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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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made his first appearance at the Royal Academy
with three pictures in 1817. He also exhibited at
the British Institution, and at the Society of British
Artists, of which he was one of the founders.
Considerable time was spent by him in travel
among the scenes of classical antiquity, and he
exhibited a collection of his sketches in 1842. He
paid considerable attention to the composition of
colours, and published a pamphlet on ' Ancient and
Modern Colours.' He died in London in 1876.
Amongst his chief works are :

The Temples of Psstum. (National Gallery.)

Embarkation of the Greeks for the Trojan 'War.

A Fdte Day at Venice.

Venus and .fflneas.

Greek Armament.

Marius at Carthage.

Lake of Orta.

Italy. ( Woburn Albey.)

BelHnzona.

View on Coast of Southern Italy. {Bridgewater Gallery.)

LION, A., is a name inscribed, with the date
1628, on a good picture in the Town Hall of Amster-
dam, representing twenty-five archers. No other
work is known by this master.

LION, Pierre, a Belgian portrait painter, was
born at Dinant about 1740. He went to Paris,
where he became a pupil of De Vien. He lived
for several years at Vienna, but eventually returned
to his own country, where he died in 1814.

LIONARpO DA VINCI. See Leonardo.

LIOTARD, Jean Etienne, called 'The Turk,'
was born at Geneva in 1702, and was intended by
his father for mercantile pursuits, but having suc-
ceeded in copying a miniature by Petitot, he was
permitted to follow his inclination for painting.
He went to Paris in 1725, where he became a
pupil of J. B. Mass6 and made the acquaintance
of Lemoyne. He soon got into practice in paint-
ing portraits in crayons, miniature, and enamel.
In 1738 he accompanied the Marquis de Puysieux
to Naples and then to Rome, where he painted the

61



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Liotard

likeness of the Pope, and became acquainted with
two Bngliah noblemen, who engaged him to ac-
company them to Constantinople. During his
journey to the Levant, he put on Turkish cos-
tume, which he wore, with a long beard. He re-
mained in the Turkish capital four years, and was
next employed at Jassy by the Prince of Moldavia,
and then in 1749 by the Empress Maria Theresa
at Vienna. From there he proceeded to Pans
and thence to London, where he painted por-
traits of the Princess of Wales and the young
princes. He met with considerable employment,
for which he was probably indebted more to the
notoriety of his masquerade than to his talents as
a painter. He went in or about 1756 to Holland,
and there married ; but returned to London in
1772, bringing with him a valuable collection of
pictures by celebrated masters, as well as glass
paintings of his own workmanship, and these were
sold by auction for large sums. His chief forte
lay in crayon portraits, which he exhibited at
the Royal Academy in 1773 and 1774. In 1776
he returned to Switzeriand, and died at Geneva
in 1779. Among his paintings are :
Amsterdam. Museum. La Belle Lyonnaise (Mile. La-
vergne). 1746.
„ „ Marshal Saxe.

^, „ Maria Theresa, Empress of

Austria.
„ „ Lord Besshorough.

,j „ Louis, Dauphin of France.

,' „ Marie Josephine, Dauphiness

of France.
„ „ Oount Algarotti.

„ „ Countess of Coventry, in Turk-

■ish costume.
„ „ Countess of Marlborough.

Dresden. Gallery. The Viennese Chocolate Girl.

„ „ La Belle Lyonnaise.

„ „ The Artist's Portrait.

„ „ Count Maurice of Saxony.

London. iSouth Kensing- \ A Turk seated.

ton Museum. J A Profile Portrait. (Sir Everard
Fawkener ?)
Vienna. Gallery. La Belle Lyonnaise.

„ „ An Old "Woman sleeping.

There are a few etchings by this artist, among
which are the following :

The Empress Maria Theresa, in a Turkish dress.
The Archduchess Maria Christina, as above.
Een^ H^rault, Lieutenant-General of Police.
Portrait of Himself, with a long beard.
The Sick Cat, with some French verses.

LIOTARD, Jean Michel, born, at Geneva in
1702, was a twin bi-other of Jean Etienne Liotard.
He learned engraving at Paris under Benoit Audran,
and in 1735 went to Venice, whence after a time
he returned to Paris, and finally to his own country,
where he died in 1788. He engraved the following
prints :
Seven large plates from the Cartoons painted in fresco
in the Palace of the Duke of Parma, by Carlo Ciynani;
viz :
Love conquering the AVorld.
Cupid riding on pn Eagle.
Cupid's Fight with Pan.
Apollo and Daphne.
Bacchus and Ariadne.
The Triumph of Venus.
The Kape of Buropa.
Apollo rising from the Waves.

A set of subjects from the Bible ; aftar Sehastiano
Ricci.

LIPPARINI, LuDovico, was born at Bologna in
1800, and was instructed in art in that city, where
he brought himself into notice at the age of

62



Lippi



fifteen In 1820-21 he was at Rome and Naples,
and in' 1822, and again in 1826, at Venice, where
he became Professor at the Academy in 1838, and
Professor of Painting in 1848. He died at Venice
in 1866. Among his chief paintings there are :

Erigone. 1827.

Byron's Oath at the Grave of Bozzans.

The Ascension of Mary (Gca« Cathedral.)

Achilles.

Bacchus and Ariadne.

The Youth of Jupiter.

Pisani. [VienTM Gallery.)

LIPPERT, Joseph, a portrait painter, was born
at Neuburg in 1764. He went to the Art Academy,
and afterwards to Vienna, where he became ac-
quainted with a painter named Gerringer, with
whom he travelled for seven years. He died at
Pressburg in 1812.

LIPPI, Fra Filippo, was born at Florence about
the year 1400. He was the son of a butcher called
Tommaso Lippi ; but he lost both his parents at an
early age, and was left to the care of an aunt,
whose poverty rendered her unable to afford him
much material aid. In 1412 he entered the Car-
melite community at the Carmine of Florence, and!
studied painting from the frescoes of Masaccio in
the chapel of the Brancacci. In 1430 his name
first appears as a painter, and in 1432 he seems to
have left the monastery. The story told of his
capture by the pirates of Barbary at Ancona, and
of his captivity, is now considered to be more
than doubtful, since no traces of this event can be
found in any authentic records or works of this
artist. A letter exists, written by Fra Filippo in
1439 to Piero de' Medici, in which he calls himself
" one of the poorest friars in Florence," and as
having under his charge six marriageable nieces
for whom he has to find means to live and dowries.
When about twenty-six he painted the altar-piece,
representing the 'Virgin and Child enthroned,^
with a predella of four subjects, for Gherardo di
Bartolommeo Barbadori, which exhibited wonder-
ful talent at even that early age. The upper part
of this altar-piece is now in the Louvre, and ils
predella is in the Academy of Arts at Florence. In
1441 he executed for the nuns of Sant' Ambrogio
a 'Coronation of the Virgin, with Saints and
Bernardino Monks,' one of the latter of whom is
his own portrait with the tonsure, and holding a
scroll inscribed 'Is perfecit opus.' This clearly
shows that at that date he had not abandoned the
robes and marks of his Order. He seems at this
period to have been highly esteemed, and to have
received many commissions from the clergy and
the nobility of Florence. His most powerful
patron was Cosmo de' Medici, and it is probably
owing to his patronage that in 1452 he was
appointed chaplain to a convent of nuns in
Florence ; and in 1457 was made rector of San
Quirico at Legnaia. In 1456 Fra Filippo began
the frescoes at the Pieve, now the cathedral of '
Prato, having already painted a ' Death of St. Ber-
nard ' for the provost of that church, where it is still
preserved. It is whilst he was employed at Prato
that Vasari tells the story of Fra Filippo Having
abducted a nun named Lucrezia Buti, whose child
is known as Filippino Lippi. Ons of the finest
paintings executed by Fra Filippo whilst at
Prato is a 'Nativity,' now to be seen in the
refectory of the convent of San Domenico in
that city. His frescoes in the choir of tho
cathedral of Prato represent events in the lives



liippi



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Lippi



of SS. John the Baptist and Stephen. They are
remarkable for their harmonious grouping and
colour, as well as for the richness of the costumes,
head-dresses, and other accessories. After frequent
interruptions, these frescoes were completed about
1468 by the one which represents the ' Death of St.
Stephen,' in which he introduced the portraits of
Cai-lo de' Medici, Fra Diamante, and himself. He
afterwards went to Spoleto, where he commenced
the frescoes which adorn the choir of the cathedral.
They represent the 'Annunciation,' the ' Nativity,'
and the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' and were com-
pleted after Era Filippo's_ death in 1469 by his
pupil and assistant, Era Diamante. Examples of
this artist's work may be found as under :

Berlin. Gallery. The "Virgin and Child.

„ „ The Virgin adoring the Child.

„ The Virgin as the Mother of

Pity.
Florence. iS. Lorenzo. The Annunciation.

„ Uffiei. The Virgin adoring the Infant,

borne by two Angels.
„ Pitti Pal. The Virgin, with SS. Jcachim and

Anne.
„ Academy. The Nativity.

„ „ Coronation of the Virgin.

Liverpool. Institution. Martyrdom, of St. Sebastian. '

„ „ Temptation of a Bishop.

London. Nat. Gall. The Annunciation.

„ „ St. John the Baptist with six

Saints.
„ „ The Virgin seated.

„ „ Vision of St, Bernard,

„ „ The Virgin and Child, with Angels

and Saints. (Formerly in San
Spirito, Florence.)
Munich. Gallery. The Annunciation.

„ „ The same {smaller),

„ „ The Virgin and Child.

Paris. Louvre. The Nativity.

„ „ The Virgin and Child.

Prato. Collegiale. Scenes from the Life of St, John

the Baptist.
„ Scenes from the Life of St.
Stephen.
„ Municipal Gall. The Virgin giving her Girdle to

St, Thomas.
„ S. Domenico. The Nativity.

Borne. Lateran Gall. Coronation of the Virgin.
Spoleto. Cathedral. Frescoes.

LIPPI, PiLippo, called Filippino, to distinguish
him from his father, was the natural son of Era
Eilippo, a Carmelite, and Lucrezia Buti, a novice.
He was born about 1457 at Prato, and received
his early education in that city, and after the
death in 1469 of Era Eilippo, whose relatives
were also living there, he came under the care
of Era Diamante, and received his first lessons in
painting from him, and not from Botticelli, as has
been pretended. This can be judged from his
early paintings, and from contemporary records.
In 1480 he painted, by commission of Pietro del
Pugliese, the 'Vision of St. Bernard,' which is
now above the altar in a chapel of the Badia,
Elorence. Another altar-piece, executed at about
this time, is the one in the church of San Michele,
Lucca, representing 'SS. Rooh, Sebastian, Jerome,
and Helena.' Both the above-mentioned pictures
strongly .recall Era Filippo's style. Between 1482
and 1490 he painted the frescoes in the Brancacci
chapel in the Carmine, Elorence, where Masaccio
had already commenced the decorations, and -left
unfinished the fresco representing ' St. Peter re-
storing a Boy to Life,' which was completed by
Eilipnino. Ills own frescoes are those of the
' Visit of St. Paul to St. Peter in Prison,' ' St. Peter
liberated from Prison,' ' SS. Peter and Paul before



the Proconsul,' and the 'Crucifixion of St. Peter.'
That he was highly esteemed by the Elorentines of
his time is proved by the fact that he was chosen
by the Council in 1482 to replace Perugino in the
decorations of the hall of the Palazzo Pubblico.
The ' Madonna and Child, between SS. Victor,
John the Baptist, Bernard, and Zanobius,' painted
in 1485, and originally intended for the Sala degli
Otto of the Palazzo, is now in the Uffizi G-allery.
In 1487 he received the commission to adorn the
Strozzi chapel in Santa Maria Novella, but seems
to have left that work unfinished and gone to
Rome, where he entered the service of Cardinal -
Oliviero CarafEa, whose chapel in Santa Maria
sopra Minerva he embellished with frescoes repre-
senting different scenes from the life of St. Thomas
Aquinas. These frescoes were probably finished
by about 1493, when Eilippino returned to
Florence, and in 1495 painted for the Confraternity
of San Francesco at Palco, near Prato, the altar-
piece of 'Christ appearing to the Virgin,' which
has upon the gradiiio the Body of Christ in the
tomb, and SS. Francis, Dominick, Clara, and others.
This painting is now in the Munich Gallery.
In 1498 he adorned a tabernacle at Prato with a
' Virgin and Child, between Angels and Saints,'
and in that same year he formed one of the
Council called to decide the question of the
repair of the lantern above the cupola of Santa
Maria del Fiore, that had been struck by lightning.
Both Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi likewise
assisted at these deliberations. Soon afterwards he
recommenced and finished the frescoes at the
Strozzi chapel, which represent various scenes in
the lives of SS. John the Evangelist and Philip.
These all show a certain decline in the artist's
powers in their general design, colour, and execu-
tion. Filippino died at Florence in 1504, and was
buried in the church of San Michele Bisdomini.
Other works by him are :

Berlin. Gallery, Portrait of a Youth.

„ „ Christ Crucified, between three

Angels.
Bologna. S. Domenico. St. Catharine before the Virgin.

1501.
Florence. Uffizi. Madonna with Saints. 1485.

Badia. The Vision of St. Bernard.
1480.
„ S.Donato. The Adoration of the Magi, 1496.

„ Corsini Gall. The Virgin and Child, with St.
John.
London. Nat. Gall. The Adoration of the Magi.
„ „ The Virgin and Child.

„ „ St. Francis in Glory.

Lucca. S. Michele. Four Saints,
Naples. Pal. S. Angelo. Holy Family.
Eome. «. Maria sopra ) ^j^^ Legend of St. Thomas.
Minerva, j °

LIPPI, GlACOMO, called Giacomo or Giacomone
DA BuDEio, and Giacomo della Lippa, born at
Budrio, flourished at the end of the 16th century.
He was a pupil of Lodovico Carracci, but displayed
more power of execution than genius. Among
his works was a set of frescoes taken from the
' History of the Virgin,' which he executed for the
church of the Annunciation at Bologna.

LIPPI, LOEENZO, was born at Florence in 1606,
and studied painting under Rosselli. Lorenzo
Lippi, like his friend Salvator Rosa, divided his
time between painting and poetry. His poem of
'II Maltnantile racquistato,' though perhaps less
read than the ' Satires ' of Salvator, is more elegant,
and is one of the most admired productions in the
Italian language. In choosing a prototype worthy

63



Icippo



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Iiiszewska



of his imitation in painting, his taste and feeling
directed him to Santo di Titi. His pictures are
not very scarce in Florence, though he passed
several years at Innsbruck, where he was painter
to the court. He died at Florence in 1664. Among
his best works may be mentioned :

Florence. TXffiei. The Crucifixion.

„ 8ig. Gain. The Triumph of David.

Vienna. Gallery. Christ with the Woman of

Samaria,

LIPPO, a Florentine painter, was born in
1357. His earliest work was the decoration of a
chapel in the convent of San Benedetto in his
native city. From Florence this artist was invited
to Arezzo, where he decorated the chapel of the
Magi in the church of Sant' Antonio with a fresco
representing the ' Adoration of the Magi. ' In the
Cathedral also he decorated two chapels. At a
later period he executed many works at Bologna,
and then returned to Florence, where he executed
several scenes from the life of St. John the Evan-
gelist in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. He
also worked largely in mosaic. None of this
master's works now remain, as most of them
perished in the siege of Florence. He was of a
quarrelsome disposition, and having used some
oti'ensive words to an adversary in a law-suit, he
was stabbed by him and died about 1430.

LIPPO DI DALMASIO (or delle Madonne).

See SCANNABEOOHI.

LIPPOLD, Feanz, a German portrait painter,
was born at Hamburg in 1688. He was instructed
by Denner, and employed at several German courts
until he settled at Frankfort in 1720. He died
there in 1768. Among his best portraits are :

The Emperor Charles VII. 1742.
The Emperor Francis I. 1745.
The Empress Maria Theresa.

LIPS, JoHANN Heinbich, was born at Kloten,
near Zurich, in 1758, and was destined for the
surgical profession ; but his inclination for art
caused him to abandon that intention, and he
studied design under Lavater, attending the
Academy at Mannheim in 1780, and six months
afterwards that of Diisseldorf , where he executed
his first plate, representing the ' Martyrdom of St,
Sebastian,' after Van Dyck. With his 'Antiochus
in Love with his Mother Stratonice,' he was
received a member of the Academy. He visited
Rome twice, in 1783 and 1786, in which last time
he began to paint historical subjects in water-
colours, and his copies after the old masters are
very faithfully executed. Circumstances forced
him to return to engraving, and among his 1447
plates there is not one of inferior quality. From
1789 to 1794 he was professor at the Academy of
Design at Weimar, but on account of his health he
was obliged to return to Zurich, where he died in
1817. Among the most important of his plates
may be mentioned :

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Annihale Cairacci.

The Bacchanal ; after JV. Foussin.

Charlotte Corday ; after Bria.

Portraits of Goethe, Wieland, and Ludwig Hess.

LIPS, JoHANN Jakob, the son and pupil of Johann
Heinrioh Lips, was born at Zurich in 1790. He
studied at Munich, whence he returned to his native
town in 1818 ; he there committed suicide in 1833
through disappointment over a plate on which he
had worked for years. He was an engraver of
ability, and executed various historical subjects
and portraits the best of which are :

64



Portrait of the Crown-Prince Louis of Bavaria.
Portrait of the poet Hebel.
St. John ; after Giulio Romano.

LIRIOS, Buonavbntuea. See Ligli.

LIS, Jan, called Pan, a Dutch painter, was born
at Hoorn in 1570. He was a pupil of Hendrik
Qoltzius at Haarlem, and imitated his style ex-
ceedingly well. He afterwards travelled, and
visited Paris, Rome, and Venice. On his return
to his native country he found plenty of em-
ployment, but his intemperate habits led him to
neglect his art. He after a time resolved again
to travel, and visit his friend Sandrart at Rome ;
but stopping at Venice, he died there of the plague
in 1629. His paintings represent festivals, pea-
sant life, masquerades, and nymphs bathing.
Among his best paintings are :

Cassel. Gallery. Sailors in an Inn.

„ „ Italian Peasants playing at Mora.

Dresden. Gallery. The Penitent Magdalen.

„ „ The Lute Player.

"^'""- rtif^^js*- J-°-« - '"^^ WMemess.
„ „ Adam and Eve lamenting over the

Body of Cain,
„ „ The Temptation of St. Anthony.

LIS, Jan van dee. See Van dee Lys.

LISCORNET, Jakob, was a native of Dantsic,
who flourished in the first part of the 17th century.
He painted historical subjects, and died in 1646.

LISEBETTEN, Pietee van, (or Leysebetten,)
a Flemish engraver, was born at Brussels about
the year 1610. In conjunction with Jan van
Troyen, he engraved part of the plates for the
Teniers Gallery. Among others are the follow-
ing:

The Portrait of David Teniers the elder ; after P. van

Mol.
Jupiter and Danae ; after Titian.
The Marriage of St, Catharine ; after Paolo Veronese.
The Visitation • of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth ; after

Palma Vecchio.
The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus and St. John ; after

the same.
Cupid presenting Fruit to Venus ; after Paris Bordone.
Diana and Endymion ; after the same.

LISKA, Johann Christoph, (or Lisohka,) a
painter, whose father was a government ofBcial
at Breslau, in 1660 executed some frescoes in
Prague. Several of his pictures are to be found
in the churches of Bohemia. He was living in 1692.

LISMANN, Johann Anton. See Eismann.

LISSANDRINO. See Magnasco, Alessandeo.

LIST, Geoeg Nikolads, a native of Ulm, was a
painter of portraits, and worked also at the court
at Stuttgart. He died after 1657. The following
portraits by him were engraved :

The Duchess of Wiirtemberg ; hy E. G. Heiss.
Eberhard III,, Duke of Wiirtemberg ; by Ph. Kilian,
The Theologian Schubels ; by Bembold.

LISTER, Maetin, a draughtsman and engraver
of natural history subjects, was born at RadclifEe,
in Buckinghamshire, about 1638. He graduated
M.D., and practised at York and afterwards in
London, where he became physician to Queen
Anne. He died in 1711. Assisted by his daughters,
Anna and Susanna Lister, in the etchings, ha
published :

' Historia Animalium Angliffi,' 1678.
' Historia Couchyliorum.' 1685-93.

LISZEWSKA, Anna Doeothea, afterwards
Theebusch, was born at Berlin in 1722. She was



Ziiszewska



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



liivensz



first instructed in painting by her father, Georg
Liszevvski. She went to Stuttgart in 1761, where
she painted portraits. Shortly afterwards she
became a member of the Institute at Bologna, and
then court painter at Mannheim. Subsequently
she returned to Berlin, and executed several
historical sketches. In 1766 she visited Paris,
and was received a member of the Academy in
1767, as well as of that at Vienna. She returned
to Berlin in 1770, and died in 1782. Among her
best productions are :

Ariadne iu Naxos. (For the Archduke Charles Eugene

of WuHemherg.)
Diana returning from the Chase. (For Frederick the

Greats King of Prussia.)
Her own Portrait. 1773. {Brunswick Gallery.)
A Man holding a Glass of Wine. {Louvre, Faris.)

LISZEWSKA, Anna Rosina, an elder sister of
Anna Dorothea Liszewska, was born at Berlin
in 1716, and was also instructed by her father.
"She was patronized by the Princess of Anbalt-
Zerbst at Stettin, whose portrait she painted when
herself in her fourteentli year. In 1741 she
married the painter David Mathieu, but he died in
1755. After this she painted in the Salon des
Beaut^s at Zerbst forty of the most beautiful
women. In 1760 she married her second husband,
H. von Gaso of Berlin, and in 1764 received a
handsome pension at Brunswick. In 1766 she
travelled in Holland, and was received in 1769 a
member of the Academy at Dresden. She died in
1783. Her best paintings are :

Monime in the act of throwing off the Eoyal Diadem.
{For the Buke of Brunswick.)

Artemisia.

Portrait of a Lady (Signora Branconi ?). 1770. (^Bruns-
wick Gallery.)

LISZEWSKA, Friedbrika Julia, born at Dessau
in 1772, was the pupil of her father, whose name
also is stated to have been Georg Liszewski, and
with whom she came to Berlin in 1792. She
painted the portraits of her father and of the
Turliish Ambassador at Berh'n ; also pictures of
a girl reading, another Icnitting, and a third
holding a pigeon, for the Duke of Mecklenburg-
Schwerin. She was living in 1838.

LISZEWSKA, Julia, who was born m 1724, and
died in 1794, has left some portraits and family
scenes.

LISZEWSKI, Christoph Fribdrich Rbinhold,
the son of Georg Liszewski, and brother of Anna
Dorothea and Anna Rosina Liszewska, was born
at Berlin in 1725, and was probably instructed by
his father. He was court painter at Dessau in
1752, worked at Dresden in 1768, visited Berlin
in 1772, and became in 1779 court painter to the
Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin at Ludwigslust,
where he died in 1794. He excelled in por-
traiture, which he liked to represent by candle-
light, and in which branch he was most successful.
Among his best performances may be mentioned
the portrait of Eugene, Prince of Anhalt.

LISZEWSKI, Jbrzy, (or Georg,) wns born at
Olesko in Poland in 1674, and was first in the
employ of Eosander, an architect, wlio, seeing his
talent, set him to study painting. He established
himself in Berlin, and died there in 1750. The
following portraits by him were engraved :

A. de VignoUes, the Mathematician ; hy J. J. Hcdd.

Prince Friedrich August of Anhalt ; by J. M. Berni-
geroth.

Prince Friedrich of Hesse-Oassel ; hy Boshach.



LITHUAED.

VOL. II.



See LiUTHAED.



LITSCHAUER, Karl Joseph, an Austrian
painter, was born at Vienna in 1830. He was first
instructed- by Waldmiiller of that city, but studied
afterwards at the Academy of Diisseldorf under
Tidemand and by himself. After staying some
time in his native city he returned to Diisseldorf,
and became from about the year 1850 a follower
of that school. He died at Diisseldorf in 1871.
His best known works are :

Diisseldorf. Serr \ Scenes from the Thirty Years'

„ Brewer, j "War.



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 17 of 201)