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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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and died there in 1733. In the Berlin Gallery there
is an interior, with a lady and gentleman playing
draughts, by him. He scraped several plates after
Brouwer, Schalken, and other masters.

VAN DER WILT, F— , painter and mezzotint
engraver, was a contemporary of Thomas Van der
Wilt. Nagler ascribes two plates to him, but little
is known of his life

VAN DER WOESTINE, Roger, a Flemish
painter of the 15th century, identical with Rogier
DB Brdesle, or Roegebe van Bruesele, who was






formerly confused with Roger van der Weyden.
It has been ascertained that he was made free of
the Guild at Ghent in 1414, but none of his works
can be pointed to.

VANDI, Sante, an Italian portrait painter, born
in 1653. He was a pupil of Cignani. In early life
he painted at Bologna, but was afterwards era-
ployed at Mantua, and other cities in Central Italy.
He had constant commissions, and left a great
number of portraits, chiefly of a small size. He
died at Loreto in 1716.

VANDIEST. See Diest, Van.

VANDYCK (or Vandyke). See Dyck, Van.

VANDYKE, Peter, an Anglo-Flemish portrait
painter, was born in 1729. At the invitation of Sir
Joshua Reynolds, he came to England and worked
as his assistant. He afterwards settled at Bristol,
where he obtained a good practice. Several of his
works appeared at the Incorporated Society, and
at the Free Society between 1762 and 1772. There
are by him :

London. Nat. Fort. Gall. Portrait of Coleridge.
„ „ „ Southey.

VANGBLISTI, Vincbnzio, an Italian engraver,
vras born at Florence about 1740. He visited
Paris when young, where he became a pupil of
Ig. Hugford and Johann Georg Wille. Leopold
II. invited him in 1766 to Milan, where he became
professor in the Academy, and in 1790 first director
of the School of Engraving instituted by that
prince. He committed suicide in 1798, having
previously defaced his plates. He had several
pupils, who distinguished themselves as engravers;
among them, Longhi, who succeeded him, and F.
Anderloni. His masterpiece is the ' Pyramus and
Thisbe,' from a picture attributed to Guido, but in
reality by De la Hire. The following plates are
also by him :

Aimand de Bourbon, Prince de CondS.

Georges Louis, Comte de Buffon ; after A. de Pujol.

Satyr and Nymph ; after Van Loo.

The Virgin and Child ; after Raphael.

Vpnus chastising Cupid ; after Agost. Carraeci.

VANLOO. See Loo.

VANMANDER. See Mander.

VANNI, Andrea, was born at Siena in 1332,
and in conjunction with Bartolo di maestro Fredi,
began to paint iu 1353. He seems to have been
of some consideration in his native city, having
been elected a member of the Great Council in
1370, Gonfaloniere in 1371, sent as Envoy to the
Pope at A"vignon in 1372, on a mission to Florence
in 1373, and again as Envoy to the Pope, at
Naples, in 1384. Many examples exist of his
paintings between 1353 and 1414 in Naples and
its vicinity. At the chapel of St. Catherine of
Siena, in the church of San Domenico, Naples,
can be found the remains of a fresco painted
by him to commemorate the life of that saint,
who was a correspondent and perhaps a relation
of his own. About the year 1400, he painted her
portrait with scenes from the life of St» James, in
a chapel in San Jacomo Interciso, but these works
have now disappeared. He also decorated three
chapels in the cathedral of Siena ; finished other
work on its fa9ade in 1380 ; and in 1398 painted
an ' Annunciation ' for the same building. He
died about 1414. The church of San Stefano, and
the Academy of Siena, also possess examples of
this artist.

VANNI, Cavaliere "Francesco, was born at-
Siena in 1565, and was taught the rudiments of




design by his step-father, Arcangiolo Salimbene,
who died when Francesco was still very young.
When he was sixteen years of age he went first to
Bologna and afterwards to Rome, entering the
school of Giovanni de' Vecchi, studying also under
such men ^s Baroocio, whose style he imitated
with success. Returning to Siena, he afterwards
worked at Parma, Bologna, and again at Rome,
where he painted a ' Simon Magus ' for St. Peter's.
He painted several other pictures for Roman
churches ; the most important are, ' St. Michael
vanquishing the rebel Angels,' in the sacristy of
S. Gregorio ; a ' Pieta,' in S. Maria in Vallioella ;
and the 'Assumption,' in S. Lorenzo in Miranda.
At Siena there is a ' Marriage of S. Catharine,' in
the chapel of II Refugio; and a, 'S. Raimondo walk-
ing on the Sea,' in the church of the Dominicans.
Vanni finally returned to Siena, and died there in
1609. He etched a few plates. The following
works may be named :

Dresden. Oalleiy. Holy Family.

Florence. Pal. Pitti. S. Francis in Ecstasy.

„ Uffizi. Joseph made known to his

Genoa. Pal. Spinola. S. Catharine of Siena.

Madrid. Museum. The three Marys.

Modena. Gallery. Marriage of S. Catharine,

Paris. Louvre. The Eepose in Egypt.

„ „ Martyrdom of S. Irene.

Rome. Pal. Quirinale. Death of S. Cecilia.

Siena. S. Quirico. The Flight into Egypt.

„ Pinacoteca. The Magdalene.

Vienna. Gallery. Christ at the Column.

VANNI, Giovanni Battista, was born at Pisa
or Florence in 1599 ; he studied successively
under Empoli, Aurelio Lomi, and Matteo Eoselli,
and then became a disciple of Cristoforo Allori.
Of his works as a painter, the moat important is
a. San Lorenzo, in the church of San Simone, at
Florence. He is, however, better known as an
engraver than as a painter. He died at Florence
in 1660. Of his etchings, the following are the

A set of fifteen Plates from Correygio's frescoes in the
cupola of San Giovanni, Parma.

The Martyrdom of S. Placido ; after the same.

The Marriage at Cana ; after Paolo Veronese.

VANNI, Lippo, a Sienese artist living in the
14th century, whose name first appears on the
Guild in 1355. He was a miniaturist, and painted
for the Spedale in 1344. In 1352 he executed a
'Coronation of the Virgin,' for the Bicoherna.
In 1359 he, together with Nello Betti, executed
some work in the Palazzo Pubblico, and in 1372
he painted an ' Annunciation,' in the cloisters of San
Domenico at Siena, portions of which work still
exist. The latest fact recorded of him is that in
1375 he received six gold florins and thirty-one
soldi for painting the doors of the great crucifix
in the cathedral of Siena. The dates of bis birth
and death are unknown.

VANNI, Nello di, a Pisan painter of the 14th
century, and pupil of Andrea Orcagna. He painted
for the cathedral of his native town, and also
worked for the Campo Santo. He is conjectured
to be identical with Bernardo Nello di Giovanni
Falcone, q. v.

VANNI, Raffaello, a son of Francesco Vanni,
was born at Siena in 1596, and received his first
instruction from his father, whom he lost, however,
when he was only thirteen. He was afterwards
sent to Rome, and recommended to the care of
Antonio Carracci. The works of his contemporary,

Pietro da Cortona, appear to have had a peculiar
fascination for him. His ' Birth of the Virgin,' in
the Pace, is entirely Cortonesque ; as are his
paintings in Santa Maria del Popolo. There is a
' Marriage of S. Catharine ' by him in the Pitti
Palace, and other pictures at Siena and Pisa. He
was a member of the Academy of S. Luke in
1665, and died probably in 1667. His brother,
Michelangelo Vanni, is better known as the in-
ventor of a process of making pictures by staining
marble than as an artist in the strict sense.

VANNI, Turing, painter, was born at Rigoli,
a small village near Pisa, in the 14th century.
The records of Pisa show that he worked for the
cathedral between 1390 and 1395. He was an
imitator of Taddeo Bartoli. In the church of San
Paolo, Ripo d'Arno, Pisa, is an enthroned Virgin
and Child with saints, and adored by four kneeling
figures, signed TnRiNDS Vannis db Rbgdli depinxix
A.D. Mcccxcvii. MADii. He has also left :

Palermo. Convent of S. 1 Madonna with Angels and

Martina, j Saints.
Paris. Louvre. Madonna (signed Tvrinvs Van-


VANNINI, Ottavio, born at Florence in 1585,
was first a disciple of Giovanni Battista Mercati,
but ufterwards studied under Anastasio Fontebuoni,
and ultimately entered the school of Passignano,
whom he assisted in many of his public works.
He died in 1643. His best works were in fresco.
Pictures :

Florence. Zj^si. Tancred and Erminia.

„ Pal. Pitti. Ecce Homo.

Pisa. S. Anna. The Communion of St. Jerome.

VANNO, Nello. See Vanni.

VANNUCCI, PlETRO, commonly called Pir/rRO
Perdgino, was born in 1446, at Citta della Pieve.
It is not known for certain who his first Dmbrian
master was, but it was probably either Benedetto
Buonfigli or Piorenzo di Lorenzo. It is known
that be acted as assistant to Piero della Francesca,
at Arezzo, and that about the year 1476 he was
a fellow-student with Leonardo da Vinci and
Lorenzo di Credi, in the studio of Verrochio, at
Florence. To this time Giovanni Santi refers in
his rhymed chronicle, in which he calls Perugino,
'Pier della Pieve.' The earliest important com-
missions intrusted to Perugino were those for
frescoes in the upper hall of the Palazzo Comunale
at Perugia, painted in 1475, and in a chapel at
Cerqueto, painted in 1478. All these have now
perished, so it is probable that the oldest existing
examples of his monumental art are the frescoes in
the Sistine Chapel at Rome. On these he began to
work about 1480. If we may accept the Com.
Morelli's opinion, only one now remains, the'
' Charge' to Peter.' Three of the original five men-
tioned by Vasari were removed to make room for
Michelangelo's ' Last Judgment,' while the fourth,
the ' Baptism of Christ,' as well as a sixth picture,
the ' Journey of Moses,' of which Vasari says
nothing, but which was long assigned to Perugino,
Morelli ascribes to Pinturicchio. IDuring Perugino's
intermittent stay, extending over some ten years
altogether, in Rome, he was also employed in the
Vatican ' Stanze,' but his pictures there were re-
moved, with a few unimportant exceptions, to
make way for the frescoes of his pupil, Raphael.
The money he had earned in Rome was not paid
to him in full until 1491. Between 1482 and 1493
he was often in Florence. In the latter year he





married one Chiara Fancelli, a native of Mantua,
and in 1496 he bought a site for a house ; but,
although he settled in Florence, he kept up his
rights in Perugia, and perhaps a studio, for it was
in the last years of the 15th century that he re-
ceived the boy llaphael as a pupil. The exact
date, which is a matter of dispute, is not of vital
importance in the story of Peragino's career. In
his early practice Perugino used tempera in easel
pictures ; then came a period of experiment,
followed by one in which he used the oil method
with complete comprehension and mastery. It
has been suggested that the secret, so far as it was
one, had been communicated to him by Antonello
da Messina, who was established in the latter years
of the century at Venice, where, as we know from
documentary evidence, Perugino was for a time in
1494. In 1493 he had not yet mastered the oil
process. In the UfiBzi there is a male portrait by
him which recent investigation has proved to be
that of a Florentine, Francesco delle Opere, who
died in Venice in 1496. It is painted in oil, with
complete skill, and therefore strengthens our belief
that Perugino finally learnt the method in Venice,
about 1494. Between 1496 and 1499 he painted
several altar-pieces, and, among other frescoes,
that of the ' Crucifixion,' which still exists in the
Chapter-house of S. Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi.
In 1500 he finished the frescoes in the Cambio, at
Perugia ; the ' Assumption,' for the convent of
Vallombrosa, and the ' Marriage of the Virgin,' now
at Caen. In 1505 he painted the ' Triumph of
Chastity,' now in the Louvre, for the Marchese
Isabella of Mantua, and in these latter years paid
a second visit to Eorae, painting in the Stanze,
where one of his ceilings, that in the Camera del'
Incendio, was preserved by the good feeling of his
pupil, Baphael. Between 1515 and 1523 he was
chiefly engaged on minor works for provincial
patrons, among them the ' St. Sebastian ' and the
' Transfiguration,' both in the Bologna Gallery, and
a ' Nativity,' now in the South Kensington Museum,
which was painted for the church at Fontignano,
near Perugia, and is probably the last work he
touched. Perugino died at Fontignano in 1523.

Among his pupils were Eaphael, Giovanni di
Pietro, called Lo Spagna, Eusebio di San Giorgio,
and Pinturicchio. Besides the works already
mentioned, we may enumerate the following
pictures by Perugino :

Bologna. Gallery. Madonna among Angels and

Oaen. Museum. Marriage of the Virgin.

Pieve 1 ^' ^'"'^"'^ Adoration of the Kings.

,1 Suomo. Madonna with Saints and An-

Cremona. S. Agostiiio. Madonna and Saints.
Fano. S. Maria Nuova. Madonna and Saints.
Florence. 8. Maria\„, c^ .,, ■ ,, s

Maidahna.]^^^ Crucifixion (Jresco).

„ Accademia. Christ on the Mount of Olives.

>, „ The Crucifixion.

„ „ A Pieta.

I, „ Assumption of the Virgin.

%• „ Portraits of two Monks.

» Vffizi. Madonna between S. John the

Baptist and S. Sebastian.

>. „ Portrait of himself.

„ I'al. Pitti. Pieta.

" ), Madonna adoring the Infant

London. National Gall. The Virgin adoring the Infant
Christ, betwefin SS. Michael
and Raphael {triptych).

London. National Gall. The Virgin between SS. Jerome
and Francis.
„ „ Virgin and Child.

Lyons. Museum. The Ascension.

Marseilles. „ The Family of the Virgin.

Munich. Pinakothek. The Virgin between SS. Nicho-
las and John the Evangelist.
Nancy. Museum. Holy Family with S. John.

Naples. Duomo. An Assumption, with Cardinal

Caraffa and several Saints.
„ Museum. Adoration of the Kings.

Paris. Z(mvre. A Holy Family.

„ „ ? Apollo and Marsyas (ascribed

to Kaphael).
Perugia. Gallery. Martyrdom of S. Sebastian.

„ „ The Nativity.

„ „ The Coronation of the Virgin.

„ „ The Baptism of Christ.

„ „ Adoration of the Magi.

„ „ Enthroned Madonna.

Kome. Vatican Gallery. The Resurrection.

» „ Madonna and four Saints,

„ Villa Albani. The Nativity.

„ Pal. Sciarra- ) c* . . « i . .

Spello. S. Maria Mag-



„ Madonna and Saints.

Gallery. Madonna and Saints.


VANNUCCHI. See Andeea d'Agnolo.

VANSOMER. See Somer.

VANTE. See Attavante.

VANDDEN. See Uden.

VANVITELLI, (or Vanvitel). See Wittel.

VANZO, Jacopo da. See Avanzi.

VAPRIO, Agostino da, was living in Pavia in the
15th century, and was one of the artists employed
by Ludovico Sforza, in Milan, in 1490. He is the
author of an altar-piece in San Rimo, Pavia, a
Virgin and Child, with Saints and donor, dated

VAPRIO, Constantino, a Milanese painter, who
flourished about 1460, is commended by Lomazzo
as one of the first Italians to give due attention to

VARALLO, Tanzio di. See Tanzio.

VARANA. See Guabana.

VARCO, Alonso de, was born, according to
Palomino, at Madrid, in 1645, and was a disciple of
Jos6 Antolinez. He painted landscapes in the
style of his instructor, and was much employed for
the convents and the private collections of Madrid,
in which city he died in 1680.

VARCOLLIER, Oscae, painter, was born at
Rome of French parents in 1820. He was a pupil
of Paul Delaroche, and worked in Paris, where he
gained a medal of the third class in 1846, and
where he died in the same year.

VARDV, John, well known as an architect, was
also an engraver, and has left a spirited print
representing the hall at Hampton Court. He died
in 1765.

VAREGE, , was a close imitator, if not a

scholar, of Cornelia Poelenburg. He flourished
about the middle of the 17th century. He painted
small landscapes with figures, generally on copper.
He is not noticed by the Butch or Flemish writers,
and, from his name, it may be conjectured that he
was of French origin.

VARELLA, Francisco, a Spanish painter, was
born probably at Seville, about the end of the 16th
century. He was a scholar of Pablo de las Roelas,
and painted history with some success. He was
employed in 1618 by the Carthusians of Santa
Maria de las Cuevas to make copies of certain




pictures painted by Gaudin for the Grande Char-
treuse, Grenoble. Bermudez notices a 'Last
Supper,' in the church of San Bernardo, signed
with his name, and dated 1622, as one of his best
works. Others are his pictures of the ' Martyrdom
of S. Vincent,' in the church dedicated to that
saint ; and an altar-piece representing St. Michael,
in the convent of La Merced. There are also several
of his pictures in the private collections at Seville,
where he died in 1656.

VARENNE, DB, a French painter of the 18th

century, details as to whose life are unknown.
He exhibited at the Salon in 1796-1798. The
Angers Museum possesses a portrait by him.

VARENNE, Chakles Santoike de, painter, was
born in Paris in 1763, and was a pupil of Joseph
Vernet. He settled in Poland, where he held the
post of Professor at the Academy of Warsaw.
He exhibited occasionally at the Salon in the early
part of the 19th century. He died in Russia in
1834. His daughter DoBOTHiE, born in Paris
about 1804, painted flowers and miniatures, and
was a pupil of Redouts.

VARGAS, Andres de, was born at Cuenoa in
1613, and went while young to Madrid, where he
studied under Francisco Camilo. Camilo obtained
him commissions from churches and private persons.
In the latter part of his life he practised at Cuenca,
and died there in 1674.

VARGAS, Luis de, one of the most eminent
Spanish painters of the 16th century, was born at
Seville in 1602. Having acquired the elements of
art in his native city he went to Rome, where his
attention was mainly given to the works of Perino
del Vaga. In all he passed twenty-eight years in
Italy, returning to Spain about the middle of the
century. The first picture he painted after his
return was a 'Nativity,' for Seville cathedral, which
still exists in the chapel for which it was painted.
The date of its execution, 1555, Bermudez found
in the records of the chapter, and the picture is
inscribed Tunc diseebam Luisius de Vargas. The
better works of Vargas were painted in fresco,
and unfortunately little of them now remains.
Among the most remarkable was a Christ bear-
ing His Cross, called ' La calle de la Amargura,'
('The Street of Bitterness,') which he painted in
1563-8. Criminals going to execution were al-
lowed to stop before this picture to perform their
devotions. About thirty years after its completion,
it was repaired by Vasco Pereira, a Portuguese artist.
The ' Last Judgment,' painted for the Casa de la
Misericordia, is a wreck. The same fate has be-
fallen the figures of the Apostles, Evangelists, and
other Saints, which he painted in the cathedral
tower in the last .year of his life. Of his pictures in
oil, the most admired is a genealogy of Christ, in
which Adam is represented adoring the Virgin. It
is called ' La Gamba,' (' the Leg,) on account of a
much admired limb of the patriarch, as to which an
ill-founded story used to be told that Perez Alesio
had declared one limb of the Adam to be worth
more than the whole of his own ' St. Christopher.'
The portraits of De Vargas are excellent. He
died at Seville in 1668.

, Luis de Vargas was mild, benevolent, and charit-
able, suffering with patience the attacks and injuries
of his rivals. In his house he led the life of an
anchorite. At his death they found in the chamber
to which he used to retire for his devotions, hair
shirts, scourges, and other instruments of mortifica-
tion, and even a cofSn in which he was accustomed

to repose and ruminate on death. And yet he could
make a joke. A bad artist having painted a ' Christ
on the Cross,' asked his opinion of the figure ;
Vargas replied, " It is well ; it seems to be saying
— Lord, forgive them, for they know not what they

VARIN, Chakles Nicolas, draughtsman and
engraver, was born at Chllons-sur-Marne in 1741.
He was the son of Jean Baptistb Varin, an
engraver and chaser on metal. He studied en-
graving under Pierre Quentin Chedel, and also
studied painting. For a time he directed a school
of art founded by his father at ChS,lons, and was
also curator of the Ch&lons musee. He eventually
settled in Paris, and worked in conjunction with
his brother Joseph, occasionally forwarding the
plates of other engravers, notably those of Saint
Aubin. He also produced several independent
plates after Teniers, Wouwerman, Fragonard, Le
Prince, &c. ; and the costume plates for the ' Tab-
leau de I'Empire Ottoman,' by D'Ohosson Mouradja,
published in 1787. Varin died at Ch9,lons, February
22nd, 1812.

VARIN, Jean, (or Warin,) a French draughts-
man and engraver of the 17th century, better known
as a medallist, was born at Lifege in 1604, and
died in 1672. In his last years he was superin-
tendent of public buildings, and master of the mint.

VARIN, Joseph, an elder brother of Charles
Nicolas Varin, was born at Ch&lons-sur-Marue in
1740. He studied under P. Q. Chedel and the
Chev. de la Touche, at Chilons, and won medals
of honour for his series of plates from the Rheims
fetes in 1765, on the occasion of the inauguration
of a statue to Louis XV. in that city, and also for
his large map of the Duchy of Burgundy. In both
of these he was assisted by his brother, Charles
Nicholas [q.v.). In 1760 the brother had" settled in
Paris, where they worked in conjunction. In 1791
they sent to the Salon a view of the Palais-Royal,
and a perspective of a proposed place in Bordeaux.
Joseph furnished plates for many publications of
the day, among which we may name : the greater
number of the plates for Blondel's 'Treatise on
Architecture,' Montalembert's ' Treatise on Fortifi-
cation,' Belin and Berthier's ' Instruction for the
Royal Navy ; ' for the 'Voyage Pittoresque' of the
Abb6 St. Non, for Choiseul Gouffier's ' Travels in
Greece,' for Cassas' 'Travels in Syria, Judsea, and
Lower Egypt,' and for ' Architecture in relation to
Art and Legislation,' by Ledoux. He also engraved
the plates of antiquities for Sabbatier's 'Dictionary
of Greek and Latin Authors.' He died in Paris,
September 7th, 1800. Charles and Joseph Varin
claimed descent from Jean Varin, the medallist.

VARIN, Joseph, the younger, draughtsman,
engraver, and lithographer, born at Chftlons-sur-
Marne in 1796, was the son and pupil of Charles
Nicolas Varin. In his youth he served in the army,
and was wounded at Waterloo. After the peace
he was employed as superintendent of works at
the Cha,teau de Neuilly. He was afterwards for a
time professor at the Art School of his native town,
but in 1820 came to Paris to study lithography
under Chasteau. Finally settling at Ch&lons, he
died there June 6th, 1843. He engraved and litho-
graphed a few plates after Raphael and Girodet,
and two plates from his own design are mentioned,
one, an engraved portrait of the little King of
Rome, the other an allegorical lithograph called
'La Patrie des Souvenirs,' proofs of which were
sold for the benefit of the Poles.





VARIN, Pierre Amad^b, engraver and painter,
the son of Joseph Varin the younger, was born at
Ch§,lons-sur-Marne in 1818. He was a pupil of
Monvoisin, and worlied in conjunction with his two
brothers, Piereb Adlophb and Eugene Napoleon,
well-known engravers still practising in Paris.
Many of his works were exhibited at the Salon
between 1843 and 1882. He died at Crouttes
(Aisne) in October 1883.

VARIN, QuENTlN, a French painter of the early
17th century, born at Beauvais, is now remembered
chiefly as the first master of Nicholas Poussin. He
studied at Beauvais and Amiens, and afterwards
practised in Paris. He was presented to Marie de'
Medicis, and commissioned to carry out decorations
in the Luxembourg. Terror of the dangers of a
court led him, however, to abandon the commis-
sion, and to go into hiding, with the result that
Rubens was employed in his place. In the church
at Les Audelys there are an ' Assumption ' and a
' S. Vincent' by him; in S. Germain des Pr6s,
Paris, a ' Presentation in the Temple.'

VARLEY, Cornelius, water-colour painter and
brother of John Varley, was bom at Hackney,
November 21st, 1781. He was only ten years old

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 166 of 201)