Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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J. V. and M. being combined into a monogram.
For a complete list of pictures ascribed to him
see H. Havard, 'Van der Meer de Delft,' Paris,

VERMEERSCH, Ivo Ambros, was born at Mal-
deghem, near Ghent, in 1810. When a boy he
used to draw the old houses of his birthplace,
and after a term of military service, he studied
for an architectural painter under P. F. de Noter,
at the Academy. In 1841 he moved to Munich,
whence he made repeated tours in Italy. He died
in 1862. Among his best pictures are views of
the Fish Market and of churches and ruins in
Ghent, of the Market Place of Brunswick, and of
various corners in Bruges, Venice, Verona, &c.
Several of his pictures are in the New Pinacothek
at Munich.





VERJIEIJEN, Hendeik. This painter is be-
lieved to liave been the son of Jan Cornelis Ver-
meijen. He settled at Cambrai, and became the
ancestor of a long line of second-rate artists.

VERMEIJEN, Jan Coenelis, (Vermeyen, Vee-
MAYEN, Vermey,) — Called ' Juan de Mayo ' or
'Majo,' 'Hans May' or 'Jan May,' 'El Barbudo '
or 'Barbato,' and 'De Barbalonga' — was born at
Beverwijck, near Haarlem, about 1500. He was
probably the pupil of his father, Coenelis Ver-
meijen, who flourished in 1490. His work seems
to show that he visited Italy, and studied Raphael.
In 1529 he was at Cambrai, in the service of Mar-
garet of Austria, aunt of Charles V. At her death,
his ability recommended him (1534) to the pro-
tection of Charles V., whom be attended in many
of his expeditions. In 1635 he was present, as
engineer as well as artist, at the taking of Tunis,
where he made sketches of the most remarkable
events of the siege, from which he executed the
cartoons for a suite of tapestry now in the Palace
at Madrid. The sketches are now in the possession
of Queen Victoria ; the cartoons are in the Bel-
vedere. A second suite of ten tapestries, two being
omitted, was made from these cartoons in 1712, for
the Emperor Charles VI,, and are now at Schon-
brunn. He afterwards accompanied Charles to
Naples, Germany, and Flanders. Towards the
latter part of his life he principally worked at
Brussels and at Arras, where he painted picti:res
for the churches and public buildings, which are
favourably mentioned by Van Mander, They were
destroyed by the Iconoclasts. Prof. A. J. Wauters
lately discovered three oil pictures in the Marchese
Mansi's Gallery at Lucca, which he ascribes to
Vermeijen. They are similar to three of the above-
named cartoons, and represent the 'Taking of
Tunis,' the ' Battle of Pavia,' and the ' Taking of
Rome.' He died at Brussels in 1559.

Vermeijen's talents were distributed over his-
torical subjects, portraiture, and landscape. He
was also well skilled in mathematics and archi-
tecture. Many of the pictures he painted for
Charles V. are supposed to have perished in the
fire at the Prado in 1608. He was also remark-
able for the length of his beard ! This, though
the wearer was a tall man, used to trail on the
ground, and the Emperor, when in a playful mood,
would condescend to tread upon it 1 Hence the
names of Barbudo, Hans with the Beard, &c.

Vermeijen was an engraver. BruUiot describes
four of his etchings. He also gives his cipher,

thus, rp , which properly signifies Jean Cornelisz,

and is to be found on the following prints :

The Tirgin and Infant accompanied by an Angel. 1545.

A Man duped ; composition of several half-length
figures. At the bottom is inscribed. Sic Hispana Ve-
nus loculos excantat aiiuindo, sic fucata rapit bastia
Stvltus amans. 1545.

A young "Woman with a Cat, half-length profile. 1546.

A young "Woman seated on a Couch, apparently sewing.

We may also name :

Philip II. of Spain. (PMHppus Hex Anglorum.)

„ „ (Equestrian portrait,)

Henry II. of France. 1555.
Venus and Cupid.

VERMEULEN, Andeies, painter, and son of
Cornelis Vermeulen the younger, was born at
Dordrecht in 1763, and instructed by his father.
His subjects wore landscapes with figures, horses,

658 !-.&.,

and cattle. He also painted winter scenes, with
figures skating and otherwise amusing themselves
on the frozen canals of Holland. He died at
Amsterdam in 1814. The Rijks Museum and the
Copenhagen Gallery have some winter scenes by

VERMEULEN, Cornelis, the elder, a Flemish
engraver, was bom at Antwerp in 1644. In the
early part of his life he passed some time in France,
but afterwards chiefly resided in his native city.
There he engraved many plates, of which the best
are his portraits, for his drawing was not sufiBcienlly
correct for success in historical subjects. He worked
entirely with the graver, in a neat, clear style.
His death occurred at Antwerp in 1710. The
following are his best prints :

Anne Boleyn ; engraved for I. de Larrey's History of
England, Scotland, and Ireland.

Catherine Howard ; for the same.

Catherine Parr ; for the same.

Lady Jane Grey ; for the same.

Eobert, Earl of Leicester ; for the same.

Oliver Cromwell ; for the same.

"WiUiam III. ; for the same.

Marie Louise of Orleans ; after Rigaud.

Louis de Luxembourg, Marshal of France ; after the

PhiHp V. of Spain ; after Vivien.

Maximilian Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria ; after the

Marie Louise de Tassis ; after Van Dyck.

Nicolas Van der Borcht ; after the same.

Pierre Miguard, Painter ; from a picture by himself.

Bacchus and Erigone ; after Gruidv ; for the ' Crozat Col-

Marie de Medicis escaping from the city of Blois ; after
the pictiure by Rubens, in the Louvre.

VERMEULEN, Coenelis, the younger, father of
Andries Vermeulen, was born at Dordrecht in 1732,
and was an ornamental painter and picture dealer.
He copied many pictures of the older Dutch
masters, and died at Dordrecht in 1813.

VERMEYEN. See Vermeijen.

VERMIGLIO, Giuseppe, was a native of Turin,
and flourished about the year 1675. He painted
pictures for the churches and public buildings at
Novara and Alessandria, but his best work is a
large ' Daniel in the Den of Lions,' in the Biblioteca
Delia Passione at Milan.

VERMONT, Hyacinthe Colin de, was born at
Versailles in 1693. He studied under Eigaud, and
in 1727 was admitted to the Academy, of which
he afterwards became a professor. He died at
Versailles in 1761. Among his best pictures are:

The Presentation in the Temple. {St. Louis, Versailles^
Cleopatra at the feet of Augustus.

VERNANSAL, Guy Louis, a French painter,
was born at Fontainebleau in 1648. He was a
pupil of Lebrun, and the master of N. Bertin. He
became an Academician in 1687, and his reception
picture, ' The Extinction of Heresy in France,' is
now at Versailles. In 1704 he was appointed a
professor. Pictures by him are in the museums of
Angers, Orleans, and Rennes. He worked much
in Italy, especially at Padua and in Rome. He
died in Paris, April 9, 1729. His son, Jacques
FEANgois, was his pupil and assistant.'

VERNET, Antoine, a deoorarive painter, bom
at Avignon in 1689, is chiefly remembered as the
father of Joseph Vernet. Of his twenty-two children
four were painters. The Mus^e Calvet, at Avig-
non, has a study of flowers and birds by him. He
died at Avignon in 1753.




VERNET, Antoine Charles Hobace, generally
known as Cable Vebnet, was the son of Claude
Joseph Vemet, and was bom at Bordeaux in 1758.
He drew horses when quite a child, and studied
painting under the instruction of his father and of
Lepicier. At the age of twenty-one he obtained
the second prize at the Academy of Painting, and
three years later the grand prize of Rome. In
Italy, after a period of dissipation, he threatened
to become a monk, so that his father recalled
liim to France. Returning with vigour to his
negleoted art, he produced a painting of ' The Tri-
umph of Paulus iEmilius,' which in 1788 procured
his admission to the Academy. He now devoted
himself anew to the horse, and his works were
mainly concerned with that animal. His father's
popularity in Paris society opened many good
houses to the young painter. He became the
friend of the Marquis de Villette and the Comte
de Lauragnais, and with them set the fashion of
'Anglomania,' and popularized horse-racing in
France. On the outbreak of the Revolution his
sympathies were at first on the side of the people.
But flying with his wife and children across the
Place du Carrousel on the 10th August, he was
wounded by a ball in the hand. This, followed by
the loss of a sister upon the scaffold, gave him a
shock from which he only recovered upon the
establishment of the Directory. At this period he
created the famous types of the ' Merveilleux ' and
' Incroyable.' Forsaking the classic style he then
took to military subjects, and his ' Morning of Aus-
terlitz ' in 1808 procured him the Legion of Honour.
In 1810 he was admitted a member of the Institute.
During the Restoration he painted hunting scenes,
horse-races, and also landscapes, portraits, and
comic subjects. He also executed numerous htho-
gi'aphs and drawings, among the latter those from
the Italian campaigns, which were engraved by
Duplessis-Bertaux. Carle Vemet died in Paris
November 28, 1836. The following may be cited
among his principal paintings :

The Battle of Marengo. ( Versailles.)

The Mommg of Austerlitz. 1808.

Napoleon before Madrid. 1810.

The Taking of Pampeluna. 1820.

The Castle of Eivoli. ( Versailles.)

Stag Hunt. (Louvre.)

The Walls of Home.

VERNET, Antoine Ignace, Antoine Fbanqois,
and FEANgois Gabeiel, the three brothers of Joseph
Vemet, were natives of Avignon. Ignace was
born in 1726, and died about 1775. He settled at
Naples in 1746, and painted chiefly marine subjects,
and eruptions of Vesuvius. FBANgoiS, born in 1730,
was a decorative painter. He worked in Paris, and
through the influence of Joseph, obtained the post
of painter to the palaces of Fontainebleau and Ver-
sailles. The Avignon Museum possesses a ' Land-
scape ' and studies of flowers by him. He died in
Paris in 1779. Fbanqois Gabeiel, born in 1728,
practised in his native town as a painter of religious

VERNET, Claude Joseph, was born at Avignon
August 14, 1714. After receiving some instruc-
tion in the rudiments of design from his father,
Antoine Vemet, he was sent to Aix, and worked
for a time under local artists of repute. At the age
of seventeen he so successfully carried out some
decorative work for M. de Caumont, that his patron
raised a subscription to enable him to go to Rome.
Upon the voyage he was so impressed with the
effect of a stormy sea that he had himself tied to


the mast in order to be able more accurately to
observe it. In Rome he had at first to paint carriages
for a living, but was shortly able to enter the school
of the marine painter Bernardo Fergioni, whom he
speedily surpassed. He also studied under Adrien
Manglard, Panini, and Solimena, his subjects now
being the ruins, landscapes, and costumes of Rome.
His landscapes soon came to be eagerly sought after
by distinguished French amateurs and by the
Italian nobles and prelates. He first followed a
manner resembling that of Salvator Rosa, and
worked in that style for the Farnese Gallery and
Rondamini Palace. In 1745 he married CeciHa
Parker, daughter of the Pope's naval commandant.
The works he sent home excited so much admiration
that Madame de Pompadour begged him to settle
in Paris. On returning to France he was in 1763
admitted to the Academy, and in 1766 to its council.
Soon after this Louis XV. commissioned him to
paint a set of twenty pictures of French sea-ports.
He devoted nine years to this undertaking. Only
sixteen of the pictures, however, were finished, the
war with England preventing the painting of the
Channel ports. These pictures are now in the
Louvre. They were followed by a host of other
marine views, many of which are in the same col-
lection. Vernet died in the Louvre, December 3,
1789. His last years were embittered by the mad-
ness and death of his wife. His pictures are very
numerous, and are to be found in most large
galleries. There are two in the National Gallery.
Lebas, Benazech, Cochin, and others engraved
over two hundred plates after his works. Vernet
left a few small etchings, among them the fol-
lowing :

A Landscape, with a Bridge and part of a Village.
A Shepherd and Shepherdess.
A View of a Market-place.
A Canal, with Fishermen.

VERNET, Emile Jean Hoeace, painter, was the
son of Carle Vernet, and was born in Paris, June
30, 1789. Showing from his early childhood an
equal facility in the use of pencil and burin, his
father decided that he should follow in the family
footsteps and become an artist, though the boy
himself, who had a passion for sport, horses,
and military life, wished to enter the army. He
became his father's pupil, and also studied for a
while under Vincent, gaining the first of the many
official honours that fell to him in 1812 (a medal
of the first class). The elder Vernet, determining
to settle the question of Horace's career in a definite
manner, married him, before he had reached the
age of twenty, to Mile. Louise Pajol, and shortly
afterwards olstained for him the post of military
draughtsman at the seat of war. So early as 1812
Vemet had attracted the attention of the Court,
and had received commissions from the King of
Westphalia and Marie Louise. In 1814 he, to-
gether with his father, fought in the defence of the
B'arridre de Clichy, and for his gallantry on this
occasion the Emperor bestowed on him with
his own hand the Cross of the Legion of Honour.
An ardent Bonapartist, he remained faithful to
the Napoleonic tradition after the Restoration,
and propagated it by means of sketches, pic-
tures, and lithographs, which had an immense
popularity throughout the country. This partizan
zeal was naturally displeasing to the Bourbons.
They looked coldly upon the artist, who was
led to attach himself strongly to the Duke of
Orleans' party. In 1820 the King's displeasure





made it politic for Vemet to leave Paris for a
■while, and he went to Rome with his father. It
was at this time that he painted his famous ' Course
des Barhari ' (the Carnival race-horses). After his
return to Paris in 1822, he produced the ' Defence
of the Barriere de Cliohy,' his best work, now in
the Louvre, and sent it, together with his ' Battle
of Jemappes,' and some other pictures, to the
Salon, but the authorities rejected them on political
grounds. Vernet accordingly opened an exhibition
of his works in his own studio, which had an
extraordinary success, the Parisian public generally
espousing his cause. Two years later Charles X.,
desirous of attaching the popular painter to him-
self, commissioned him to paint his portrait. This
was followed by other royal commissions, and in
1826 Vernet was elected a member of the Institute.
His principal works for the king were a ceiling for
the royal museum, and two historical pictures for
Versailles, ' Fontenoy ' and ' Philip Augustus before
Bouvines.' In 1828 Vernet became Director of the
Freucli Academy at Rome, and remained at the
Villa Medicis till 1833, when he gladly resigned
his post, and hastened to join the French army at
Algiers. Returning to Paris, he received numerous
commissions from his former patron. King Louis
Philippe, who had converted the Palace of Versailles
into a nmseum, and who inaugurated the great
' Gallery of Battles ' to^ccommodate his prot^gi's
enormous canvases. In 1842 Vernet visited Russia,
where he was received with great distinction by
the Emperor, and painted the portrait of the
Empress, and in the following year he was again
with the army in Algiers. The Revolution of 1848
was a teri'ible blow to his hopes and prospects, but
uuder the second empire fresh honours fell to his
share. At the French Exhibition of 1855 an entire
gallery was devoted to his works, and the outbreak
of the Crimean War opened a new field to him.
Among his latest pictures were the ' Battle of the
Alma,' and a portrait of Napoleon III., who made
him grand officer of the Legion of Honour a few
weeks before his death in Paris, January 17, 1863.
Vernet's work, great as was its vogue in his day,
has little of the quality that makes for lasting
fame. He has been called the ' Paul Delaroche of
military painting,' and the comparison aptly illus-
trates the characteristic appeal of his ceuvre to
emotions stirred by the choice of subject, and not
to artistic perception. Flourishing at a period of
extraordinary patriotic excitement, he won success
by the facile skill with which he translated the
national enthusiasm, and flattered the national
vanity. His works are too numerous for any
detailed list here. Besides such as have been
mentioned, there is a large collection at Versailles,
of which perhaps the most notable are :

The Taking of the Smalah of Abdel-Kader in 1843.

]?our Scenes from the Siege of Constantine in 1837.

The camaieu decorations in the ' SaUe de Crimce.' p,g,

VERNET, Jules, a French miniature painter,
who exhibited portraits at the Salon, chiefly of
literary and theatrical celebrities, from about 1812
to 1842. He died in 1843.

VERNICI, Giovanni Battista, was, according to
Malvasia, a native of Bologna, and was brought up
in the school of the Carracci. He painted religious
and historical pictures for the churches and public
buildings of Pesaro and Urbino, particularly of the
latter city, where he was appointed principal painter
to the Duke, in whose service he died in 1617.

VERNIER, Emile Louis, a French marine and

landscape painter and lithographer, was born at
Lons-le-Saulnier (Jura) in 1831, and was a pupil
of Colette. He was perhaps best known by his
lithographs, of which he produced a great variety
of a very high degree of excellence, chiefly after
the works of Corot, Rousseau, Daubigny, Millet,
and Courbet. His 'Angelus,' after Millet, was
executed on commission for the ' Chalcographie du
Louvre.' As a painter of coast scenes and fisher-
folk, both in oil and water-colour, he also held a
foremost place among modern French artists. His
subjects were taken principally from the Norman
and Breton coasts, bat he also produced some views
of Venice and Dordrecht, and studies of the Cornish
coast, and the Thames near and in London. A
public exhibition and sale of a large number of his
works was held in Paris shortly after his death,
which took place in that city. May 26, 1887. He
held medals both for painting and lithography, and
received the cross of the Legion of Honour in

VERNIER, Paul BAETHiLEMT, a French painter
and lithographer, born in Paris in 1830, was a
pupil of Drolling, and exhibited portraits at the
Salon in 1857 and 1861. He died at Marlotte in

VERNON, Jean de. See Letellier.

VERNON, Thomas, engraver, was- born in Staf-
fordshire, about 1824. He studied in London and
Paris, and won a high reputation, especially as an
engraver of figure pictures. He worked, however,
at a time when excellence in Lis special branch of
art met with little return in money, and he had all
through his career to struggle with narrow means.
He died January 22, 1872. Among his best plates
were :

Madonna and Child ; after Baphael.

Virgin and Child ; after Dyce.

Princess Helena ; after Winterhalter,

Lady Constance Grosveuor ; after the same.

Olivia Unveiling ; after C. R. Leslie.

The First-born ; after Cope.

Christ healing the Sick ; after Murillo.

VEROCCHIO, (Vekrocchio). See Del Vebroo-


VERON, Alexandre Paul Joseph, called Belle-
court, painter, born in Paris in 1773, was a pupil
of David and of Van Spaendonck. He painted a
few historical pictures, but devoted himself chiefly
to flower-studies, both in oil and water-colour,
many of which appeared at the Salon. At Ver-
sailles there is by him, ' The Emperor visiting the
Infirmary of the Invalides on February 11, 1808.'
He appeared at the Salon for the last time in 1838.

VERONA, Battista da. See Farinati.

VERONA, Cecchino da. See Cecohino.

VERONA, PiLiPPO DA, a third-rate imitator of
Giambattista Cima, flourished in the 16th century,
and is the author of a ' Virgin and Child,' in the
Academy of Arts, Turin, a replica of which is in
the Locohis Carrara Gallery at Bergamo. He was
employed at the Eremitani Chapel, Padua, where
he painted the ' Glory of the Virgin, with Angels
and Saints,' in 1511 ; having previously in 1509
produced a ' Virgin and Child, with SS. Felix and
Catharine,' for the Santo. The church of San
Niccol6, Pabriano, has a 'Madonna between SS.
Peter and Nicholas of Bari,' by him, dated 1514.
The dates of his birth and death are unknown.

VERONA, Jacopo Avanzo da. See Avanzi.

VERONA, Maffeo, was born at Verona in 1576,
and was a disciple of Luigi Benfatto, but derived




more advantage from the works of his kinsman,
Paolo Veronese, than from the instruction of his
master. He is said by Ridolii to have painted
with uncommon celerity, and to have particularly
excelled in fresco. Many of his works exist in the
public buildings of Venice, among them a ' Christ
bearing His Cross ' and a ' Crucifixion,' in the chapel
dedicated to St. Isidore, St. Mark's. Tlie same
church has two altar-pieces, a ' Deposition from
the Cross,' and a ' Resurrection.' He also painted
several pictures for the cathedral at Udine, and for
churches in his native city. He died in 1618.

VERONA, MiCHELB DA, was born in 1470. Very
little is known of his career. He was a contem-
porary of Paolo Morando (Cavazzola), and may
have assisted him in the decorative work for S.
Bernardino, at Verona. Inside the portal of San
Stefano, Milan, is a large ' Crucifixion;' signed by
him in 1500, and formerly in the Refectory of San
Giorgio, of Verona. The same subject, dated by
him in 1505, is in Santa Maria in Vanzo, Padua.
In both pictures there is a very obvious imitation
of the manner of Jacopo Bellini. In the church
of Santa Chiara, Verona, ai-e frescoes representing
the Eternal, with Angels, Prophets, and the four
Evangelists, dated 1509 Frescoes of later dates
exist in the churches of Vittoria Nuova and Sant'
Anastasia ; whilst in the church of Villa di Villa,
near Este, is a ' Madonna and Child, between SS.
John the Baptist, Lawrence, Andrew, and Peter,'
dated 1523. This is the latest date we have in
connection with Michele. Besides the works already
named we may cite :

London. Nat. Gallery. The meeting of Coriolanus
with Volumnia and Teturia.
Verona. Gallery. Four heads of Saints.

VERONA, Niccol6 da. A fresco of the ' Virgin
with the Child and Saints,' in the Ognisanti at
Mantua, is signed with this name, and dated 1461.

VERONA, Stefano da. See Stefano.

VERONENSIS, Jacobus. See Caeaglio.

VERONESE, Alessandro. See Turchi.

VERONESE, BoNiFAZio. See Bonifazio I.

VERONESE, CLAnDio. See Ridolfi.

VERONESE, Giovanni Antokio, and Jacopo,
two painters of Verona. According to Vasari,
they were father and son, and Giovanni was the
brother of Stefano da Zevio.


VERONESE, Paolo. See Cahari.

VBRRIO, Antonio, was born at Lecce, near
Otranto, in 1639. His master is unknown, but
as soon as he had made suflScient progress to
travel on the produce of his talents, he went to
France and settled at Toulouse, where he painted
an altarpiece for the Carmelites, which is described
in Du Puy's 'Trait6 sur la Peinture.' Charles II.,
wishing to revive the famous tapestry worfis at
Mortlake, which had been ruined by the civil war,
invited Verrio to England. Once there, however,
he was employed in decorating Windsor Castle,
where, in a ' Christ healing the Sick,' he introduced
himself, Sir Godfrey Kneller, and Baptist May, sur-
veyor of the works, in long periwigs, as spectators
of the miracle. It appears by a memorandum pre-
served by Vertue, that he received neariy seven
thousand pounds for his performances at Windsor.
He was named ' master gardener ' to the king, and
had a lodging assigned to him in St. James's Park.
On the accession of James II., Verrio was again
employed at Windsor, in Cardinal Wolsey's tomb-

house, then destined for a Romish chapel. He
is said to have refused for some time to work for
King William. He was employed by Lord Exeter
at Burleigh, and afterwards executed many con-
siderable works at Chatsworth, among which the
altar-piece in the chapel may be named, repre-
senting the Incredulity of S. Thomas. By the
persuasion of Lord Exeter, he at length con-

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 172 of 201)