts ; they are deep in
colour and sometimes heightened with gold, and
his backgrounds are often of dark violet. He
frequently copied the designs of Virgil Solis and
Etienne Delaune. The following may be mentioned
as examples of his style :

London. British Mitseum. Keptune. 1633.
Paris. Louvre. Neptune; after Virgil Solis.

„ „ Orion pierced by the arrows of

„ „ Psyche imploring Venus.

„ „ Orpheus before Pluto and

Proserpine ; after Virgil Solis.
„ „ Orpheus nharmingthe Animals;

after Mltienne Delaune.
„ „ Venus and Cupid.

LIMOSIN, Jehan, a younger brother of L(5onard
I. and Martin Limosin, was born before 1528, and
died about 1610. The earliest enamel signed by
Jehan Limosin is a portrait of Bardon de Brun,
the founder of the confraternity of Penitents at
Limoges, which bears the date of 1597. His style
approaches nearer to that of Jean and Suzanne de
Court than to that of his uncle, and he gives to his
heads the sharp proiile which is characteristic of
French art at the close of the 16th century. Hunt-
ing scenes were his favourite subjects, and green
backgrounds and reliefs of gold dominate in most
of his works. Among them may be mentioned :

liondon. British Museum. Charon ferrying Psyche across
the Styx ; oval plaque. 1590 ?
„ „ St. Margaret. 1600 ?

„ South Kensington \ Oblong Casket, painted with
Museum. j Bacchanalian procession and
mediaeval dancing groups.
(Formerly in the Deiruge and
Soltykoff Collections.)
„ „ The Death of St. Benedict ; a

Paris. Louvre. Esther before Ahasueras,

„ „ The Wife of Uriah.

„ „ The Kape of Europa; after

Virgil Solis.
» „ Pompey.

„ „ Julia, wife of Pompey.

„ „ Divine Love conquering Pro-

fane Love.

LIMOSIN, LiiONAED, the greatest of the enamel
painters of Limoges, whether in regard to the variety
of his works, or to their artistic merit, was born at
Limoges about 1505, and was probably a pupil of
Nardon P&icaud. His first works were inspired
by German masters, and the earliest date foUnd
upon any of them is 1532, which occurs upon
a series of eighteen plaques of the 'Passion,'
after Albrecht Diirer. From 1635, however, he
came under the influence of the Italian school,
and of the artists who had been engaged by
Francis I. to decorate his palace at Fontainebleau.
Nevertheless, his copies even of Raphael are exe-
cuted with such freedom as to render them almost
his own works. In 1641 he was established at
Limoges, and subsequently he was appointed
court-painter to Francis I., and patronized by
Henry II. The latest enamels upon which Leonard
Limosin has placed a date bear that of 1574. He
died between January, 1575, and February, 1577.
He practised all the processes known to the enamel
painters who had preceded him, but his predilection
was for brilliant colours, which towards the end of

Iiis career he placed on a deep blue ground. His
portraits in enamel are very fine, and often of
large size. He also painted in oil the 'Incredulity
of St. Thomas,' dated 1551, in the Museum at
Chartres, and other works. Hi^ works are signed
with his name, the initials Zi. L., or a monogram.
There are by him :
Berlin. Kuns hammer. A Madonna.

„ „ Buth and Boaz.

Chantilly. Duke ) Antoine de Bourbon, King of

d^Aumaie.j Navarre. {Formerly in the
Delrruge and Soltykoff Col-
„ „ Jean de Bourbon, Due d'En-

ghien. (Formerly in the
Soltykoff Collection.)
„ „ Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of

Navarre. (Formerly in the
Visconti Collection.)
„ „ Louis de Bourbon, Duke of

Montpensier. 1550. (For-
merly in the Debruge and
Soltykoff Collections.)
Chartres. Saint-Fere. The Twelve Apostles. 1547.
(This series was executed from
the deigns of Michel Hochetel,
and formerly adorned the
chapel of the Chiteau d'Anet.)
Loudon. British Museum. The Twelve Sybils ; half-length
figures. 1550?
„ „ Cupid and Psyche, forming the

centre of a large round dish,
and surrounded by a very
rich border of figures, fish,
animals, birds, &c. (Formerly
in the Fauntaine Collection.)
„ South Kensington ) The Crucifixion ; a plaque in
Museum. J transparent colours on ' pail-
Ipn,' or metallic foil. 1539.
„ „ Tazza, or Shallow Bowl, with

the figure of Laocoon,painted
in grisaille. 1539.
n >, The History of Cupid and

Psyche (after Raphael) ; two
plaques in light colours on
white ground. 1540 ?
;, „ Charles Tiercelin, Chancellor of

France ; a square plaque.
1540? (Formerly in the
Soulages Collection.)
;, )) Antoine de Bourbon ; a square

plaque. 1540-50? (Formerly
in the Smilages Collection.)
» „ The Banquet of the Gods ; an

elliptic plaque. 1560 ? (For-
merlyintluBemal Collection.)
» „ Charles de G uise. Cardinal de

Lorraine ; a large oval medal-
lion. (Attributed to Leonard
„ „ St. Thomas, St. Matthew, St.

James the Greater, and St.
James the Less ; medallions.
(Attributed to Leonard Li-
„ Mr.Magniac. Hunting Horn, decorated on

one side with the Conversion
of St. Hubert and scenes of
the chase, in colours, and on
the other side with David
slaying Goliath, and mednl-
lions in grisaille. 1538. (For-
merly, in the Strawberry Hill
„ Mr.Daniy't'FTB.-acis I,, King of France.

Seymour, f (Formerly in the Strawberry
Hill Collection.)
» n Catharine de' Medici.

Munich. Treasury. The Manna in the Desert; a

Paris Louvre. Psyche carried off by Zephyr

(after Saphael). 1535.
» )) St. Thomas (Francis I.).




Louvre, St Paul (Admiral Ohabot).

„ „ Votive Tablet for the Sainte

Chapelle, consisting of
twenty-three plaques, that
in the centre representing
the Crucifixion. 1553.

„ i, Votive Tablet for the Sainte

Chapelle, consisting of
twenty-three plaques, that
in the centre representing
the Resurrection. 1553.

„ „ Francis II.

„ „ Catharine de' Medici, in widow's


„ ), Venus and Cupid. 1555.

„ „ A Concert.

„ Musie de Cluny. Eleanor of Austria, Queen of
Francis I. 1536.

„ „ The Life and Passion of Christ ;

twelve large oval medallions.

„ » The Judgment of Paris {after

Raphael) ; a circular dish,
with figures in grisaille on a
blue ground. 1562.

„ Legislative Chamber. Two glass paintings represent-
ing Henry II. and Catharine
de' Medici. 1553.

„ Barm Alphonse ) The Adoration of the Kings ;
de Rothschild. J a triptych. 1544.

„ £aron Gvstave \ The Manna iu the Desert.

de Rothschild. J 1568.

„ Baroness James ) Henry II. on horseback, with

de Rothschild. J Diana of Poictiers riding
behind him. 1547.

1, » Anne d'Este, Duchess of Guise.

I, „ Charles IX., as Apollo. 1573.

« >, Henry III., as Jupiter.

■, „ Catharine de' Medici, as Venus.


)i „ Anne de Montmorency, Con-

stable of France.

» ), Pius V.

» „ The Last Supper. 1546.

„ Prince Soltykoffl Claude de France, first wife of
(now dispersed). J Francis I. 1550.

Four etohiugs, according to Robert-Dumesnil, were
executed by Leonard Limosin, after liis own com-
positions ; they are done with a broad and spirited
point, with ^arge figures and small heads ; they
are as follow :

Christ entering Jerusalem. 1544.
The Last Supper. 1544.
Christ on the Mount of Olives. 1544.
The Resurrection. 1544.

LIN, Hans van, called Stillheid, or ue Stillb,
flourished from 1664 to 1675, according to dates
on his pictures. He painted battles and hunting
pieces, and some of his works are to be met with
at Copenhagen and Dresden. His pictures are
marked H. V. L. There exists a plate of animals
engraved by him. C. E. Boetius executed after
him an engraving of ' A Company in an Alehouse.'

LINAJUOLO, Beeto, was a Florentine painter,
who lived in the first part of the 15th century. His
pictures gained him sufiicient fame to cause him to
be summoned to the court of Hungary, where he
was received with favour.

LINCK, Hans von, is mentioned as an engraver
by Professor Christ, who says he marked his prints

with the monogram JJ',

LINCK, Johann Anton, a painter and engraver,
was a native of Geneva, who worked with his
father, Johann Conrad Linck, till 1788. He exe-
cuted a large number of Swiss views, especially of
Chamounix, which are correct in drawing and good
in colour.


L'INDACO, Jacopo, an Italian painter, was born
at Florence m 1476. He was the son of Lazzaro
di I'letro, a baker, and received from his contem-
poraries the surname of 'L'Indaco.' He was a
pupil of Domenico Ghirlandaio, and worked in
Rome with Pinturicohio. There he became intimate
with Michelangelo, who instructed him in the art
of painting in fresco. He died at Rome about
1544, at the age of 68. He was a good artist, but
all his works mentioned by Vasari have perished
He had a brother, Francesco, also called L'Indaco'
who was born in 1492, and was living in Rome in
1658. His talents were inferior to those of Jacopo

LINDBMANN, Christian Philipp, a German
engraver, was born at Dresden in 1700. He
worked in Italy, Nuremberg, and Ratisbon, and
devoted himself chiefly to reproducing Italian
masters. He died at Nuremberg in 1754. Among
his works are :

St. John the Baptist ; after Bernin.

Apollo and Marsyas, Endymion, Zephyrus and Flora ;

after Corradini.
Venus and Cupid ; after Balestra.

LINDENSCHMIT, Wilhelm, was born at
Mayence in 1806, and studied in the Academy at
Munich under Cornelius in 1823. In 1824-25 lie
was at Vienna, but established himself at Munich
in 1826. He was subsequently employed in the
castle of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen at Lands-
berg. He died at Mayence in 1848. The following
are by him :

Hohen- Castle. The History of the Fortress of

schwangau. Hohenschwangau.

)) „ The History of the Hohen-

staufen and Guelfs.
Landsberg. Castle. Encaustic Frescoes of the His-

tory of Saxony.
Munich. Court Garden. The Victory of Louis the Rich
at Giengen.
„ Royal Palme. Several scenes from Schiller's

„ Royal Gallery. Some scenes from the Life of

Leonardo da Vinci.

LINDER, Feanz, (or Lindeben,) a German
painter and engraver, was born at Klagenfiirt in
1738. He studied the elements of art under Lay-
bach, and then went to Venice and afterwards
to Vienna, where he attended the Academy. In
1776 the Empress sent him to Rome, whence after
four years he returned to Vienna. He painted
portraits i;j the style of Palko, and among his sitters
were the Grand-Duke Maximilian, Joseph II., the
Royal Family of Naples, and several others. He
died about 1809.

LINDMEYER, Daniel. See Lintmeyee.

LINDNER, Feanz. See Linder.

LINDSAY, Thomas, a landscape painter in
water-colours, whose specialty was Welsh scenery,
was in 1837 elected^ a member of the New Society
of Painters in Water-Colours. In the latter part
of his life he lived near Brecon, where he died
in 1861.

LINES, Samuel, a landscape painter, was born
in 1778 at Allersby, near Coventry. Being an
orphan, he was brought up by an uncle, a farmer,
whom he assisted. He was then apprenticed to a
clock-face enameller at Birmingham, and after-
wards designed for art-manufactures. He found
his true vocation in 1807, when he opened a draw-
ing academy, and during the remainder of his life
he took a prominent part in all matters relating to
art in Birmingham. He died in 1863.





LINES, Samuel Restell, a landscape painter,
the third son of Samuel Lines, by whom he was
taught, was born at Birmingham in 1 804. His forte
was the depiction of trees, and he had also a keen
eye for the picturesque in architecture. He died
at Birmingham in 1833. There is a water-colour
drawing by him at the South Kensington Museum
of the ' Dais and Dining-Table at Haddon Hall.'

LINGE, Bernhard van, was a native of the
Netherlands, who established himself in England
about the middle of the reign of James I. He
distinguished himself as a painter on glass, and
his oldest known work is at Wadham College,
representing the ' History of Christ,' 1622. It is
said that several other glass paintings by him are
there, as well as at Lincoln College, 1629-31.

LINGJ^E, Charles Louis, a French engraver,
was born in P;iri3 in 1751. He worked with the
point and the burin, and engraved several prints,
among which was ' The Vintage,' after Louther-
bourg. He died in Paris about 1805. His wife,
TH^siiSE lilLtioNORE H:6meex, who was born in Paris
in 1753, executed several plates in the crayon style.

LINGELBACH, Johannes, was born at Frank-
fort on the Main in 1625. It is not mentioned by
whom he was instructed ; but the ability of the
master may be presumed from the talents of the
pupil. He went to Amsterdam in 1637, and after
spending five years there he returned home and re-
mained two years, and then in 1644 visited Italy.
He passed six years at Rome, assiduously employed
in sketching the most remarkable objects in and
near that capital. In 1652 he returned to Amster-
dam, with the studies he had accumulated during his
residence in Italy, of which he made an ample use
in the composition of his pictures. His works
frequently represent Italian sea-ports, in which he
introduced an infinite number of small figures,
habited according to their different nations. His
pictures are embellished with architecture, and the
ruins of ancient monuments and statues. He was
equally successful in his representation of fairs,
Italian markets, and the amusements of the Carni-
val, with appropriate figures, ingeniously grouped,
of quack doctors, surrounded by crowds of spec-
tators, and similar assemblages. His ability in
painting small figures and animals induced several
of the landscape painters of his time to have re-
course to him to decorate their pictures, particularly
Wynants and Wouwerman, by whom his style of
painting was largely influenced, and also Koninck,
Verboom, Moucheron, and Hackaert. He signed his
works with his name or a monogram. Zylvelt
engraved after him four ' Genoese Harbours,' and
Gronsvelt twelve ' Italian and Oriental Ports.'
There are by Lingelbaoh a few slight but spirited
etchings of landscapes, sea-ports, &c., after his own
designs. He died at Amsterdam in 1687. The
following are among his paintings (besides others
at Augsburg, Copenhagen, Christiania, Brunswick,
Dresden, Frankfort, Munich, St. Petersburg, and
Vienna) :

Amsterdam. Museum. Dentist on Horseback.

„ „ An Italian Harbour. 1664.

„ „ The Biding Scbool.

„ Town Hall. The plan of tbat building. 1656.

" ''coSfrl^o-gtotl^^Hunt.

Hague. Gallery. An Italian Port. 1670.

London. Nat, Gallery. Hay Harvest.

Paris. Louvre. The Vegetable Market. 1670.

„ „ A Sea-port,

Kotterdam. Museum. Italian Landscape.


LINNELL, John, aportraitand landscapepainter,
was born in 1792 in London, where his father was a
picture-dealer and wood-carver. He soon showed
remarkable aptitude for art, and by the advice of
Benjamin West he attended the schools of the Royal
Academy at Somerset House, into which he was
admitted in ■ 1805. He became too a pupil in
John Varley's studio, where he learned more from
his fellow pupil, Mulready, than from his master.
His progress was so rapid that in 1807 he con-
tributed to the Academy exhibition 'A Study
from Nature,' and ' A View near Reading.' About
this date he and William Hunt worked for George
Dawe on a large transparency which was required
for an illumination intended to celebrate a victory
over the French. Like the ablest of his con-
temporaries, he could paint a panorama or a minia-
ture, or engrave a portrait. Besides old masters'
works, Linnell engraved in mezzotint John Varley's
'Burial of Saul,' and Collins's 'Feeding the
Rabbits ' and a ' Scene on the Brent.' In 1807 he
gained a medal for a drawing, and in 1810 one
for a model in the Life School of the Academy ;
and in 1809 he gained in the British Institution
a prize of fifty guineas for a landscape called
'Removing Timber.' He soon devoted himself
to portrait painting and to pictures of scenery near
London. At this time he established himself
with Mulready in Francis Street, Tottenham
Court Road. In 1810 appeared ' Fishermen wait-
ing the return of the Perry Boat, Hastings,' and
in 1811, 'The Ducking, a scene from Nature.'
After this Linnell ceased to contribute to Somerset
House till 1821, but from 1818 to 1820 he exhibited
in Spring Gardens with the Society of Painters in
Oil and Water-Colo urs. He executed many minia-
tures on ivory, and produced several portraits,
some of which he reproduced in mezzotint. One
of the first of his subject landscapes was painted
in 1835, ' Christ's Appearance to His Disciples on
the way to Emmaus,' which attracted a great deal
of attention owing to its originality, and the pathos
imparted to the landscape, which was the distin-
guishing characteristic of all his work. ' Windsor
Forest' was painted in 1837. In 1852 Linnell
retired from London to Redhill, where he died in
1882. He published 'Michael Angelo's Frescoes
in the Sistine Chapel,' 1834 ; ' The Royal Gallery
of Pictures,' being a selection of the paintings
in Buckingham Palace, 1840 ; and a, tract entitled
' The Royal Academy, a National Institution,' 1869.
A drawing of Sarah Austin by him is in the
National Portrait Gallery. The following is a list
of his principal pictures :


Sir Augustus 'Wall Callcott, E.A. 1832.

William Mulready, E.A. 1833.

Thomas Phillips,E.A.

Eev. Thomas Eobert Malthus.

William Collins, E.A.

Archbishop Whateley.

John Sterling.

Thomas Carlyle.

Sir Robert Peel, Bart.

Lord Lansdowne.

Ijord Monteagle.

Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, Bart., afterwards Lord

Northbrook. 1842.
Samuel Eogers. 1835.
Sir Henry Torreus.
Lady Lyndburst.
Marshal Espartero.
General Sir Ealph Darling.
Charles Chetwynd, second Earl Talbot. 1840.





Christ and the 'Woman of Samaria.

The Disobedient Prophet. 1854.

The Last Gleam before the Storm.

Crossing the Brook. 1868.

The Lost Sheep. 1869.

The Timber "Waggon.

Barley Harvest.

Eampstead Heath.

Under the Hawthorn.

The ■Woodcutter.

The Eve of the Deluge;

The Eeturn of Ulysses.

Wood-Cutters. {National Gallery.)

The 'Windmill. 1847. {The same.)

LINO, PiETKO Di, or Pbreolino, was an old Sien-
nese painter, who flourished in the 12th century.
He is the oldest Tuscan master known, but no work
has been assigned to him with certainty.

LINSCHOTBN, Cornelis Adeiaan van, a Dutch
historical painter, was born at Delft in 1690. As
soon as he had learned the rudiments of the art,
he went to Rome, where he is stated to have been
a pupil of Ribera, and to have attached himself
to the study of the works of Michel Angiolo da
Caravaggio, whose vigorous style he followed with
some success. On his return to Holland he painted
some historical subjects ; but his dissipated cha-
racter rendered it difficult for his employers to get
their pictures out of his hands. Two of his most
esteemed works, representing 'St. Peter denying
Christ ' and the ' Repentance of St. Peter,' were at
the Hague. He died at the Hague in 1679.

LIN SEN, Jan, was a Flemish painter, who re-
sided some years in Italy. He painted marines
and sea-fights, of which the most remarkable was
the representation of an engagement at which he
had himself been present, and in which he was
taken by an African corsair. He is said to have
been killed in a quarrel with a gamester.

LINT, Hendrik van, called Studio, the youngest
son of Pieter van Lint, was born at Antwerp in
1684. In 1697 he entered the studio of Pieter
van Bredael, and afterwards went to Rome, where
he passed the remainder of his life. He was
assiduous in sketching the most picturesque views
in the vicinity of that city, from which he formed
the subjects of his landscapes, which are painted
in a style imitating that of Claude Lorrain. He
acquired the name of ' Studio ' from the society of
Plemish painters at Rome, through his application
to his studies. He was still living in 1726. His
paintings include the following :

Augsburg. Gallery. Two Landscapes.

Brunswick. Gallery. Beturn from the Chase.
Turin. Gallery. Landscape. 1726.

LINT, Pieter van, was born at Antwerp in
1609. At the age of ten he entered the studio
of Roeland Jacobs, and having become in 1633
a master of the Guild, he went to Italy, and
passed several years at Rome. Soon after his
arrival, his talents attracted the notice of Car-
dinal Domenico Ginnasio, Bishop of Ostia, who
employed him in several considerable works for
his cathedral, and in the chapel of La Santa Croce
in Santa Maria del Popolo, at Rome. After an
absence of nine years he returned to Antwerp,
and was employed in painting some altar-pieces
for the churches, as well as pictures of a smaller
size for private collections. He died at Antwerp
in 1690. Among his chief historical works were
the ' Virgin and Child, with Saints,' in the church
of St. Jacques, at Antwerp ; and a fine picture in

the church of the Carmelites, representing the
' Virgin presenting to some Monks the Order of
their Community,' painted in the style of Van
Dyck. He also painted portraits with great suc-
cess, many of which are highly esteemed in the
Low Countries. Besides five other paintings, there
is the portrait of Cardinal Ginnasio in the Antwerp
Gallery. Bat apart from these the only other
picture by Pieter van Lint now to be seen in his
native city is ' The Parting of St. Peter and St.
Paul before their Martyrdom,' which adorns one of
the altars in the church of St. Jacques. He exe-
cuted also an etching, representing ' Virtue and

LINTHORST, J., a painter of fruit and flowers,
was born at Amsterdam in 1766, and died there in
1815. Two fine specimens of his work are in the
Museum of his native city.

LINTMEYER, Daniel, (or Lindmeyee,) was
born at SohafEhausen about the year 1540. He
was chiefly known as a painter on glass, and
flourished from about 1560 to 1591.

LINTON, J., an English portrait painter, flour-
ished at the close of the 17th century. He painted
a portrait of Sir 'W'illiam Ashurst, Lord Mayor of
London in 1694.

LINTON, 'William, a landscape painter of the
classic or ideal school, was born at Liverpool in
1791. He was educated at Rochdale, and then
placed in a merchant's ofBoe at Liverpool. At-
tracted by art, he studied Claude and Wilson, and

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 16 of 201)