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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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traits of Charles V. and Henry II. (that of the
former monarch has been erroneously stated to
have been engraved by him on wood, in which it
does not appear that he ever worked at all). He
also worked for a time in Venice. In 1554 he
brought out engravings of twelve imperial medals
with descriptions ; in the following year a ' Treatise
on Medals,' and in 1657 a series of Empresses, with
their biographies. He also engraved a variety of
medals, and a set of thirty-six antique gems.
He died at Parma in 1667. Bartsch assigns 494
plates to him, and Passavant 503. When he did
not sign his plates with his name at length, he
marked them with the initials JE. V., sometimes
upon a tablet, and sometimes without it. He also
occasionally signed A E N. V. F. The following
are his most noteworthy prints :

Charles V., surrounded by emblematical figures, in-
scribed, Inventum sculptumque ab Aenea Vico Par-
maise, mbl.

Bust of Giovanni de' Medici, in a border. 1550.

Bast of Cosmo de' Medici, when young.

Bust of Alfonso II., Duke of Ferrara.

The Army of Charles V. passing the Elbe ; /rowi his
own design.

The Battle of the Amazons ; inscribed, Bellum Amazo-
num. 1543.

A Female Figure, with her arms extended, over which
appears an Owl ; after Farmigiano. 1548.

Vulcan and Venus (a free subject) ; after the same. 15-13.

Jupiter and Leda ; after Michelangelo.

A Bacchanaliau subject ; after the same.

Vulcan and the Cyclops ; after Primaticcio.

The Muses upon Parnassus.

Apollo and Cupid ; after Baceio Bandinelli.

The Academy of Baceio Bandinelli ; after the same.

The Conversion of S. Paul ; after F. Salviati.

The Battle of the Lapithse and Centaurs ; after the same.

Judith with the Head of Holof ernes ; after Michel-

The Entombment of Christ ; after Saphael. 1548.

The Death of Lucre tia. 1541.

The Annunciation ; after Titian.

A set of twelve Vases; from designs by Folidoro da

A set of fifty plates of National Costumes ; from his
own designs.

VICO, Francesco, a Milanese painter of the
15th century, of wht>se birth or death no dates are
known. He is the author of two canvases in the
Milan Hospital, the one representing Francesco and
Bianca Maria Sforza kneeling before Pope Pius II.,
who gives them the Bull to build the Hospital, and
the other the same couple kneeling in front of an
altar before the Hospital.

VICTOOES, Jan, (Fictoorr, Fictoor,) a Dutch
painter, was born at Amsterdam in 1620. He was
educated in the school of Rembrandt, and worked in
his atelier in 1635-40. He must not be confused
with Johannes Victor, whose proper surname was
Wolfvoet (g. v.). His works are better known than
those of some other pupils of Rembrandt, but
scarcely anything is recorded of his life. Some of
his pictures show much affinity with those of his
master, but his hand was apt to get heavy. Very
many of his subjects are taken from the Old Testa-
ment, but he also painted genre, landscapes, peasant
assemblies, markets, charlatans, &c. The date of
his death is uncertain, but it took place at Amster-
dam after 1672. "Works :

Amsterdam. Ji!. Museum.










Joseph interpreting

Dreams. 1648.
The Dentist. 1654.
The Pork Butcher.
Village Wedding.
Esther and Haman.
David and Samuel.
Capture of Samson.
Kuth and Boaz.

{And three others.)
The Finding of Moses.
The Prophetess Anna.

h Tobias blessing bis Son.

Tobias recovering his


Portrait of an Old Man.
Isaac blessing Jacob.
Young Lady at a Window,




VICTOR, Jakob, (or Giacomo,) was a Dutch
painter of the 17th century. Works by him are
at Dresden, Copenhagen, and Munich. His ' Barn-
yard' in the last-named gallery is ascribed in iho





i;%(alogue to Hondeooeter, whose forged signature
apj.ears ii] on it.
, VICTOR. Johannes. See Wolfvoet.

VICTORIA, Vicente, was born at Valencia in
10.58. lie at first studied literature, philosophy,
and theology, but had a preference for art, and went
when he was young to Rome, where he became a
schotar of Carlo Maratti, and studied from Raphael
and the antique. He was appointed painter to the
court of tlie Grand Duke Cosmo of Tuscany, whose
portrait he painted. He aftenvards settled at
Xaliva, in Valencia, where he painted pictures for
the churches and convents of Valencia; and wrote
poetry, as well as part of n ' History of Painting.'
He finally returned to Rome and became antiquary
to the Pope. He died in that city in 1712. His
portrait is among those of the distinguished artists
in the Florentine Gallery. Among other plates he
has left are the following :

The Madonna di Foligno ; nfter Raphael.
The Last Supper ; after Ciro Ferri.
The Resurrection ; after the same.

VICUS. See Vico.

VIDAL, Diego, the elder, a Spanish historical
painter, was born at Valmaseda in 1583. He
painted a picture of a naked Christ, and one of the
Virgin with the Infant in her arms, which were
placed in the cathedral of Seville, of which he was
a prebend. Pacheco speaks of Vidal's drawings in
eulogistic terms. ■ He died at Seville in 1616. He
was called ' the elder ' to distinguish him from his
nephew, Vidal de Liendo.

VIDAL, DiONisio, was born at Valencia about
1670, and was the disciple and travelling com-
panion of Antonio Palomino. At Valencia he
painted the vaults of the church of San Nicola in
fresco, from designs furnished by Palomino. He
also painted pictures in several other churches. He
died at Tortosa while employed on the chapel of
Nuestra Sefiora de la Cinta. The year is unknown.

VIDAL, Felipe, engraved, in 1741, the arms of
Loroa for Morote's history of that city. He like-
wise furnished the plates to the work of Ciistobal
Rodriguez on Spanish polygraphy.

VIUAL, G:fiEADD, a French engraver and etcher,
was born at Toulouse in 1742. He resided chiefly
in Paris, where he had long to contend with poverty
before his powers became known. His death
occurred in that city in 1804. He engraved a
variety of plates after the modern French painters,
among them the following :

Jupiter and lo ; after Ch. Monnet.
Jupiter and Antiope ; after the same.
Venus and Adonis ; after the same.
Einaldo and Armida, ; after the same.
Paris and Helen ; after David. 1788.

VIDAL, Josef, a painter of battles and genre
subjects, was born at Vinaroz, and studied at
Valencia under Est^ban March, of whose style he
became a successful imitator. He had a son of the
same name as himself, who was also a painter.

VIDAL, L., was a painter of fruit, flowers, dead
b'rds, and other natural subjects. Of his life
there is no account, but his manner resembles that
of the elder Van Os. He appears to have been a
native of northern France, or at least to have worked
there in the early years of the 19th century. The
Lille Museum has a picture by him of fruit, flowers,
and game, on a table.

VIDAL DE LIENDO, Diego, Ciilled Vidal the
YOUNGEK, born at Valmaseda in 1602, was a nephew


of Vidal the elder, and like him was both a painter
and a canon of Seville cathedral. He also followed
his uncle's example in going to Rome to study
art and di\-inity. His pictures in the sacristy of
the cathedral at Valencia (engraved by Marc
Antonio) show considerable skill, and include life-
size figures of various Saints, and a copy of Raphael's
'Michael triumphing over Satan.' Vidal died at
Seville in 1648. He possessed a fine collection of

VIDAL, Vincent, a French painter and pastellist,
was born at Carcassonne, January 20, 1811. He
entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1837, and was
a pupil of Paul Delaroche, gaining in due course
medals of the 3rd and 2nd class, and the cross of
the Legion of Honour. His portraits, ideal heads,
and especially a large number of fanciful designs,
many of them suggested by Moore's ' Loves of the
Angels,' were very pojjular, and their delicate
draughtsmanship went far to atone for a certain
tameness and monotony in their execution. He
died in 1887.

VIEILLEVOYE, Joseph BaetheliSmt, a Flemish
historir'al and subject painter, was born at Verviers
in 1798. He studied in the Antwerp Academy,
and became dij-ector of that of Lifege. He died
in 1855. There is by him :


Museum. Head of an old Man.

VIBIRA, Feancisco, the elder, a Portuguese
painter and engraver, was born at Lisbon in 1699.
He accompanied the Portuguese ambassador to
Rome, and there studied art in the school of
Trevisani, and further improved himself by copy-
ing Raphael and Michelangelo. He returned to
Portugal at the age of sixteen, and was com-
missioned by John V. to paint a 'Mysteries of
the Eucharist.' He afterwards designed the king's
head for the coins. He formed an attachment to a
young lady of a high family, and before he won
her, went through various romantic adventures.
He was at last manied, at Rome. Vieira was
recalled to Portugal by the king, and fixed his
residence at Lisbon, where, for forty years, he
painted for the palace, the convent of Mafra, and
other places. In 1744 he became alEliated to the
religious order of Santiago. In 1765 the wife for
whom he had encountei-ed so many adventures,
died, and he relinquished the pencil to spend the
rest of his days in religious exercises. He died
at Lisbon in 1783. Many of his pictures are said
to have perished in the great earthquake at Lisbon
in 1755.

VIEIRA, Francisco, the younger, son of the
elder artist of the name, studied in Italy, especially
from the works of Correggio in Parma. Many of his .
drawings from Correggio, Carracci, and Parmigiano
were subsequently engraved. He came to England
at the latter end of the 18th century, and exhibited
at the Royal Academy in the years 1798 and 1799 ;
one of his pictures is described as 'Viriato, the
Lusitanian chief, exhorting his countrymen to
take vengeance for the perfidy of Galba.' Vieira,
during his stay in England, lived with Bartolozzi,
and probably studied under him, for he is said to
have been an engraver. He married and returned
to his ovn country, where he became first painter
to the king, and executed some historical and
allegorical frescoes for the palace of Ajuda. He
died in 1805. A ' Christ Crucified ' by him is in
the Lisbon Academy.

^'IEL, Pierre, a French engraver, was born in




Paris in 1755. He was a pupil of B. L. Prevost.
His style of engraving was neat and finished ;
among his plates we may name :

The Judgment of Paris ; after Sottenhamer.
The Bath of Diana; after P. Mettay.
A pair of Landscapes ; after Ruysdael.
Peace bringing back Abundance ; after Le Brim.
Death of Adonis ; after P. Veronese,

VIEN, Joseph Marie, a French painter and
engraver, was born at Montpellier, June 18, 1716.
After some study in his native place, he entered
the studio of Natoire. To support himself while
going through the course at the Academy, he
painted for a picture-dealer. After obtaining a,
first medal in 1742, he won the following year
the Grand Prix de Rome. This enabled him to
continue his training in Italy, where he spent five
busy years. Besides the usual academical studies
and copies, he painted several pictures for ohurclies,
and designed the costumes, triumphal chariots,
&c., for a masquerading procession, which was
very successful. After a tour through Italy, he
returned to France in 1750. On his way to Paris
he made short stays at Marseilles and Tarascon,
where he received some commissions. On com-
mencing practice in the capital, his. style was not
readily appreciated, and he failed to obtain admis-
sion to the Academy until Boucher, strangely
enough, had made a strong remonstrance in his
favour. He was received on the 30th March,
1754, with his 'Dasdalus and Icarus,' now in the
Louvre. Once within the charmed circle, his pro-
gress was rapid, and commissions flowed in upon
him thickly. His atelier was thronged with pupils,
amongst whom were Vincent, Suvde, and Louis
David. Here was laid the foundation of the classic
school which was soon to reign supreme in French
art. Vien's reputation extended so widely that the
Empress of Russia and the King of Denmark
sought to induce him to enter their service, but
in vain. In 1775 he was appointed Director of
the French Academy at Rome, whither he was
accompanied by David and two other pupils. He
introduced several reforms in the working of the
Academy, and, after a useful directorate of six
years, returned home vid Naples. On settling in
Paris, further honours and a pension were bestowed
on him. These, however, were swept away by the
Revolution, and he once more applied himself with
success to work. He was made a Count and a
Senator by Napoleon, from whom he also received
the cross of Commander in the new Legion of
Honour. The veteran continued to paint till the
year before his death, which took place in Paris
in 1809. There are several plates etched by him,
of which the chief are a series of about thirty
illustrations of the masquerade for which he de-
signed the costumes in his student days at Rome.
Vien's position in the history of the French school
was very accurately described by himself He
said that he only half unclosed the door which
David threw wide open. The following is a list of
his pictures in public galleries :

Angers. Museum. The Body of Hector carried

back to Troy.

Epinal. „ Parting of Hector and Andro-


Grenoble. „ Rape of Proserpine.

Marseilles. „ Jesus healing the Paralytic.

, „ Jesus healing the Centurion's


Montpellier. „ S. John Baptist in the Desert.

„ „ S. Gregory the Great. 1766.





The Cruciiixion.



Our Lord aud the Disciples at
Emmaus. 1759.



The Resurrection.



S. Germain and S. Vincent.



Daedalus and Icarus. 1754.



Sleeping Hermit. 1750.



Cupids, Swans, and Doves.



Anger of Achilles.

A Prelate invoking the Virgin.


. Petit Trianon.

S. Louis and Margaret of
Provence visiting S. Thi-
bault. 1774.


VIEN, Joseph Marie, painter, and son of J. M.
Vien the elder, was born in Paris in 1761. He
was the pupil of his father and of F. A. Vincent.
He died in 1848. His portrait group of himself
and his wife is in the Rouen Museum.

VIEN, THjfiRiisE, nee Rebodl, miniature painter,
was the wife and pupil of Joseph Vien. She was
born in Paris in 1728, and studied for a time at
the Academy of S. Luke in Rome. In 1757 she
became an Academician ; her reception piece, a
miniature of a cock' and hen, with a new-laid egg,
is in the Louvre. She exhibited occasional studies
of flowers and birds at the Salon, between 1757
and 1767. She died in Paris, December 28, 1805.

VIBNOT Nicolas, a French engraver who
flourished about 1630. He engraved small pliitea
from those engraved by Pontius after the portraits
of Philip IV. of Spain and his Queen, Elizabeth de
Bourbon, by Rubens. Another little known en-
graver of the same name was active about fifty
years later.

VIG:6e, Elisabeth Louise. See Le'Brun.

VIGBE, Louis, a French painter of the 18th
century, now remembered chiefly as tlie father of
Madame Vigee Le Brun, was a portraitist of some
merit, excelling chiefly in pastel. He was a man
of much culture and social talent, and his house
was frequented by a largo circle of distinguished-
men and women. He died in 1767, from the effects
of an accident.

VIGER, Jean Louis Hector, historical painter,
was born at Argentan in 1819. He entered the
licole des Beaux Arts in 1844, and was the pupil
of Monvoisin, Drolling, and Paul Delaroche. He
began his artistic career by painting miniature-
portraits, decorations for fans, etc. His works
appeared at the Salon from 1846 to 1879, in which
latter year he died in Paris. There are examples
of his work in the Museiun of his native town, and
also in those of Orleans, Versailles, and in many
French provincial churches. He painted a picture
for the Salon des Grands Chanoeliers in the Palais
de la Legion d'Honneur, representing the first
distribution of the cross of the Legion in the
Church of the Invalides.

VIGEVANO, AisiBROfiio da, was a Milanese
painter living in the 16th century, and is said to
have been Cristoforo De' Motti's fellow-worker in
the frescoes at Cantu, painted in 1514. Crowe and
Cavalcaselle incline to the belief that he was
identical with theAmbrogio Bevilacqua, mentioned
by Lomazzo, who executed a ' Charity ' and other
similar designs on the Poor House of Milan
in 1486, and was a salaried workman in the
cathedral of that city for some years. The Brera,
at Milan, possesses a ' Virgin and Child, between





King David and St. Peter Martyr,' signed Amhrogio
Bevilacqua, and dated 1502. The dates of his
birtli and death are alike unknown.
VIGHI. See Vioo,
VIGIER. See Court, Jean.

VIGILA, • , was a monk of Albelda, and the

earliest known artist of Spain. Cean Bermudez
discovered, in the royal library at Madrid, a missal
illuminated by him, and adorned with rude por-
traits of ancient kings, executed about the end of
the 10th century.

VIGILIA, ToMMASO DB, flourished in Palermo
between the years 1480 and 1497. His earliest
existing, work is a triptych belonging to the Duke
of Verdura, at Palermo, representing a 'Virgin and
Child, with four Saints,' dated 1486 ; and his latest
a 'S. Nicholas enthroned in a glory of Angels,'
dated 1489, in the church of San Niccolo Eeale,
Palermo. The ceiling of the church of the San-
tissima Annunziata, in the same city, is decorated
with a series of sixteen scenes from the life of the
Virgin, on canvas, by Tommaso. Other churches
in Palermo possess paintings by him. Crowe and
Cavaloaselle describe his work as " cold, careful,
and without power " (' P. in N. Italy,' vol. ii. p. 108).
VI6NALI, Jacopo, was born at Prato Vecchio
in 1592, and was a disciple of Matteo RosellL
His style resembles that of Guercino. His prin-
cipal works in oil are in the church of San Simone,
at Florence ; but he appears to greater advantage
in the frescoes with which he decorated the
chapel of the Buonarroti. He died in 1664.

VIGNAUD, Jean, a French painter, was born at
Beauoaire in 1775. He was a pupil of David, and
became director of the Art School at Nlmes. He
exhibited many portraits and historical pictures at
the Salon fi-om 1808 onwards, and painted, for the
church of S. Nicolas du Chardonneret a ' Raising
of Jairus' Daughter,' for the church of^St. Louis
d'Antin a ' Flight into Egypt,' and for the cathe-
dral of Beaucaire a ' Christ appearing to the Mag-
dalen.' In the Nimes Museum there are portraits
of the Marquis and Marquise de Lamote by him ;
a portrait of Liszt when a child, and 'Mercury
teaching the Lyre to Amphion.' He died at
Ntmes, November 10, 1826.

VIGNE, Edoxjakd db, landscape painter and
etcher, a younger brother of F61ix de Vigne, was
born at Ghent in 1808. He studied at the Ghent
school of design, and afterwards under Surmont de
Volsherghe. In 1834 he won the pension for Italy,
where he accordingly spent the years 1836-8. He
visited England in 1841, and died at Ghent in
1866. His drawings were much esteemed ; and
he left a few etchings. Pictures :

View of Subiaco.

Capuchin Monastery at Cava. 1838.

In the Forest of Altfe. (Ghent Museum.)

VIGNE, Fi^Lix DE, painter, etcher, and art
writer, was born at Ghent in 1806. His father,
the decorative painter Ignace de Vigne, was his
first instructor, and afterwards he was placed under
Paelinck at Brussels. He devoted himself partly
to portraiture, but more especially to depicting the
costumes of the middle ages, for which purpose
he made extensive researches in his own country,
and in France, England, and Germany. His 'Re-
cueils des Costumes du Moyen-age ' contains a
thousand illustrations drawn and etched by him-
self, with descriptive letterpress. He was a pro-
fessor of the Ghent Academy, and president of the


Society of Arts and Sciences there. He died at
Ghent in 1862. Pictures :

Mary of Burgundy.

The Heads of the Guilds entreating the favour of the

Ministers Hergonet and Imbercourt.
Philip van Artevelde haranguing the Ghent Populace.
The Marriage Procession of the Ghent Painter, Van der

The three Ages of Woman.
A Fair in the 15th Century. (Ghent Museum.)

VIGNERON, Pieree Rooh, a French painter and
lithograplier, was born at Vosnon (Aube) in 1789.
He was a pupil of Gautherot and of Gros, and studied
also under Roques of Toulouse, in which town he
practised for a time as a miniaturist. He also
made some essays in sculpture, but finally devoted
himself to the painting of genre pictures. He
also executed a number of lithographs, chiefly
portraits. He died in 1872.

VIGNON, Claude, a French painter and etcher,
was born at Tours about 1590. He was the son of
a valet in the household of Henry IV., and was
protected by that king's son, Louis XIII. , and by
Richelieu. He studied first in Spain, and then in
Italy, where he attached himself to the stj'le of
Caravaggio. On returning to France he became
a pupil of Fr^minet, whose style he imitated
with some success. He died in Paris in 1670.
He was an art critic and a professor in the Academy.
His ' Christ with the Doctors ' is in the Grenoble
Museum, and his ' Baptism of tlie Eunuch ' in
Notre Dame. There are by this artist twenty-
seven etchings of Biblical subjects, among them
the following:

A set of thirteen scenes from the Life of Christ.

St. John in the Desert.

St. Philip baptizing the Eunuch of Queen Candace.

The Mitrtyrdom of St. Andrew.

The Crowning of the Virgin.

He is said to have been the father of thirty-four
children, and left three sons, Claude FRAKgois,
Nicolas, and Philippe, who were painters.

VIGNON, Henri FRANgois Jules de, painter,
was born at Belfort (Haut Rhin), October 11, 1816.
He entered the Eoole des Beaux Arts in 1831, and
was a pupil of Cogniefc He gained medals of the
third class in 1847, 1861. He painted chiefly
portraits, or studies of single figures, exhibiting
constantly at the Salon from 1833 to 1882. His
portrait of General le Vicomte Paultre de Lamotte
is in the Versailles Museum. He died in 1883.

VIGNON, Philippe, painter, the son of Claude
Vignon, was born in Paris in 1634, and became a
member of the Academy in 1667. In the Versailles
Museum there are by him portraits of Mauperch^,
the painter, and of Mesdemoiselles de Blois et de
Nantes, daughters of Louis XIV. and Madame de
Maintenon. Ho died in 1701.

VIGOROSO da SIENA. An altar-piece in the
public gallery of Siena is inscribed with this name,
and the date 1280.

VIGRI, Cateeina, was born at Bologna in 1414.
She is called 'La Santa di Bologna,' having
been canonized in 1712. Slie practised painting
in her youth, and then entered a convent at
Bologna, whei-e she decorated the missals with
miniatures and illuminations. She died in 1463.
A 'S. Ursula and her companions' by her, dated
1452, is in the Bologna Gallery, and the same
subject, dated 1456, in the Venice Academy.

VIJL, J. den. See Den Uyl.

Vijt den Broeck



VIJT DEN BROECK. See Uutenbeouok:.

VILA, Lorenzo, was the son and pupil of
Senen Vila, and was born in Murcia in 1682. He
painted history in the style of his father, and had
gained considerable reputation by pictures for
churches, particularly a ' Holy Family,' for the
refectory of San Fulgenzio, at Murcia, when he
became a monk. He died in 1713.

VILA, Senen, was a native of Valencia, and a
disciple of Est^ban March. In 1678 he settled
at Murcia, where he painted, a great number of
pictures for the churches and other buildings,
particularly for the convent of Santa Isabel, for
the monastery of San Domingo el Real, and for the
Bnfermaria di San Francisco. He died in 1708.

VILADOMAT, Antonio, was born at Barcelona
in 1678. He was a pupil of Bautista Perramon.
When he was twenty-one he was commissioned to
paint a series of scenes from the life of St. Bruno,
for the Carthusians of Monte Allegro. He also
painted three subjects from the life of St. Francis,
for the Franciscans of Barcelona, and produced
landscapes, battle-pieces, and portraits. For the
last seventeen years of nis life he was paralyzed
in the hands. He died in 1765. He left a son

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 174 of 201)