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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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named Josef Viladomat, who was also a painter,
but very inferior to his father. Works of both are
to be found in the churches and convents of
Barcelona.

VILLACIS, Nicolas de, was of a noble family
of Murcia, where he was born about the middle of
the 17th century. After receiving some instruction
in his native city, his parents sent him to Madrid,
to the school of Velazquez. He afterwards travelled
to Rome, and, on his return to Spain, established
himself at Murcia, where he painted, among other
things, a series of pictures from the Life of S.
Blaise, in the convent of La Santissima Trinidad
de Calzados ; and the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence,
in the church of the Dominicans. These pictures,
which were praised by Palomino as the works of a
great artist, no longer exist, having already been
destroyed by damp in the beginning of the present
century. Being rich, Villacis painted chiefly for
his amusement, and declined the proffered post of
court painter, and also the invitation of Velazquez
to take part in the decoration of the Alcazar. His
correspondence with Velazquez is said to be still in
existence. He died in 1690.

VILLAFEANCA - MALAGON, Pedeo de, a
Spanish engraver and painter, wa§ born at Alcolea,
La Mancha, at the beginning of the 17th century.
He received instruction at Madrid from Vincenzio
Carduoho, but preferred the burin to the brush. He
engraved a great number of title-pages, portraits,
and illustrations, particularly for the Books of the
Religious Orders of Santiago, Calatrava, and Alcan-
tara. These he also embellished with portraits of
Philip IV., to whom he was, about 1654, appointed
engraver in ordinaiy, with a salary of one hundred
ducats. In the next three years he engraved ' The
Pantheon of the Bscorial,' and a portrait of the
king. Between 1660 and 1676 he engraved many
illustrations for books, and a number of portraits,
including those of Calderon Carlos II., Anne of
Austria, Louis XIV., and Maria Theresa of Austria.
For the church of San Felipe el Real at Madrid,
he painted a series of pictures for the festival of
the canonization of S. Thomas of Villanueva. The
time of his death is uncertain, but it was subsequent
to 1719.

VILLAIN, G^RAKD EtoAUD, a French engraver.



flourished about the year 1760. He engraved a
portrait of M. Dufour de Villeneuve, after Mau-
perin.

VILLAMENA, Feancesco, draughtsman and
engraver, was born at Assisi about the year 1666.
He is generally supposed to have been a fellow-
student with Agostino Carracci, under Cornells
Cort. After this he visited Rome, where he drew
and engraved after the antique. He had also
practised painting, but this he wholly abandoned
in favour of engraving. He died in 1626. His
style of engraving is bold and open, but somewhat
mannered, and unfinished. He executed three
hundred and sixty plates; they are occasionally
signed with his name at length, sometimes with
the initials F. V. F., and he occasionally used

the monogram l^y^ij The following are

among his best plates :

Cardinal Bellarmin.

Christian IV., King of Denmark.

Galileo.

St. Tlieresa in her Cell. From his own desit/n.

Mary Magdalene penitent, crowned by an Angel. Do.

St. Francis praying before a Crucifix. Do.

A set of six grotesque Figures, one of which is a Monk

begging, accompanied by two Children. Do.
A print called ' The Boxers,' representing a Man fighting

a crowd of people. Do.
Another print,called ' The Antiquary,' representing John

Alto standing in one of the streets of Rome. Do.
Moses showing the Brazen Serpent to the Israelites;

after F&rrau Faenzone.
The Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. Francis ; after

the same.
The Holy Family ; after Muziano.
The Last Judgment.
St. Bruno, with his Companions, doing penance in the

Desert ; after Lanfranco.
The Descent from the Cross ; after Barocci.
St. Francis ; after the same.
The Presentation in the Temple ; after Faolo Veronese.

This plate was begun by Agostino Carracci, and was

finished by Villamena.
St. Bernard, with the Virgin in the clouds ; after Vanni.
A set of twenty Scriptural subjects, from ' Raphael's
Bible.'

VILLARD DE HONNEGOURT, (or Wilars,)
a famous architect and draughtsman of the 13th
century, who left a book of drawings, now in the
Library of Paris, which was published by Darcel in
1858. It contains drawings of machines, architec-
ture, motuiments, human figures, and animals.

VILLAVICENCIO. See Nunez De Villa-

VICENOIO.

VILLEGAS MAEMOLEJO, Pedro de, was born
at Seville in 1520. He was a pupil of Vargas, and
also studied in Italy from the works of Eaphael.
He died in 1597, and was buried in the church of
San Lorenzo, where an ' Annunciation,' and a
' Virgin and Child,' by him, adorn the altar. His
friend Arias Montano wrote the epitaph on his
tomb. His fine ' Visit of Mary to Elizabeth,' in the
cathedral at Seville, has been attributed "to Pedro
Campafia, as also has a 'Lazarus in pontifical
Robes,' which he painted for the hospital of the
Lazarinos.

VILLEGUAIN (or Villbquin). See Ville-

QDIN.

VILLEMSENS, Jean Blaise, painter, was born
at Toulouse in 1808. He first studied in his native
town, and at the age of seventeen started for Paris,
where he gained admission to the atelier of Gros,
and in 1829 entered the ficole des Beaux Arts.

669



Villeneuve



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Vincent



Eeturning to Toulouse, he established himself there,
and in 1841 became Professor at the Art School.
He died at Toulouse, September 19, 1859.

VILLENEUVE, Louis Fe^d^hio, painter and
lithographer, was born in Paris in 1796. He was a
pupil of Regnault, and entered the Ecole des Beaux
Arts in 1817. He also studied after Salvator Eosa,
and from nature in Switzerland and Italy. After
working for a time at Milan, he returned to Paris,
where he died in 1842. He painted and litho-
graphed excellent landscapes and sea-pieces, and
furnished many designs for Nodiei-'s ' France
Pittoresque,' and other illustrated works.

VILLEQUIN, Etienne, (or Villequain,) was
born at Ferrieres (Brie) in 1619, became a member
of the Academy in 1663, and died in 1688. He
painted historical pictures and portraits, and was
clever at grotesques and caricature. He engraved
a satirical plate, ' The Peasants of Lycia turned into
Frogs.' Of his paintings, the Louvre has a ' Christ
healing the Blind Men of Jericho,' and Notre
Dame a ' S. Paul before Agrippa.'

VILLERBT, pRANQOis Etienne, a French water-
colour painter, born about 1800. He was a pupil
of Gue, and exhibited architectural views, chiefly
of French churches, at the Salon from 1831 onwards.
He died ip 1866.

VILLEREY, Antoine CLAnDE Feanqois, an
engraver, was born in Paris in 1768. He was a
pupil of Romanet, and engraved several plates for
the 'Mus6e Filhol ' ; a great part of the vignettes
for the edition of Voltaire published by Renouard ;
the ' Battle of Austerlitz' for the ' Concours
d^oenal'; 'Innocence and Love,' after Prud'hon ;
' Hymen and Happiness,' after the same ; and
twenty-six plates for the ' Galerie de St. Bruno,'
after Le Sueur. He was still living in 1831. His
son Nicolas, born in Paris in 1801, was also an
engraver, chiefly of plates for books. He engraved
a series of vignettes after Deveria, for editions of
Voltaire and Moliere.

VILLEVIEILLE, L]^on, a French landscape
painter and engraver, born in Paris, August 12,
1826, was a pupil of Louis Marvy. He exhibited
at the Salon between 1850-59, and u, promising-
career was out short by his early death in 1863.
A catalogue of his pictures and drawings, of which
there was a public sale, was preceded by a bio-
graphical notice of the painter by M. Charles
Yriarte.

VILLIERS, PEAKgois Hoet, a French miniature,
landscape, and animal painter, born in Paris in
1772. At the Revolution he migrated to England,
where he obtained a good practice, and was ap-
pointed miniature painter to the Duchess of York.
He also styled himself painter to the King of
France. His works appeared at the Academy and
at the British Institution from 1803 to 1813, and in
1808 he was a member of the Associated Artists in
Water-Colours. He died in London in 1813.

VILLOLDO, Juan de, a distinguished painter of
Toledo in the 16th centuiy, studied under his
uncle, Alvar Perez de Villoldo, a scholar of Bor-
gona's. The chapter of the cathedral employed
him to paint several pictures for the Muzarabic
chapel, which he commenced in 1508, and, with the
assistance of Juan de Borgona and Amberes, ter-
minated in 1510. His series of forty-five pictures
on sacred subjects, executed 1547-8, for the Carbajel
chapel in the church of St. Andres, Madrid, are
commended by Bermudez for correct design and
antique purity of style. He died some time after

670



1551. Alvae Pebez de Villoldo, uncle of Juan,
is mentioned in the records of Toledo cathedral as
having been employed on decorations there.

VILSTEREN, van, a Dutch engraver in

mezzotint, by whom we have some portraits,
among them that of a Burgomaster Bikker.

VIMERCATI. See Donelli.

VINAS. See Van Den Wijngaeede.

VINCELET, ViCTOE, a French painter of fi-uit
and flowers, was a native of Thiers (Puy-de-D6me),
and a pupil of M. L. Hullier. He exhibited flower-
pieces at the Salon in 1869 and 1870, and com-
mitted suicide in 1871. The Museum of S. !^tienne
has a fruit and flower picture by him.

VINCENT, Adelaide Labille-des-Veetus, was
born in Paris in 1749, and, was at first a pupil of
her father-in-law, Frangois Elie Vincent, and after-
wards of Latour. She first married a M. Guiard,
and after his death Franfois Andre Vincent. She
painted portraits, miniatures, &o., and was received
into the Academy in 1782, with a portrait of
'Pajou modelling his master Le Moine.' In 1787
and 1789 she painted portraits of Mesdames Ade-
laide and Victoire, and a large picture for Monsieur,
afterwards Louis XVIII. , of the 'Initiation of a
Knight of Malta,' which she had completed at
the outbreak of the Revolution, was soon after
destroyed. She died in 1803.

VINCENT-CALBRIS, Madame Sophie, landscape
painter, born at Rouen in 1822, died at Lille in
1859, was a pupil of R^mond. There is a land-
scape by her in the Lille Museum.

VINCENT, Feanqois Andeb, the son of Fban-
(jois Elie Vincent, a clever miniaturist, was bom
in Paris in 1746. He was at first placed with a
banker, but showing no taste for business, he
afterwards entered the school of Vien. Upon
winning the Grand Prix in 1768, he went to Rome,
whence he returned, after eight years, in 1776.
He was admitted an Associate of the Academy in
1777, with a ' S. Jerome,' and became an Acade-
mician in 1782, his reception picture being the
' Rape of Orythyia by Boreas,' now in the Louvre.
He was appointed Professor in 1792, and died in
Paris, August 3, 1816. His principal works were
' Belisarius asking Alms,' and ' Alcibiades listening
to the Lessons of Socrates.' He painted for the
king, 'President Mol^ seized by the Mob,' which
was exhibited in the Salon of 1779. Vincent also
practised as a painter on china, and as an etcher.
M. P.deBeaucoLir, in his 'PeintreGraveur,' describes
two rare plates by him, ' Le Malade' and ' Le
Pretre Grec' Vincent had many pupils. The
museums of Rouen, Bordeaux, and Orleans have
pictures by him.

VINCENT, Feanqois Philieebt, painter, was a
pupil of David, and flourished in Paris in the early
years of the 19th century. His portraits of the
Emperor and Empress appeared at the Salon of
1810.

VINCENT, Geoege, an English landscape and
marine painter, was born at Norwich in 1796. He
■learnt the principles of art from old Crome, and at
the early age of seventeen began to exhibit with the
Norwich Society. In 1814, his works first ap-
peared at the Royal Academy, to which he occa-
sionally contributed down to 1823. Coming to
London in 1819, he married and settled in Kentish
Town. His prospects were fair, but were blighted
by his recklessness. Bestowing less and less care
on his works, he gradually sunk into poverty and
obscurity. In his later years he exhibited at Suffolk



Vincent



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVEES.



Vinci



Street, where he last appeared in 1830. He is
believed to have died soon afterwards. Vincent
may be assigned the fourth place in the Norwich
school, after Crome, Cotman, and Stark. His
chef d'oeuvre is a masterly picture of Greenwich
Hospital from the north bank of the Thames. He
signed his pictures with a monogram composed of
his initials.

VINCENT, Henriettb, nee Eideau du Sal,
flower-painter, was a pupil of Spaendonck and
Eedout^, and was born at Brest in 1786. Lambert
the elder engraved two series of fruit and flower
studies from her designs.

VINCENT, Hubert, was a French engraver who
resided at Eome about the year 1691. We may
name the following plates by him :

The Nativity, called ' La Notte ' ; after Gorreggio.

The Judgment of Paris ; after Paolo Veronese.

VINCENT, W., an excellent English mezzotint
engraver of the latter part of the 17th century,
who worked in London. His plates are frequently
from his own designs ; these are perhaps the best :

Mrs. Bracegirdle as ' The Indian Queen.'

Charles I.

The Coke Family ; after Huysman.

Isabella, Duchess of Grafton.

Prince James )Stuart.

Queen Mary of Modena.

Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury.

Lake, Bishop of Chichester.

Turner, Bishop of Ely.

"White, Bishop of Peterborough.

Boy and Girl.

Shepherd and Shepherdess.

VINCENZO DA SAN GBMItiNANO. See
Tamaqni.

VINCENZO DA TARVIXIO. See Catena.

VINCENZO Di STEFANO da VERONA, or
ViNCENZO DA Verona, probably the son of Stefano
da Verona, flourished in the second half of the
15th century, and is the reputed master of Liberale
da Verona. A fresco at Verona is attributed to
him. It forms part of the decoration on the
monument erected in 1432 at Sant' Anastasia to
the memory of Cortesia Serego, the general ^of
Antonio Scaliger.

VINCENZO-BRESCIANO. See Foppa.

VINCHON, AuGUSTE Jean Baptists, was born
in Paris in 1789, and was a pupil of Serangeli. In
1814 he obtained the Grand Prix de Rome with
his ' Diagoras borne to the Temple.' In Eome he
worked in the style of the French school of the
day, but after his return he took to frescoes, exe-
cuting under commission from the Government
a series of ' Scenes from the Life of St. Maurice,'
for the chapel of that saint in S. Sulpice. He also
produced some grisaille paintings in the Louvre
from Greek and Roman history. He died at Ems
in 1855. The following oil pictures are also by
him:

The People breaking into the Convent — modern Greek
scene.

Enrolling the Volunteers of 1792.

The Dead Christ. {S. Vincent de Paul.)

VINCI, Leonaedo da, was bom in 1462, at the
Castello Vinci, in the Val d'Arno, midway between
Florence and Pisa. He was the illegitiinate son of
Ser Pier Antonio da Vinci, notary to the Florence
Signory. His mother, whose name was Caterina,
was afterwards the wife of one Aooatabriga di Piero
delVacca da Vinci. Leonard<i'seducationwas given
to liim in the house of his father. In his early
childhood he gave promise of the almost universal



genius he afterwards displayed. His favourite
occupations, however, were drawing and modelUng
in clay, and this fact induced Ser Piero to place
him, while still a child, with Andrea del Verrocchio,
as good a master as could then have been found in
Florence. In Verrocohio's studio, where Leonardo's
chief fellow-pupil was Lorenzo di Credi, he was
soon promoted to paint on his master's pictures.
In a 'Baptism of Christ,' ordered of Verrocchio by
the monks of Vallombrosa, Leonardo painted an
angel which, according to Vasari, was so much
better than his master's share of the work that
Verrocchio thenceforward renounced painting alto-
gether. Dr. Richter, however, Leonardo's latest
biographer (1879), is of opinion that his work was
by no means confined to the angel. In June 1472,
Leonardo's name was entered on the books of the
Florentine Guild as an independent painter ; his
name is there given as ' Lyonardo di Ser Piero da
Vinci.' Of his early pictures none can now be
surely traced. A cartoon for a ' Fall of Man,'
and the famous panel with the Medusa's head,
which is mentioned in all the books, have both dis-
appeared. A picture in the Borghese Gallery,
described by Vasari, and assigned by him to
Leonardo, is, in the opinion of modern critics, from
the brush of Lorenzo di Credi. It is possible,
however, that the scepticisin as to Leonardo's
authorship of many works ascribed to him, has
been carried too far, and that his style in youth
may have been peculiarly uncertain and various.
In 1478 Leonardo signed a contract for an altar-
piece for the chapel of St. Bernard, in the Palazzo
Pubblico at Florence. After carrying out a very
small part of the work, however, the commission
was transferred to Filippino Lippi, in whose
creation there is no trace of his predecessor. The
earliest undoubted work by Leonardo, which has
comedown to us, is the unfinished 'Adoration of
the Kings,' now in the UflSzi. To about the same
period belongs a small St. Jerome, in the Gallery of
the Vatican. Leonardo was among the artists ad-
mitted by Lorenzo de' Medici into his famous
garden near the Piazza di San Marco, and about
the year 1482 he was sent — if we may accept the
account of his anonymous biographer, which ap-
pears, on the whole, more probable than that of
Vasari — by Lorenzo to Duke Gian Galeazzo of
Milan, with the present of a silver lute.^ Belinzone
says that Leonardo was a sort of master of the cere-
monies at the wedding of Galeazzo with Isabella of
Calabria. Shortly after this we find him address-
ing to the Regent, Ludovico Sforza, the famous
report on his own talents, in which he declares
himself competent to undertake almost any task to
which a master could put a serviint. Leonardo re-
mained nearly twenty years in Milan, but what
he did all the time it is now hard to say. The
Duke apparently turned his genius to profit in any
capacity that was convenient for the moment, and
only a small part of his time seems to have been
given to painting and sculpture. Even taking
that into consideration, however, Leonardo was the
reverse of prolific. The one great work of his
which Milan still can boast is the famous ' Cena,'
in the refectory of the convent of Santa Maria
delle Grazie. It was commissioned, jointly, by the
monks and Ludovico, and like every one else who
employed Leonardo, they had the greatest difSculty
in getting the work completed. It was finished,
according to Luca Paciolo, in 1498. It is not a
fresco, as it has so often been called, but an oil

671



Vinci



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Vinci



painting on plaster, and in its present condition
but little of Leonardo's work can be descried
upon it. Its original appearance may now, per-
haps, be best divined from the favnous copy in
the Diploma Gallery of the Royal Academy, whicli
is usually ascribed to Marco d'Oggionno. Dr.
Riohter thinlts it more likely to be by Gian Pietrini.
I In 1499 Louis XII. of France, after his defeat of
Sforza, visited Leonardo's masterpiece, and ex-
pressed his wish that it could be cut out of the wall
and carried back with him to France. Of the pre-
paratory studies for it, tlie most important are some
heads in red chalk and two pen sketches, in the
royal collection at Windsor. While the 'Last
Supper' was in progress, Leonardo was also at
work on the equestrian statue of Francesco Sforza,
of which nothing remains but preparatory sketches,
the best of which are at Windsor. His time was
also occupied with engineering projects, especially
with a scheme for regulating the beds of the Lom-
bard rivers, which has since borne good fruit, and
with plans for Milan cathedral. He also painted,
among other things, portraits of Lucrezia Crivelli
and Cecilia Gallerani, mistresses of the Duke,
which are not now to be identified. The picture
in the Louvre known as ' La Belle Ferronifere,' and
sometimes asserted to be the missing Lucrezia
Crivelli, is almost certainly by another hand. In
the British Museum there is an engraving of a
female head, in profile, crowned with ivy, and en-
circled by an inscription which reads : ACHA :
LE : VI : an abbreviation for Academia Leonardi
Vinoii. This points to the Academy, the fir.st of
its kind, founded by Leonardo in Milan, where
numerous pupils were trained in various branches
of art. Among the scholars who shared its advan-
tages were BeltrafEo, Luoa Paoiolo, Andrea Salai,
Francesco Melzi, Lomazzo, and Cesare da Sesto.
. On the downfall and captivity of Duke Ludovico,
in 1600, Leonardo betook himself to Venice, where,
however, his stay was short, as in 1601 we find
him in Florence, and agreeing with Novolaria, the
vice-general of the Carmelites, to paint a portrait
for the Marohesa Isabella Gonzaga. In 1602 he
was in the service of CiESar Borgia as engineer, a
post he only filled for about a year, as Pope Alex-
ander VI. died on August 18, 1603, when his son's
authority came to an end. Records of Leonardo's
activity during this year are extant in his journals
and note-books, and in six maps drawn up by him-
self, and now at Windsor. In 1603 he was- in
Florence, and contracted with the Servite monks
to paint an altar-piece for their church, Santa
Maria dell' Annunziata, but never got farther than
the cartoon, which is now in London, in the
Diploma Gallery of the Royal Academy. Early in
1504 he took part in the discussions as to the best
position for Michelangelo's 'David,' and imme-
diately afterwards entered upon that veiled contest
with Buonarroti which forms one of the oliief epi-
sodes of liis life. Both artists were commissioned
to paint picaires in the new Sala del Consiglio, in
the palace of the Signory. Leonardo chose for his
subject a supposed incident in the Battle of An-
ghiari, gained by the Florentines over the Milanese
on the 29th June, 1440. For some two years he
worked at the cartoon, and then began the picture
itself, but left it unfinished on discovering his pro-
cess to be untrustworthy. It is now chiefly known
through the famous ' Fight for the Standard,' en-
graved by Edelinck after a free copy by Rubens.
Leonardo's father, Ser Piero da Vinci, died on the
672



9th of July, 1604, as we learn from the MS. in the
British Museum ; while in a MS. at South Kensing-
ton occurs an account headed, ' Expenses for the
funeral of Caterina,' no doubt his mother. Here,
unfortunately, there is nothing to show the date.
To 1604 belongs the most famous of Leonardo's
easel pictures, ' The Portrait of Mona Lisa,' now in
the Louvre. This lady was the wife of one Zanobi
del Giocondo, and the daughter of a Neapolitan,
Antonio Maria di Noldo Gherardini. Leonardo is
said to have spent four whole years on the picture,
which Avas bought a few years after its completion
by Francis I., who paid for it the then extravagant
price of four thousand gold florins. About the
same time Leonardo painted the portrait of Ginevra
Benci, the famous beauty, and drew the illustrations
for his pupil Paciolo's book, ' De Divina Propor-
tione,' which was published in 1609. His more or
less immediate disciples at Florence included Fra
Bartolommeo, Pontormo, Baccio Bandinelli, Rhi-
dolfo del Ghirlandajo, Gianfrancesco Penni, 'Fer-
rando the Spaniard,' ' Jacopo the German,' Raifaello
d' Antonio di Biagio, and Riccio da Santa Croce.

Some years before 1509, probably in 1505, Leo-
nardo had returned to Milan, where he lived with
his pupil Melzi. In 1606 betook service under the
French king, whom we find writing in his favour
to the Florentine Signory in 1607. In that year
Leonardo twice visited Florence, where he re-
appeared in 1609, but in 1611 he was in Milan.
This we gather from two drawings at Windsor of
conflagrations in that city ; which, he notes, were
lit by the Swiss mercenaries. In 1613 Giovanni
de' Medici became Pope Leo X., and Leonardo was
carried to Rome in the suite of Giuliano, the new
Pope's youngest brother. From a note of his own,
we know that the master was accompanied by five
of his pupils — Giovanni (Beltraffio ?), Melzi, Salai,
Lorenzo, and II Fanfoia. In Rome no success
attended him as an aspirant for commissions, a
result which was much more likely due to the
want of confidence caused by his continual failure
to finish what he undertook, and by the equivocal
reputation he must have gained by such childish
experiments as those with wax and lizards de-'
scribed by Vasari, than by the intrigues which
have been so freely attributed to his rivals. In
1515 he was again in Milan, and it was, perhaps,



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