Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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at the death of his father, and was adopted by an
uncle, a manufacturer of scientific instruments
and apparatus. In his new home the boy
acquired some knowledge of optics and chemistry,
and seemed to show an inclination for mechanics,
but about 1800 he left his uncle in consequence of
some family disagreement, went to live with his
brother John, and applied himself to the study of
art. He never, however, lost his interest in scien-
tific pursuits, and later on made some considerable
improvements in optical instruments, for which he
received the ' Isis ' gold medal of the Society of
Arts ; for his invention of the graphic telescope he
also received a gold medal at the Exhibition of
1851, and was an active member of the Society of
Arts. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy
in 1803, but he was not a frequent contributor.
He was, however, a foundation member and a
zealous supporter of the Water-Colour Society.
His pictures were chiefly classical landscapes, with
groups of figures and architecture. He was a
member of the Sketching Club, and had a good
practice in London as a teacher of drawing. He
died at Highbury, October 2, 1873. Among his
best works we may name :

A Mountain Pastoral. 1809.

The Sleeping Shepherd. ISIO.

Evening. 1811.

Paljemon and Laviuia. 1811.

View of Ardfort, Ireland. 1815.

After Sunset, North Wales. 1803. {South Kensington

Euius of Troy. 1819.
The Vale of Tempe. 1820.

VARLEY, John, an English landscape painter in
water-colour, was born at Hackney in 1778. Owing
to his father's objection to art he was placed with
a silversmith, but on his parents' early death he
obtained more congenial employment with a por-
trait painter. His true vocation was found with
an architectural draughtsman, whom he accom-
panied in visits to various parts of England. In
1798 he first appeared at the Royal Academy with
a 'View of Peterborough Cathedral.' He owed
much to the group of painters which met at Dr.
Monro's, where the foundation of the true English
water-colour school was laid. Varley was one
of the original members of the old Water-Colour


Society on its foundation in 1804, and he regularly
contributed to its exhibitions. Though he worked
assiduously with the brush, and had a good teaching
connection, he did not secure himself a competence,
and his later years were disturbed by pecuniary
difficulties. He died in 1842. His works belong
entirely to what may be called the middle period
of the water-colour school, between the abandon-
ment of the reed pen and the full development of
the art. Works:

Beddgelert Bridge. 1800. [South Kensington Museum.)

Pass of Llanberis. 1803. (Do.)

High Street, Conway. [JDo.)

Eiver Scene. 1840. [Do.)

BoHoD Abbey. 1842. (Do)

Pond at "W"otton, near Dorking. (Do.)

Frognal, Hampstead. 1826. (Do.)

Illustration to ' The Bride of Abydos.' (Do.)

Burial of Saul. (Do.)
(And twenty-six others.)

VARLEY, William Fleetwood, water-colour
painter, was born in 1777? He was the younger
brother of John Varley, under whom he made his
first studies in art. He exhibited at the Royal
Academy at intervals from 1804 to 1817. He
practised as a teacher of drawing in Gornvfall, at
Bath, and at Oxford, in which city he was nearly
burnt to death through a foolish frolic of some of
his pupils. He never recovered the shock, and,
falling into ill-health, gave up work and became
dependent on a son-in-law. He died at Ramsgate,
February 2, 1858. Works:

A Welsh Mountain scene. (South Kensington Museum.)
S. Michael's Mount, Cornwall. (Do.)
(And three others.)

VAROTARI, Alessandro, called II Padovanino,
was the son of the elder Dario Varotari, and born
at Padua in 1590. His father dying when he was
only six years of age, he was instructed in art by
some painter unknown. He was sent to Venice
when he was very young, where his talents pro-
cured him the pet name of ' II Padovanino.' At
Venice he studied the works of Titian, and entered
so entirely into his manner, that he was considered
one of his most successful followers. If his design
had been equal to his colour, few painters of the
Venetian school would have surpassed him. He
generally selected subjects which admitted the
introduction of the nude, in which he was as suc-
cessful in the beauty of his carnations as deficient
in design. With children and landscapes he was
especially successful. He died in 1650. Among
his best extant works are mentioned the following:
Bergamo. S. Andrea. Ceiling.
Dresden. Gallery. Judith with the Head of Holo-

Florence. Uffizi. Lucretia.

London. Nat. Gallery. Cornelia and her children.

,. „ Boy and Bird (? after Titian).

Paris. Louvre. Venus and Cupid.

Borne. Pal. Borghese. The Toilet of Venus.
Venice. Carmine. Miracle of St. Liberate.

„ S. M. di Salute. Madonna.

„ S. Mark^s Library. Astrology.

„ aS. lomd,. Altar-piece.

„ Academy. The Marriage at Cana.

„ „ The Rape of Proserpine.

„ „ The Descent of the Holy Spirit.

Vienna. Gallery. Holy Family.

„ „ The Woman taken in Adultery.

„ „ Judith.

VAROTARI, Chiara, was the daughter of Dario
Varotari the elder, and flourished at Venice in the
middle of the 17th century. She was instructed
by her father, and is celebrated by Ridolfi and by



Vasoo Pereira

Boschini for her talent as a portrait painter. The
Ufiizi has her own portrait painted by herself.
She was still living in 1660. She was a poetess, -
and the author of an ' Apology for the Female Sex.'

VAROTARI, Dario, the elder, a painter, sculp-
tor, and architect, was born at Verona about 1639,
and was descended from a Strasburg or Augsburg
family of the name of ' Weyrotter.' He was a
scholar of Paolo Veronese, and an imitator of
Titian, particularly in the airs of his heads. His
chief residence was at Padua, and some of his
principal works are in the church of Sant' Egidio
in that city. He died in 1596. The Venice Academy
contains a ' Visitation of St. Elisabeth ' by him.

VAROTARI, Dabio, the younger, was the grand-
son of the elder painter of the name, and son of
Alessandro Varotari. He flourished about the
year 1660, and was painter, engraver, poet, and
physician. Though his pictures cannot now be
identified, his portraits were very popular in their
time. Bartsch describes two portraits engraved
by him ; one of his grandfather, Dario Varotari,
the other of Vinoentius Gussonus, Eq., both signed
with his name. He painted rather as an amateur
than for gain.

VASARI, Giorgio, painter, architect, and writer,
was bom at Arezzo, July 30, 1611. He is said to
have received his first instruction in design from a
glass painter, named Guglielmo da Marcilla, but he
was studying in Florence, first under Michelangelo,
afterwards under Andrea del Sarto. During the
siege of Florence, in 1529, Vasari moved succes-
sively to Pisa, Bologna, and back to Arezzo, where
he made the acquaintance of Salviati, who gave
him valuable assistance .and advice. About this
time he was brought to Rome by Cardinal Ippolito
de' Medici, who had taken him under his protection,
and by whose family he was afterwards loaded
with riches and honours. In Rome he worked
hard from the antique, from the works of Michel-
angelo, in the Sistine chapel, the frescoes of
Raphael and Baldassare Peruzzi. Having acquired
some reputation as a painter, he set himself to
study architecture. He was employed as a painter
in the Sala Regia ; in the Sal a della Cancellaria,
where he painted, by the direction of Cardinal
Farnese, a series of frescoes, representing the
principal actions of Pope Paul III. ; and in the
church of S. Giovanni DecoUato he painted the
Martyrdom of that Saint, one of his best oil pic-
tures. From Rome Vasari came to Florence, and
entered the service of Alessandro and Ottaviano
de' Medici. After the murder of Alessandro, he
retired to Arezzo, but in 1553 he was invited to
Florence, by Cosimo I., who employed him to
superintend the works on which he was then en-
gaged in the Palazzo Vecchio. Here, in the apart-
ment of Clement VII., he painted that Pope crown-
ing the Emperor Charles V. ; and other events in
his life. Vasari died at Florence, June 27, 1574.
He had much facility as a draughtsman, but his
compositions are mannered and without originality,
and his colouring is cold and hfeless. He is at his
best in his few portraits. Vasari is vastly more
famous as a writer than as a painter. His great
work is the history of artists, from the period
of Cimabue till his own time, entitled ' Vite de piii
eccellenti Pittori, Scultori, e Arohitetti,' first pub-
lished at Florence in two volumes in 1650, and
republislied with large additions and portraits, in
three volumes, in 1568, and again in 1648. A
fourth edition, published at Rome in 1749, was

annotated by the learned priest, Giov. Bottari.
Numerous later editions have appeared ; the most
valuable are: (1) that published by Passigli, at
Florence, in 1832-38 ; it was edited by Montani of
Cremona, and, on his decease, by Giovanni Maselli.
(2) That published by Le Monnier, at Florence,
between 1845 and 1856, and edited by a society of
learned Italians. (3) The latest, most elaborate,
and most trustworthy, the edition published by
Sansoni, at Florence, in 1878 — 1885, edited and
annotated by Gaetano Milanesi. There are also
excellent translations into English and German,
besides a very poor one into French. Vasari's
pictures are very numerous in Italy ; the following
may be named :

The Banquet of Ahasuerus.

VirgiQ and Saints.

Portrait of Cosmo I. {one of
viaay repetitions) .

The Supper of S. Gregory.

Christ with Martha and Mary.

Christ bearing His Cross.

The Last Supper.


S. Luke painting the Virgin.

Vision of Count Hugo.

Birth of the Virgin.

His own Portrait.

Portraits of Lorenzo and Ales-
sandro de' Medici.

Holy Family.

SS. Peter, Paul, and Jerome.

The Conception.

The Nativity.

The Presentation in the Temple.

The Annunciation.

Conversion of S. Paul.

The Resurrection of Christ.
Holy Family.
„ „ Christ clearing the Temple.

VASARI, Lazzako, great-grandfather of the
historian Vasari, was born at Arezzo in 1399. He
was a friend and co-worker of Piero della Fran-
cesca. Early in life he painted nothing but small
ornamental figures in armour, banners, and the
larger pictures of other artists ; but at a later date
he worked in fresco both at Arezzo and Perugia,
and furnished designs to the glass painter Fabiano
Saseali for the ' Madonna ' and ' Resurrection ' win-
dows in the Madonna delle Grazie, Perugia.
Lazzaro died in 1460. His son GlOEQIO, grand-
father to the biographer, also worked at Arezzo as
a modeller and painter of pottery. He died in

VASCELLINI, Cajetano or Gaetano, (or Vac-
CELLINI,) an Italian engraver, was born at Castello
San Giovanni, in the Bolognese, about 1745. He
learned the principles of design from Ercole Gra-
ziani, was instructed in engraving by Carlo Paucci
at Florence. He etched some original portraits of
distinguished Florentines, and also engraved after
various Italian masters. The following are among
his principal plates :

Andrea del Sarto.

Danielle Eicciarelli da Volterra.

Cosimo I. ; after the statue Iry Qiovanni da Bologna.

S. Joseph and S. Francis of Paula ; after Seh. Conca.

The penitent Magdalene ; after F. Furini.

Venus ; after Titian.

Danae ; after the same.

The Last Supper ; after L. Signorelli.

VASCIBRAGCI. See Vassilacchi.
VASCO, Gran. See Fernandez.











S. Croce.

, S. Maria Novella.


S. Annunziata.







B. Inst.


Ch. de Carmine.








S. Fietro in )
Montorio. j









VASCONI, FiLlPPO, who flourished about the
year 1720, engraved several views of Venice and
its neighbourhood.

VASI, Giuseppe, Cavaliere, designer and en-
graver, was bom at Corleone in Sicily in 1710.
He was at first a painter, but afterwards went to
Rome and studied under Sebastian Conca, P. L.
Ghezzi, and Juvara. He engraved some of the
designs for the decorations set up at the coronation
of Ferdinand of Naples. He was employed on
several views of the Harbour of Ancona for Bene-
diet XIV., which confirmed his reputation. After
this followed plates from the fa9ades of San
Giovanni in Laterano and Santa Maria Maggiore,
and, for Charles III., of the Festivities on the
birth of his son in 1745, which procured him the
post of engraver to the court of Naples. He was
also made a Knight of the Golden Spur. He died
at Rome in 1782. He engraved some hundreds of
plates from the buildings of that city, and also
painted in the Farnese and Caprarola Palaces.
Piranesi was his pupil.

VASLET, Lewis, miniature painter, practised
at York and Bath, towards the close of the 18th
century. He was an occasional exhibitor at the
Royal Academy, his last contribution being there
in 1782.

VASQUEZ. See Vazquez.

VASSALLO, Antonio Mabia, was a native of
Genoa, and flourished about the year 1650. He
was a scholar of Vincent Malo, of Cambray, who
had studied under Rubens. Vassallo painted
landscapes, animals, fruit, flowers, &c., which
were well coloured, and touched with freedom.
He also gave proof of considerable ability in
historical subjects, but died young.

VASSEUR. See Le Vasseub.

VASSILACCHI, Antonio, (or Vascibhacci,)
called L'Alibnse, was born in the Grecian island
of Milo, in the Archipelago, in 1556. He was sent
to Venice when he was young, where he became a
scholar of Paolo Veronese. In 1574 he assisted
Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese in decorating the
city for the visit of Henry III. of Poland, and his
share of the work attracted much notice. He
visited Treviso, where he worked under Benedetto
Caliari ; and Padua, where he was influenced by
Dario Varotari. A visit to Rome and the work of
Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel also told upon
his style. An early work was a picture of ' St.
Sebastian, with a glory of angels,' for the church
of Santa Maria delle Vergine, and, on its being
reported that it was from a design by Paolo
Veronese, he determined to get rid of all the
drawings he had made in that master's school, as
a proof of his determination to abandon his style.
He then apphed himself to study Tintoretto, and,
in a fair imitation of his manner, painted an
'Abraham sacrificing Isaac,' a 'Cain slaying Abel,'
and a 'Brazen Serpent.' Several of the best pro-
ductions of Aliense are in the Sala dello Scrutinio.
He also painted in San Giorgio, Venice, and San
Pietro, Perugia. He died at Venice in 1629.
I VAOCHELET, Th)bophile Auquste, a French
historical and portrait painter, was born at Passy
in 1802. He entered the ificole des Beaux Arts in
1822, and studied under Abel de Pujol and Hersent.
In 1827 he obtained the second grand prix for his
' Coriolanus,' and in 1829 the first grand prix for a
'Jacob refusing to send Benjamin.' His works
appeared at the Salon from 1830 to 1868, and he
won all the orthodox honours up to the Legion of


Honour. He had considerable practice in mural
decorations, and executed works in the great hall
and chapel of the Senate ; at the churches of St.
Germain I'Auxerrois and St. Eustache (but these
are now destroyed), at the Tuileries and the
Hotel de Ville. He died in 1873. Amongst his
easel pictures are :

Amiens. Museum. Christian Charity.

Versailles. Palace. The Sarreader of Magdeburg.

„ ,, Portrait of Prince Poniatowsld.

„ „ „ Marshal Gouvion

St. Cyr.

„ „ „ Due de Choiseul-

Stainville, &c. &o.

VAUDECHAMP, Jean Joseph, painter, born at
Eambervillers (Vosges) in 1790. He was a pupil
of Girodet. He painted a ' S. Carlo Borromeo ' for
the chapel in the Royal Tapestry Factory at Beau-
vais, and exhibited portraits and historical pictures
at the Salon from 1817 onwards. He died in 1866.

VAUGHAN, Robert, an English engraver, who
practised about the middle of the 17th century.
He was chiefly employed on portraits and other
plates for the booksellers, which are sought after
for the sake of sitters rather than for their merit as
art. He engraved a plate in Dugdale's ' Warwick-
shire,' and some of the maps ; the prints for Mor-
ton's ' Ordinal,' and some of those for Ashmole's
'TheatrUm Chemicum,' in 1651. Vertue informs
us, that during the interregnum, Vaughan engraved
a portrait of Charles II., to which he affixed so
offensive an inscription, that after the Restoration
he was prosecuted for it. He died towards 1667.
Among others, the following portraits by him
are extant :

James I.

Launcelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester.

Sir John Wynn of Gwedyr, Bart.

George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland.

John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.

Arthur Hildesham, Preacher at Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

Sir Francis Drake. | Sir 'Walter Ealeigh.

Sir Thomas Lyttleton, Chief Justice of the King's Bench.

Thomas "Wilsford, Mathematician.

Edward Terry, Eector of Greenford, Middlesex. 1655.

(His latest known work.)
Henry and Bobert Vere, both Earls of Oxford.
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.
James Usher, Bishop of Armagh.
Sir George Crooke, Chief Justice of the King's Bench.
Edward Turgis, Poet. | Ben Jonson, Poet.

VAUGHAN, William, an English engraver, was
probably related to Robert Vaughan, and flourished
about the same time or slightly later. He also
was principally employed by the booksellers.
Three prints by him, engraved for a small foho
pamphlet describing the 'Sufferings of Sir William
Dick, of Braid,' are known. He also engraved a
set of thirteen plates of animals for 'A Book of
such Beasts as are most useful for drawing, graving,
or arms painting and chasing (designed by F.
Barlow, and engraved by William Vaughan);'

VAULOT, Claude, a French subject and portrait
painter, was born in 1818. He studied under Cog-
niet, and commenced to exhibit at the Salon in
1837. He practised in Paris, but his career was
cut short by his early death in 1842.

VAUQUER, , a native of France, who was

probably a goldsmith by profession. He engraved,
from his own designs, several plates of flowers and
ornamental foliage, for a ' Livre des Fleurs propres
pour oiffevres et graveurs.'

VAUROZE. See Feiquet.




VAUTHIER, Jdles Antoine, draughtsman,
painter, and lithographer, was born in Paris in
1774. He was a pupil of Regnault, and won the
second prize at the Boole des Beaux Arts in 1801.
He exhibited a few pictures at the Salon, but was
best known by his drawings for various publica-
tions on classic art. He died of cholera in Paris
in 1832.

His brother, Antoine Charles, a natural history
draughtsman', bom in Paris in 1790, made the
drawings for an edition of Buffon, and for the
'Dictionnaire classique d'Histoire naturelle,' both
published by Beaudoin ; also for the ' Collection
des Papillons diurnes et cr^pusculaires de France,'
published by Cr^vot.

VAUZELLB, Jean Ldbin, a French painter,
born at Angerville in 1776, was a pupil of Perrin
and of Hubert Robert, and painted chiefly views of
buildings, ruins, classic monuments, and interiors,
a large number of which he exhibited at the Salon
from 1799 onwards. He also produced a good
many illustrations for books

(or Giovanni Andrea,) an Italian engraver, over
whom there is a standing controversy. It seems
now to be established that he was identical with
the Venetian Zoan Andrea, who appears in the first
volume under the title Andrea, Zoan. Of his life,
all that can be stated for certain is that at a period
not exactly known he was in Mantua, involved in a
dispute. between Andrea Mantegna and one Simone
Di Ardizoni, a painter and engraver, with whom, as
appears from a document in the Gonzaga archives,
he had previously been living and collaborating in
Verona. As to his after career, we know that in
the first years of the 16th century, a wood-engraver,
or at least publisher of wood-cuts, was flourishing
at Venice, many of whose prints bear the following
inscription, or some variant of it: Giovanni
Andrea Vavassori detto Guadagnino. We
know, too, that this inscription occurs as late as
1566, suggesting that either the name had become
a sort of trade-mark, or that Vavassori and the
employer of the annexed monogram, i. e. Zoan

Andrea, "^^"^ .A? were not identical after all.

This latter contention has been revived by Herr
Kolloff, in the new edition of the 'Kiinstler-
Lexicon,' but so far it has made few converts.
The monogram appears on about sixty Italian
prints. In the Berlin Print-Room there is a print
inscribed : In Venetia per Znan Andrea Vadag-
nino di Vauasor. Vavassori was the author of the
only known Italian block-book, a series of wood-
cuts from the Passion, with lines of text at the
bottom of each, and the title 'Opera Nuova Con-
templativa.' The date is 1516. The British
Museum has an unique impression from a fine
print by Vavassori of the Doge's barge, the
Bucentaur, making its way in procession down
a Venetian canal. (See Fisher's ' Introduction to
a Catalogue of the early Italian prints in the
British Museum,' pp. 201-215 ; and Lippraann's
•Wood Engraving in Italy,' [London, 1888]

VAYEMBOURG, Jean de, who flourished at
Nancy from 1592 to 1602, was court painter to
Charles III. of Lorraine.

VAYMER, Giovanni Enrico, a Genoese painter,
born 1665, pupil of Giov. Bat. Gaulli. He obtained
a considerable reputation as a portrait painter, and

was three times summoned to paint the king and
royal family at Turin. He was invited to remain
at the court, but declined. He died in 1738.

VAZQUEZ, , a Portu.guese who, in 1562,

painted a ' Descent from the Cross ' and a ' Martyr-
dom of St. Sebastian' on a panel for the church
of San Lucar de Borromeda, in Andalusia. The
latter was inscribed : Vazquez I/usitanus tunc
incipiebam anno 1562.

VAZQUEZ, Alonso, (or Vasquez,) painter, was
born at Ronda, Andalusia, in the latter part of the
16th century, and was educated at Seville, under
Antonio Arfian. He painted history, and was a
contemporary and rival of Francisco Paoheoo. His
principal works are in the monastery of the
' Merced Calzada,' at Seville, and comprise a series
from the Life of S. Raymond, a ' Magdalene,' and a
' Pieti.' He was one of the artists employed on
the magnificent catafalque erected in Seville cathe-
dral for the requiem mass of Philip II., in 1598.
The date of his death is not known, but it took
place before 1649. Few of his pictures exist.

VAZQUEZ, Juan Bautista, painter and sculptor,
was born at Seville towards the end of the
16th century. He studied painting under Diego
de la Barrera, In 1568 he painted an altar-piece
for the chapel then existing in the orange-tree
court of the Alhambra, at Granada. Vazquez was
an artist of considerable genius, and did much to
develop painting in Andalusia. The date of his
death is unknown, but in 1579 he was at work in
Malaga Cathedral.

VEAU, Francesco, a painter of architecture and
perspectives, was born at Pavia in 1727, and died
in 1768. He was an excellent decorative painter,
but nothing is known of his life.

VEAU, Jean lb. See Levbau.

VECCHI, Giov. del See Dei Vecchi.

VECCHIA, P. BELLA. See Della Vecchia.

VECCHIBTTA. See Lorenzo di Pietro.

VECCHIO, IL, DI San Bernardo. See Min-


VECCHIO, Palma. See Palma.

VEOELLI, Cbsarb, cousin of Titian, was born
at Cadore about 1530. He was both painter and
engraver. He accompanied Titian to Augsburg in
1548, and seems to have worked as his assistant.
Many of Cesare's pictures are no doubt ascribed to
Titian. In the Milan Pinacoteca there is a small
'Trinity' by Cesare. He died at Venice about
1606. It has now been established that the
woodcuts for ' De gli Habiti Antichi e Moderni,'
fnough so long attributed to Cesare, were not
executed by him, but by Christopher Chriegher of
Nuremberg. His brother, Fabrizio, a painter of
Cadore, was little known beyond his native place,
for the Council-hall of which he is said to have
painted a fine picture. He died in 1580.

VBCBLLI, Peancesco, was the brother of Titian,
and was born at Cadore, perhaps about 1483.
After studying the elements of art under his
brother, he served some years in the array, and

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 167 of 201)