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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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P. de Madrazo, 'Quelques Velazquez au Musee

de Madrid' ('L'Art' for 24th November and 1st

December, 1878).
W. Stirling (Sir 'William Sterling-Maxwell, Bt.), ' Annals

of the Artists of Spain ' (London, 1848).
W. Stirling, 'Velazquez and his Works' (Loudon,

Cumberland, 'Anecdotes of Eminent Painters in

Spain' (London, 1782).
Richard Ford, ' Handbook for Travellers in Spain '

(London, 1855).
Richard Ford, The Paintings of Spain ('Quarterly

Review ' for June 1848).

Richard Ford, 'Velazquez ' ('Penny Cyclopedia').

Edward Stowe, ' Velazquez ' (London, 1881).

Charles B. Curtis, 'Velazquez and Murillo, a de-
scriptive and historical catalogue of their works'
(London and New York, 1883).

Passavant, ' Die Ohristliche Kunst in Spanieu ' (Leipsie,

Justi, 'Jahrbuoh der K. Preussischen Kunstsamm-
lungen ' for 1887. y. A.

VELAZQUEZ MINAYA, Francisco, a knight of
the order of Santiago, painted familiar subjects for
his amusement. He resided at Madrid about 1630.

VELDE. See Van db Velde.

VBLDENAER, Johann, a Dutch engraver on
wood, and printer, flourished from 1447 to 1483.
He was perhaps a native of Germany, as Italian
writers call him ' Giovanni di Westfalia.' He
printed the book called 'Fasciculus Temporum,'
in Latin, ornamented with wood-cuts, at Louvain,
in 1474 ; ' Caroli Viruli formulae Epistolarae,' in
1476 ; the ' Speculum Humanje Salvationis,' in
folio, perhaps as early as 1480, also in quarto, at
Culembourg, in 1483 ; and ' Historia Sant» Crucis,'
at the same place, in the same year. The ' Specu-
lum Humane Salvationis ' supplies the link between
the block-books and books printed entirely with
movable metal types, and illustrated with cuts
containing figures. Whether Veldenaer really de-
signed and engraved the cuts that ornament those
books is a question that has exercised the ingenuity
of many abl e writers. He certainly sawed in two the
wood-cuts from the folio edition of the ' Speculum
Humanas Salvationis,' to get them into his quarto
edition. For fuller accounts of Veldenaer see
Willshire, ' Introduction to Ancient Prints.' Lon-
don, 1877.

VELI, Benedetto. This artist was a native
of Florence, and flourished in the 17th century.
He painted history with some reputation, and Lanzi
mentions in favourable terms an 'Ascension' by
him in the cathedral at Pistoja. '

VELIJN, Philippus, designer and engraver, was
born at Leyden in 1786. He studied at the school
'.iEmula Naturae,' and under Delfos the engraver,
but developed his talents principally by himself.
He passed eight years in Paris, and afterwards
became a member of the Academies of Amsterdam
and Antwerp. He died in 1836. Among his best
plates were the battles of Waterloo, Quatre Bras,
and Esslingen, and several portraits.

VBLLANI, Francesco, a Modenese painter of
the school of Stringa, born about 1688, died in
1768. He left many works in Modena and its

VELLATRANO, Virg. di Vezzo. See Vezzo
and under VouET, Simon.

VELTRONI, Stefano, an Italian painter of the
16th century, a relation of Giorgio Vasari, whom
he accompanied to Naples, Bologna, and Florence,
and with whom he worked.

VELY, Anatolb, a French painter, born at
Ronsoy (Somme) in 1838, studied first at Valen-
ciennes, and afterwards in Paris at the 6cole des
Beaux Arts under Signol. He devoted himself
chiefly to portraits, but not seldom painted subject
pictures of a decorative kind. Several of his works
found their way to America ; in the Corcoran
Art Gallery, Washington, there is 'The Talking
Well ' by him. His death took place in Paris,
January 10th, 1882.

VENANZI, Giovanni Battista, was a native of
Pesaro, and was born about the year 1628. He
was for some time a disciple of Guido, but after-




wards studied under Simone Cantarini, and perhaps
under Gennari, whose style he closely followed.
In the church of SS. Gervasio e Protasio, at Bologna,
is a ' Descent of the Holy Ghost '; and in the church
of S. Antonio, at Pesaro, two subjects from the
life of that saint, by him.

VENDRAMINI, Giovanni, an eminent engraver,
was born at Roncade, near Bassano, in 1769. He
pursued his studies in his own country till the age
of nineteen, when he came to London, and com-
pleted his artistic education under Bartolozzi. In
1802 he married an English wife, and in 1805
he went to Russia, and spent two years in that
country. He was patronized by the Emperor
and the court, and his talents so highly appreci-
ated, that he was refused a passport when he was
desirous of returning to England. He, however,
with the assistance of his friend, the Duke of
Saracapriolo, at that time Neapolitan ambassador,
contrived to escape, disguised as a courier charged
with despatches. His departure was hastened, as
he told Stanley, the last editor of this diction-
ary, by an accident that happened to a large
cameo, 'Alexander and Olympia,' from which he
had to engrave a plate for the emperor. On his
return to England he engraved several popular
pictures by contemporary painters ; but those on
which his reputation stands are after works by the
old masters. Among these are, ' The Vision of S.
Catherine,' after Paolo Veronese ; ' S. Sebastian,'
after Spagnoletto ; ' Leda,' after Leonardo da
Vinci ; and lastly, the ' Raising of Lazarus,' after
Sebastiano del Piombo. Vendramini was a very
accurate draughtsman, and frequently engraved
from a picture without making a preparatory draw-
ing. He died in London, Eebruary 8th, 1839.

VENENTI, GiULio Cesaee, was a Bolognese
gentleman, who was a great admirer of art, and
studied it with the zeal of a professor. He was
born at Bologna about the year 1609, and was
instructed in design by Pilippo Brizio, a pupil of
Guide Reni. Zani places his death in 1697. There
are several spirited etchings by Venenti; among
them the following :

The Guardian Angel ; after Dom. Maria Canuti,
Tancred and Olorinda ; after the same.
The Virgin of the Kose ; after Parmiyiano.
A Landscape, with the Holy Family; after Annilale

VENETIIS, Chataeinus db, was living in the
15th century, and was both a painter and a carver
of crucifixes. The church of Sant' Agostino of
Verruchio formerly possessed a crucifix carved by
him, and painted by Nicolaus Paradixi, or Semite-
colo, in 1404. Count Orsi of Anoona possesses an
altar-piece with the Madonna between four saints,
and a Crucifixion between six saints, both signed
by Chatarinus.

VENETUS, RoL. See Lefbvee.


VENETZIANOFP. See Wenetzianoff.

VBNEVAULT, Nicolas, miniature painter, was
born at Dijon in 1697. He studied in Paris, and
became an Academician in 1752. He was also a
member of the Academy of St. Luke, and sent
many of his portraits and miniatures to its exhibi-
tions. In 1724 he was commissioned to paint por-
traits of the princes and princesses of Lorraine at
Lun^ville. He died in Paris in 1775.

VENEZIANO, Agostino. See Musi.

VENEZIANO, Antonio, (Antonio Feancisci

DE Venetiis,) an Italian painter of the 14th cen-
tury, whose family name was probably Lonqhi.
The earliest authentic records of him are in the
archives of Siena, which show that he and Andrea
Vanni worked together on the ceilings of the
cathedral in 1370. Baldinucci asserts him to
have been a Florentine by birth, but Vasari calls
him a Venetian settled in Florence. In 1374 he
was registered in the Apothecaries' Guild, which
included painters, of that city. In 1386 he painted
the three lower compartments in the series of six
frescoes illustrating the life of S. Raniero, on the
walls of the Campo Santo, at Pisa ; they are now
nearly obliterated ; the three upper compartments
were the work of Andrea da Plorentia, and the
whole series was, until recently, ascribed to Simone
Martini. He also restored Lorenzetti's frescoes
there. At Palermo there is a picture painted by
him in 1388, for the Compagnia di SS. Niocol6 and
Francesco, representing the Virgin and S. John
in grief. The date of Antonio's death is unknown.

VENEZIANO, Baetolommeo, was a pupil of the
Bellini, and lived in the early part of the 16th
century. Of his life and death no records remain,
and only four authentic pictures by him are kno^vn.
The Locchis Carrara Gallery, Bergamo, has a
' Virgin and Child,' dated 1505 ; Colonel Carew, of
Somersetshire, possessed a picture dated 1506; the
late Mr. Barker had a portrait of a Lady, dated
1530 ; and in the National Gallery, London, is the
portrait of a Young Man, dated 1646.

VENEZIANO, BoNiFAzio. See Bonifazio II.

VENEZIANO, Carlo. See Saeaceni.

VENEZIANO, Chataeino. See Venetiis.

VENEZIANO, DoMENico di Baetolommeo, was
probably born in the early part of the 15th cen-
tury, of Venetian parents. He signed himself,
and is mentioned in records, as a Venetian, but
his works have little in common with the school of
Venice. Judging from existing documents, and
from his style, he spent his early years in Florence.
In a letter from him to Piero de' Medici, dated
from Perugia in 1438, where he likewise resided
for many years, he mentions his long connection
with the fortunes of the Medici family, and begs
to be allowed to paint an altar-piece for the head
of that house. He was a' contemporary with Fra
Angelico and Fra Filippo, since those two artists
and himself are known to have valued the frescoes
of Buonfigli at Perugia. He worked at the decor-
ations of the Portinari chapel in Santa Maria
Novella, Florence, from 1439 to 1445, and had
as -his assistants Piero della Francesca and Bioci
di Lorenzo. It is certain that whilst employed
there he used linseed oil as his medium, since the
hospital books of that date make many allusions to
this item in his expenses. The Uffizi contains an
enthroned Virgin and Child, with SS. John the
Baptist, Francis, Nicholas, and Lucy, painted by
him, which shows that he employed other vehicles
than those previously in use. His latter days were
spent in Florence, where he died May 15th, 1461,
four years after the death of Andrea del Castagno,
whom Vasari accuses of having been his murderer.
Very few of this artist's works are now in existence.
The most important is an enthroned Madonna,
in the National Gallery, with two heads of saints
which formerly belonged to it. All three are in
fresco, and were transferred to canvas from a
tabernacle in the Canto de' Carnesecchi, Florence.
The chief picture is signed at the base Domicus,
D. Venechs. p. Signer Morelli further ascribes to




Verbeeok '

him the frescoes of Saints Francis and John the
Baptist in the church of Santa Croce, Florence,
there attributed to Andrea del Castagno.

VENEZIANO, DoNATO, an artist living at Venice
between 1438 and 1460, was probably a pupil of
JacoBello. A winged Lion between SS. Jerome and
Augustine, in the magazine of the Palazzo Pub-
blico, Venice, is all that is now known of his work.

VENEZIANO, Lorenzo, flourished between the
years 1367 and 1379. Very little is known of
him. His earliest altar-piece was painted for the
high altar of the church of Sant' Antonio di Cas-
tello, and is now in the Academy at Venice. It
is dated 1358, and represents the 'Annunciation,'
with a portrait of the donor, Domenico Lion, the
Christ in benediction, and figures of various Saints,
and was painted in conjunction with Francesco
Bissolo. The Academy also possesses an altar-
piece by him executed in 1371. It consisted of
five panels, on which an ' Annunciation ' and six
figures of saints were painted, but it is now broken
up into separate works. We may also name :

Venice. Correr Museum. Saviour Enthroned, with Saints
and Angels. 1369.

VENEZIANO, Niccol6. See Nelli.

VENEZIANO, Paolo. See Paolo Veneziano,


VENEZIANO, Rolando. See Lefjivee.

VENEZIANO, Sbbastiano. See Luciani.

VENEZIANO, Stefano, was a contemporary of
Lorenzo Veneziano and Semitecolo, and painted in
the same manner. He signed his works Stefan
Plebanus Sanct* Aqnetis, and is hence supposed
to have been parish priest (piovano) of Sant'
Agnese, at Venice ; he flourished in the latter ^art
of the 14th century. The following works are
ascribed to him :
Paris. Zouvre. Madonna; inscribed MCCCLni

M. OT.

Venice. Academy. Coronation of the Virgin. 1381,

{The central pa-nel of an altar-
piece, of which the smaller
portions are ly Semitecolo.)
„ " Correr Museum. Virgin Enthroned, holding the
Child Jesus. 1369,

VENIER, Nicholas, is mentioned by Strutt as
the engraver of a set of twelve plates, representing
the iVIonths of the Year, after Bassano,

VENIUS, See Veen.

VENNB. See Van dee Vennb.

VENNEMAN, Chaeles Feedinand, painter, was
born at Ghent in 1803. In his early youth he
studied at the Ghent Academy, and began .his
career as a decorative painter. In 1836 he deter-
mined to devote himself to easel pictures, and com-
pleted his training under De Braekeleer in Antwerp.
He painted homely interiors, drinking scenes, &c.,
after the style of Ostade, which had considerable
success. His ' Card-Players ' is in the gallery of
his native town, and there is a ' Peasant Scene ' by
him in the New Pinaoothek at Munich, He died
in 1875.

VENTDRINI, Giovanni Feancesco, was born
at Rome about the year 1619, From the style of
his engraving, it is probable that he was a disciple
ol Giovanni Battista Galestruzzi. He etched several
plates from the works of Italian masters, among
them the following : *

A set of Hates ; after Foliiaro da Caravaggio.
Diana and her Nymphs ; after Domenichino.
The Pulpit of S. Peter's; after Bernini.
A partial bird's-eye View of Eome.

VENUSTI, Marcello, was bom at Gomo in
1515, and was a scholar of Perino del Vaga ; but
he is chiefly indebted for his reputation to his
study of Michelangelo, and to being employed by
that master as assistant. He also executed several
original works in the churches and public buildings
of Eome. Cardinal Alessandro Farnese employed
him to copy the ' Last Judgment ' of Michelangelo
on a small scale, which he accomplished so well
that Buonarroti engaged him to paint an ' Annun-
ciation ' from his design for the Capella de' Cesi, in
the church of the Pace, The copy of the 'Last
Judgment' is now at Naples. In the Palazzo
Borghese there is a fine 'Christ bearing His Cross '
by him, from a design by Michelangelo, A
' Prayer on the Mount of Olives ' is in Sant' Iguazio
at Viterbo, and a ' Holy Family ' in the National
Gallery, Perhaps the best of his more original
pictures, however, are: 'Christ expelling the
Money-Changers,' also in the National Gallery;
and ' Christ in Hades,' in Palazzo Colonna, Eome.
He died in 1579,

VERA, Cristobal de, born at Cordova in 1577,
It is probable that he studied under Cespedes in
that city. In 1602 he removed to Castile, and be-
came a lay brother of the Hieronymites of Lupiana,
painting eight ' Stations ' of the Cross for their clois-
ters. His nephew, Juan de Vera, had commenced
his novitiate in the convent of La Sisla, at Toledo,
when he was there visited by his uncle Cristobal.
At the end of the year Juan left the convent
without assuming the cowl ; but Cristobal remained
to paint two altar-pieces for the church, a ' S.
Jerome' and a 'S. Mary Magdalene.' He died
soon afterwards, in the year 1621, and was buried
in the convent.

VERA CABEZA DE VACA, Feancisoo, a Spanish
portrait painter, and pupil of J. Martinez, born at
Calatayud in 1637, was page to Don John of
Austria. He died in 1700.

VfiRARD, Antoine, an illuminator, wood en-
graver, printer and bookseller, who flourished in
Paris from about 1485 to 1512. Scarcely any-
thing is known of his life beyond the facts that in
1499 he occupied a shop with the sign of S. John
the Evangelist on the Pont Notre Dame, and that
he afterwards lived successively in the Carrefour
S. S^v^rin, in the Rue S. Jacques, and in the Rue
Neuve Notre Dame. He illustrated and published
a miscellaneous variety of works, among which the
most famous are the following : ' Chronique de S.
Denis' (1493), 'L'art de bienMourir,' 'Le Eomant
de la Eose,' 'La L^gende Dor^e en Franjoys,'
and ' Les Heures de Notre Dame en Franooys et
en Latin,' Of this last he published many editions.
He is also supposed to have illuminated a ' Danse
Macabre, avec les Trois vifs et les Trois morts,'
printed on vellum, of which only two copies exist.
Of his ' Figures du Vieil Testament et du Nouvel,'
only one copy, a splendid volume printed on vellum,
is known. It is in the British Museum.
VEEAT, Daeius. See Vaeotaei,
VEEBEECK, Coenelis, a Dutch painter of
marines, who was inscribed on the books of the
Haarlem Guild in 1610, He was the father of
Pieter Cornelisz Verbeeck.

VEEBEECK, FEANgois Xavier Henri, a Flemish
military painter, was born at Antwerp in 1686. His
master was P. Casteels, whose daughter he after-
wards married. He was received into the Guild of
S. Luke in 1709, and from 1741 to 1747 was dean
of the Fraternity, and one of the Directors of




the Antwerp Academy. He had two daughters,
Elizabeth (b. 1720) and Annb (b. 1727), who
became artists, and were his pupils. He died in
1756. There is by him :

Antwerp. Museum. State visit to the ' Senuent de

rEscrime.' 1713.

VERBEECK, Fbans, a painter of Mechlin in the
16th century, was a pupil of Frans Minnebroer.
He painted Scriptural scenes, peasants' marriages,
&c., in the style of Jerom Bos, but in distemper.
He became free of the Guild of S. Luke in 1531,
was dean in 1563, and died in 1670. His brother
Philip entered the Guild at Mechlin in 1525.

VERBEECK, Jan, called Hans of Mechlin,
flourished in that city in the second part of the
16th century. He was probably the son of Frans
Verbeeck. He took part in the decorative works
for the entry of Albert and Isabella into Mechhn
in 1599, and was granted the title of painter to
their Highnesses. He was still living in 1619.

VERBEECK, Pietek Cobnelisz, a painter and
etcher of Haarlem, bonj probably about 1599,
was the son of one Coenelis Verbeeck. He
entered the Guild at Alkmaar in 1635, and became
a master at the Hague in 1645. The subjects of
his pictures were tavern scenes, cavalry combats,
halts of travellers, hunting parties, landscapes, &c.
He has also left drawings in chalk and Indian ink,
and eight plates (1619-39) etched in the style of
Rembrandt. Pictures by him are in the Museums
of Berlin, Cassel, and Stockholm. BruUiot describes
a print of ' A Shepherd standing,' signed P. G. Ver-
beecq, and dated 1639. The figure wears a bonnet
ornamented with a feather, and is dressed in a
short cassock, with a calabash on his right side,
and holds a crook ; he is accompanied by a dog.
Two small busts, in ovals, of a Man and a Woman,
in Oriental costume, have the same signature and

VERBIUS, Aenold, (Vbbbuis, or Verbices,)
called ' the Libertine,' a painter of history, por-
traits, and lascivious subjects, was born at Dor-
drecht about 1646, and died in Friesland in 1704.

VERBOEOKHOVEN, Charles Louis, painter,
the brother of Eugene, was born at Warneton, in
Bast Flanders, February 6th, 1802. He learnt
drawing and modelling from his father, and devoting
himself to marine painting, produced many studies
of English, French, and Dutch coast scenery. In
the Antwerp Museum there is a picture of a stormy
sea, with drifting vessels, by him ; signed Louis
Verhoechhoven. Other works are in the Pavilion at
Haarlem and in the Courtrai Museum.

VERBOEOKHOVEN, EugJinb Joseph, painter,
born at Warneton, in East Flanders, June 8th, 1798,
was the son of Barthflemy Verboeokhoven, the
sculptor, and was taught design and modelling by
his father. The practice of modelling animals in
clay was continued by him after he began to work
as a painter, and to it may be attributed much of
the correctness in the rendering of animal life and
form which is observable in his pictures. His sub-
jects are principally horses, cattle, and dogs in
landscapes, after the manner of Potter and Omme-
ganck. He practised at Brussels, where he had an
atelier for his pupils, and gained various honours
from the Belgian Government. He died at Brussels,
January 19th, 1881. Well-known works by him
are :

Amsterdam. S. Museum. Three landscapes with animals.
Brussels. Museum Sheep surprised by a Storm.

Hamburg. Eunsthalle. Hock of Sheep and other

London. S.Kensirujton M, Landscape with sheep and

Munich. N. FinaeotheJc. A Sheep-fold.

The Antwerp Museum has a ' Flood Tide,' signed
by him, in which the marine background was
painted by his brother, Charles Louis.

VBRBOOM, Adrlaen or Abraham H., (or Van
Boom,) was a native of Holland, and flourished in
the third quarter of the 17th century. He painted
landscapes in a style in which characteristics of
Waterloo, Both, and Jakob Euysdael are to be
traced. His pictures are occasionally enriched
with figures and animals by A. van de Velde,
Wouwerman, and Lingelbach. The dates of his
birth and death are unknown. Examples of his
work bearing dates from 1649 to 1663 are to be
seen at Amsterdam, Brunswick, Brussels, Dresden,
and Rotterdam. The Dulwich Gallery possesses a
good Verboom in a ' Church near a wood,' figures
preparing for the chase ; the figures and animals
are by Lingelbach. He has also left a couple of
etchings :

Le Hameau. A hut in a wooded landscape.

La Piece d'eau. A landscape with a sheet of water.

VERBRUGGE, Gijsbbrt Andriesz, was born
at Leyden in 1633, according to Immerzeel, but
Fiissli and Zani say twenty years later. He was a
scholar of Gerard Dou, but confined himself chiefly
to portrait painting. He passed some time in
England, but returned to his own country and
established himself at Delft, where he died in 1730.

VERBRUGGE, Jean Charles, painter, horn at
Bruges in 1756, was a pupil of J. Gaeremyn and of
L^gillon. In the Academy of Bruges there are
several of his works, which were generally farm-
yard interiors, with animals. He died in 1831.

VERBRUGGEN, Gaspae Pietbr, born at Ant-
werp in 1664, was the son and pupil of the elder
Gaspar Vbebrdggbn, a flower painter, who died
in 1680 or 1681. Having acquired considerable
reputation in his native city as a painter of flowers
and fruit, and having become dean of the Guild
there in 1691, Gaspar the younger established
himself at the Hague in 1706. The GrefBer Fagel
employed him, in conjunction with Matheus Ter-
westen, in the decoration of his hotel. The figures
were painted by Terwesten, and the festoons of
flowers and fruit, with the other ornaments, were
executed by Verbruggen. In 1708 he was made
a member of the Academy of the Hague, where,
during a residence of several years, he amassed a
competent fortune. He squandered his wealth,
however, and returning destitute to Antwerp, he
died there as a servant of the Guild in 1730. The
works of Verbruggen show much facility, but his
productions during the latter part of his life are
very inferior to those of an earlier date. The
Antwerp Museum has a flower-piece by him.

VERBRUGGEN, Hendrik. See Tebbedggen.

VERBUIS. See Verbius.

VERCHIO. See Civerchio.

VERCRUIJS. See Veekeuys.

VERDAEL. See Verdoel.

VERDE. See Santvooet, Ant.

VEEDEN, Mexstee von. See Mastee of

VERDIER, Feanqois, sometimes called Van
Hawken, a French historical painter, designer, and
engraver, was Dora in Paris in 1661. He was a





scholar of Le Brun, whose nieoe he married, and
in 1668 obtained the iirst prize for drawing. He
assisted Le Brun at Versailles, at Trianon, and in
the Apollo Gallery of the Louvre. He also copied
many works of his master. For his ' Hercules
with Geryon' he was admitted in 1678 to the
Academy, of which in 1684 he became a professor.
He painted 'The Resurrection of Lazarus' for
Notre Dame in 1677, and worked for many other
Paris churches. In 1698 he designed forty plates
from ' The History of Samson,' of which he himself
engraved four. He died in Paris, June 20th, 1730.
His drawings are numerous in France ; they are
chiefly in black or red chalk heightened with
white. There are pictures by him in the Louvre,
and in the Museums of Nantes, Orleans, and Rennes.

VERDIER, Marcel Antoine, painter, was born
in Paris in 1817. He studied at the Ecole des
Beaux Arts, and was also a pupil of Ingres. He
painted chiefly portraits, many of which appeared
at the Salon between 1835 and 1853. He died in
1856. The Museums of Arras and Montpellier own
pictures by him.

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 170 of 201)