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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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during this last stay in the city of which he was in
future to be accounted the brightest ornament, that
he painted ' The Madonna among Rocks,' now in
the National Gallery, of which there is a copy
in the Louvre ; and the ' Saint Anne ' in the
latter collection. Studies for both pictures are at
Windsor. A third Louvre picture, ' St. John the
Baptist,' may have been painted at the same time.
On the accession of Francis I. to the French throne,
Leonardo was confirmed in his oflBce, and from
1616 onwards he is said to have received a yearly
allowance of seven hundred scudi, and in that year
was established with his friend Melzi and some
of his old servants at the Chateau Cloux, near
Amboise. At Cloux he paited a 'Leda' and a
' Pomona,' both of which have vanished, and it is
within the bounds of possibility that the Louvre
' Saint Anne ' was painted there also, its design
being suggested by the cartoon now in our Royal
Academy. On April 23, 1519, Leonardo made his
will, leaving his papers to Melzi, his garden near
Milan to Salai and his servant Battista de Vilani,
and to his brother a sum of four hundred ducats
deposited in Santa Maria Nuova, Florence. His




death took place at Cloux, on May 2nd, in the same
year. The tradition that he died in the arms of
Francis has heen disproved by entries in the King' s
diaries, which show him to have been at St.Germain-
en-Laye on the day of th^ painter's death. The
grave_ of Leonardo has of late years been searched
for without result, but in the archives of the Eoyal
Chapel at Amboise occurs this entry : ' Fut inhnm^
dans le cloistre de cette %lise Mr. Lionard de
Vincy, nosble millanais, 1" peintre et ing^nieur
et architecte du Roy, meschasnisohien d'^stat et
anchien directeur de peinture du duo de Milan.
Ce fut faict le dovo« jour da aoust, 1519.' The only
authentic portrait of Leonardo is a red chalk
drawing by himself in the Turin Academy.

All the pictures by Leonardo which can he cer-
tainly depended upon have been already mentioned.
It is likely that some others ascribed to him are
really by his hand, but in no case is there sufficient
evidence, internal or external, to justify their inclu-
sion in a list of his authentic works. His drawings,
on the other hand, are very numerous. The finest
collection, by far, is that in the Royal Library at
Windsor. Leonardo was also a prolific writer.
The library of the ' Institat,' in Paris, possesses
fourteen volumes of his manuscripts ; Milan has
the ' Codex Atlanticus ' ; and in England there are
as many as in the rest of Europe put together.
Most of these are at Windsor, others in the British
Museum, the South Kensington Museum, the col-
lections of Lord Ashburnham, and the Earl of
Leicester. Leonardo was left-handed, and wrote
from right to left, which makes his MS. difficult to
decipher. His famous 'Trattato delia Pittura '
was published in an abridged form in 1650, in
Paris ; and in full, in 1817, in Rome. But the
bulk of his MSS. remained inaccessible until 1883,
when Dr. Richter published them in London, in
two 8vo volumes. To the same writer, who has
devoted nuich of his time to an exhaustive study
of the master's life and work, do we mainly owe
our present notion of Leonardo's career. W. A.


Carlo de Blasis, ' Leonardo da Vinci.' (Milan, 1872.)
P. Bocca, ' Leonardo da Vinci.' ('Milan, 1872.)

F. Turotti, ' L. da V. e la sua Scuola.' (Milan, 1857.)

G. Uzielli, ' Eicerche intorno a L. da V.' (Florence, 1872.)
Carlo Amoretti, ' Memorie storiche su la vita, gli studj

e le opere di L. da V.' (Milan, 1874.)
Giuseppe Campori, ' Nuovi documenti per la vita di L.

daV.' (1865.)
Giorgio Vasari, ' L. da V.,' vol. iv. pp. 17—5.3. (Mila^

nasi ed., Florence, 1880.)
' Trattato della Pittura di L. da V.' (Paris, 1650.)
Ch. Clement, ' Vie de L. da Vinci.'
L. Courajod, ' L. de V. et la Statue de Fr. Sforza.'

(Paris? 1879.)
Arsene Houssaye, ' Histoire de L. da V.' (Paris, 1869.)
M. J. BigoUot, ' Catalogue de I'osuvre de L. da V.'

(Paris, 1849.)
A. F. Rio, ' L. da V. et son fcole.' (Paris, 1855.)
Aug. Hagen, ' L. da V. in Milan.' (Leipzig, 1840.)
Hermann Grothe, ' L. da V. als Ingenieur und Pbilo-

soph.' (Berlin, 1874.)
Lady Eastlake, ' Five Great Painters.' (London, 1383.)
J. F. Kigaud, ' L.'s Treatise on Fainting, with life.

(Bohn's Library ; London, 1877.)
M. M. Heaton (Mrs.), 'L. da V. and his Works.'

(London, 1874 )
J. P. Kichter, ' The Literary "Works of L. da V. (with

a translation into English).' (London and Leipzig,

J. P. Biohter, ' Leonardo.' (' Great Artist ' Series. Lon-
don, 1880.)
J. P. Bichter, ' Italian Pictures in the National Gallery; '

pp. 101—104. (London. 1883.)
VOL. n. X X

Giov. Morelli, ' Italian Masters in German Galleries.'

(Tr. by Mrs. Bichter ; London, 1883.)
' LermoUeff ' (Gio. Morelli), ' Die Galerie Borghese ; ' in

the Zeitshrift fir Uldende Kunst, vol. x., 1875.

VINCINO (or ViciNo) was a pupil of Gaddo
Gaddi, and worked in the 14th century at mosaics
for the Cathedral of Pisa. It has been proved that
he was a native, not of Pisa, but of Pistoja.

VINCITORE, T0MMAS0,( ViNoiDOR,) painter, called
ToMMASo DA Bologna, was the pupil of Raphael,
whom he is said to have helped in the execution of
the famous cartoons. In 1520 he travelled to
Flanders, commissioned by Leo X., to intrust the
reproduction of the cartoons in tapestry to Flemish
artists. In the safe-conduct supplied him by the
Pope for his journey, Leo eulogizes his talent, and
speaks of him as his own painter. At Antwerp he
formed a friendship with Albrecht Diirer (1521); the
German master painted his portrait, and refers to ^
him in his ' Journal ' under the name of Thomas
Polonius. Vincidor is further said to have heen
one of those pupils of Raphael who carried out the
frescoes in the Loggia under his direction. Later
details of the life of Tommaso are vague and
scanty. He seems to have entered the service of
Henry of Nassau, at Breda, to have been employed
in reconstructive and decorative work at the Castle
there, and to have died in the Netherlands about

VINCK, J., was a landscape and portrait painter,
of whose life no particulars are known. His land-
scapes are in a manner founded . upon those of
Vinckeboons, Paul Bril, and Bnieghel, and appear to
have been painted in 'the early part of the 17th cen-
tury. His portraits are known only by engravings.
VINCKEBOONS, David, (Vinckebooms, or
ViNCKENBOOMS,) bom at Mechlin in 1578, was
the son of Philip Vinckeboons, (an obscure painter
in distemper, who went to Antwerp in 1580, and to
Amsterdam in 1587,) by whom he was taught tlie
elements of art. He painted small landscapes in
the style of Roelandt Savery and Jan Brueghel.
They have sometimes subjects from the Bible,
sometimes fairs and merry-makings, the figures
being frequently by Rottenhammer. He also
painted animals in small, and practised as a
glass painter. He died at Amsterdam in 1629.
One of his most important works is a picture in
the ' Old Men's House,' at Amsterdam, representing
a crowd of people attending the drawing of a lottery
by torch-light. The Antwerp museum has a 'Vil-
lage Fete,' and other examples in the same genre
are to be found at Augsburg, Dresden, Stockholm,
Hamburg, Frankfort, Amsterdam, and Copenhagen.
Of his sacred subjects the best examples are ' Christ
hearing His Cross,' in the Munich Gallery ; ' Christ
restoring Sight to the Blind,' at Frankfort ; a
' Flight into Egypt,' in the Berlin Museum, and a
number of pictures in the Vienna Gallery. He
etched a few original landscapes, and a plate
known as 'Death and the Loving Couple' ; these
he usually marked with a monogram, composed of
a i), a F. and a B. The British Museum has
four pen drawings by him, washed with Indian
ink, from the story of the Prodigal Son.

VINIT, Charles Lj^qn, painter and architect, is
best known as the latter, but after completing his
education as an architect, he studied painting in
Remond's atelier, and from 1838 to 1852 frequently
exhibited architectural views, of French and East-
ern subjects, at the Salon. Born in Paris in 1806,
he died in his native city, April 30, 1862. The





Toulouse Museum has a view by him of the fioole
des Beaux Arts, and the Nlmes Museum a copy by
him of Panini's 'St. Peter's, Rome,' now in the

YINKELES, Eeinier, a Dutch draughtsman
and engraver, was born at Amsterdam in 1741.
He was a pupil of Jan Punt, and also studied in
Paris under Lebas. He engraved some 2500 plates
for books, chiefly portraits and vignettes, of which
about 1500 were from his own designs. Most note-
worthy among these are the illustrations for the
dramatic works of Winter and Merken, and his own
portrait on the same plate with those of J. Schmidt
and J. Andriessen. He died at Amsterdam in
1816. His two daughters, Cecilia and Elizabeth,
and his grandson Herman, were painters.

VINNE. See Van dbr Vinne.

VINSAC, Claude DoMiNlQnB, was born at Tou-
louse in 1749. He engraved small portraits, and
designs for goldsmiths, in the dotted manner.

VINTCENT, LoDEwiJK Anthonij, was bom at
the Hague in 1812. He was a pupil of B. J. van
Hove and Cornells Kruseman. He for a time de-
voted himself to genre subjects, but, in 1831, he
took to portraiture in pencil, chalk, and Indian ink.
He visited Paris in 1837, and died in 1842, a mem-
ber of the Academy of Amsterdam.

VIOLA, Domenico, a mediocre imitator of II
Calabrese, who flourished at Naples, and died, very
old, about 1696.

VIOLA, Giovanni Battista, was born at Bologna
in 1576, and was a scholar of Annibale Carracci,
whose manner in landscape he adopted. In com-
pany with Francesco Albani, he visited Rome, and
was employed in ornamenting palazzi, in which he
painted landscapes, with figures by Albani and
Domenichino. One of the works which brought
him into repute was a landscape, painted for the
Vigna of Cardinal Alessandro Montalto, where Paul
Bril was employed at the same time. He also
painted in the Apollo saloon of the Villa Aldo-
brandini. He was appointed keeper of the bed-
chamber to Pope Gregory XV., and died at Rome
in 1622.

VIOLET, Pieeee, a French miniature painter,
born in 1749. The first part of his career was
passed in his native country, where he was ap-
pointed miniature painter to the court. At the
Revolution •• he migrated to England, where he
continued to practise, exhibiting many works at
the Royal Academy between 1790 and 1819. He
died in London in 1819.

VIOLLET-LE-DUC, Etienne Adolphe, born in
Paris in 1817, was a pupil of L^on Fleury, and
exhibited at the Salon from 1844 to the year of his
death. His works were landscape views, chiefly
of French coast scenery, and gained three medals
at the Salon. He died in Paris in 1878.

VIOTTI, GiDLio, painter, born in 1845, first
studied jurisprudence, but afterwards turned to
art, and became the pupil of Andrea Castaldi. He
painted genre pictures, and in 1873 won a medal at
Vienna. He was a defective draughtsman. He
died at Turin in 1877.

VIRSCHEN. See Visscher, Theodooe.



VISCHER, Cohnelis, a Dutch portrait painter, of
whose life little is known. Born at Gouda about
1520, he is said to have become insane, and to have
drowned himself during his passage from Ham-
burg to Amsterdam. In the Vienna Gallery there

674 "^

is a portrait of a man by him, inscribed : Aetatis suce
62 A" 1574. Arsprohat virum. A portrait by
him of William I. Prince of Orange lying in State,
now at Amsterdam, is dated 1584.

VISCHER, Peteb, called Vischee von Wilden-
STEiN, an engraver, was bom at Basle in 1779.
He was a pupil of Peter Biermann, and etched
some good original landscapes. He died in 1851.
VISCHER, ViNCENZ. See Fischee.
VISENTINO, Antonio, painter and engraver,
was born at Venice in 1688. He was a pupil
of Canale, in whose manner he painted and etched
architectural views of Venice, to which Tiepolo
and Zuocarelli sometimes added figures. He died
in 1782, Among his plates are a series of forty
after his master, Canale.

VISING, II , has been called the pupil both

of Mariotto Albertinelli and of Francia Bigio ; the
latter assertion at least is improbable. Vasari says
Albertinelli. A panel with the ' Descent from the
Cross,' by Visino, is in the Galleria del Seminario,
at Venice. In the Bologna Academy, a 'Virgin
and Child ' is generally attributed to him. He
visited Hungary, and is believed to have died there
about 1512.

VISO. See Del Vise.

VISPEE, FsANgois Saveeio, a French painter
and engraver, was born in Paris about 1730. He
engraved portraits in mezzotint, among them those
of Louis XV. and other members of the Royal
Family of France. He visited London about the
year 1765, where, among other plates, he engraved
a portrait of the Chevalier d'Eon. He exhibited
fruit-pieces, in oil and on glass, in Spring Gardens.
He was still living and practising at Dublin at the
end of the century. He was a fellow of the
Society of , Antiquaries.

VISPRB. Victor, a French miniature painter,
horn towards the middle of the 18th centuiy. He
was the brother of Prangois Vispr^, with whom he
migrated to Ireland, to practise in Dublin. His
works, which were chiefly portraits, often in pastel,
appeared at the Society of Artists, the Free Society,
and the Royal Academy, from 1763 to 1778.
Among his sitters were Garrick and his wife.

VISSCHER, CoRNELis, draughtsman and en-
graver, was born at Amsterdam about 1620. He
was a pupil of Pieter Soutman, but adopted a
manner of his own, and has never been surpassed
in the technic of line engraving. His ' Giles
Boutma,' the ' Pancake-woman,' the ' Seller of
Rat's bane,' the ' Gipsy Woman,' the ' Harper,' and
the ' Cat,' may be cited as models of perfection in
the carriage of the burin. He was less successful
in historical plates from Italian and Flemish
painters, particularly in those engraved after
Rubens. He died about 1670. He executed some
good drawings in black chalk. The following are
his best prints :

A Portrait, supposed to be that of himself; inscribed
Corn. Visscher fecit, anno 1649,

Ditto. Co7m. Visscher fecit, anno 1651.

Andreas Deonyszoon AVinius, called ' The Man with the
Pistol.' The scarcest and most valuable of his por-

GelliuB de Bouma (Giles Boutma), Minister at Zutphen.

William de Ryck, Oculist, of Amsterdam, These two
portraits are commonly called ' The great Beards,'

Cornells Vosbergius, pastor of Spaerwouw, 1653,

Willem van den Zande, Theologian ; after Soutman.

David Pieterz de Vries, Grand-master of Artillery to
the States of Holland,

Jacob Westerbaen, Lord of Brandwyck, &c.

Constantino Huygens, Lord of Zuylichem. 1657.




Lieven Tan Coppenol, called the Writing-master. 1658.
AViUiam, Prince of Orange ; after G. Honthorst. 1649.
Mary, Daughter of James I., Princess of Orange ; after

the same. 1649.
Prince Charles, afterwards King of England ; after the

same. 1650.
The Pancake-woman. From his own design.
The Eat-catcher. Do.
The Gipsy Woman, with three Children, one of

which she is suckling. Do.
Boy holding a Candle, and Girl with a Mouse-trap. So.
A Cat sleeping on a Napkin (called the small cat). Do.
A Cat sleeping, with a Eat behind her. Do.
The Coronation of the King and Queen of Sweden. Do.
The Angel directing the Departure of Abraham ; after

Abraham's Arrival at Sichem ; after the same.
Susannah and the Elders ; after Guide.
A Woman's Head ; from a Parmese picture.
The Entombment ; after Tintoretto.
The Eesurrection ; cfter Paolo Veronese.
The Holy Family, with S, John presenting a Pear to

the Infant Christ.
The Last Judgment ; after Bubens.
A Madonna crowned by Angels ; afterjhe same.
Achilles discovered by Ulysses at the" court of Lyco-

medes ; after the same.
The travellmg Musicians; after A. van Ostade.
Two Men, and a Woman holding a Glass ; after the

' The Skaters ; ' after the same ; an interior with several

figiires, and in front, a pair of skates, from which the

print has obtained its name.
The Surgeon; after A. Brouwe/r.

Man playing the Violin, others singing ; «/if«' the same.
The Attack on the Convoy ; after f. van Laar.
The Coach robbed ; after the same.
The Lime-kiln ; after the same.
A set of four Landscapes ; after Berchem.
Another set of four Landscapes ; after the same.

A very fine collection of tlie works of Cornelis
Visscher is in the British Museum.
' VISSCHER, Jan, the younger brother of Cor-
nelis Vissoher, was born at Amsterdam in 1635 or
1636. Although he did not possess the genius of
his brother, he was an able engraver. His plates
are carried farther with the point than those of
Cornelis, and his style of etching is uncommonly
picturesque and effective. His prints after Berchem
(about fifty), Wouwerman, Van Goyen, and Ostade
are excellent. He also engraved several portraits.
In his fifty-sixth year he learnt painting under
Carre, but of his pictures we know nothing. The
date of his death is unrecorded, but it was after
1692. The following are among his best plates :

Jan de TJytenbogaert ; Joh. de Visscher sc.

Abraham van der Hulst, Vioe-Admiral of Holland.

Peter Paul Bubens ; after Van Dyck.

Admiral de Euyter ; after Berehmans.

A Negro, holding a Bow and Arrow in his hand ; after

Cornelis Visscher.
Peasants playing at Trictrac ; aftei' A. van Ostade.
A Woman spinning and a Man winding ; after the same.
Peasants dancing; called Ostade's Ball; after the same.
Peasants regaling at an Ale-house door ; after the same.
A Country Wedding, called Ostade's Bride ; after the

Several Pea.sants dancing in a Cottage; called Berchem's

Ball ; after Berchem. (His best plate.)
The Shepherd ; after the same.
The Four Times of the Day (Landscapes); after the

A set of six plates of Figures and Animals ; after K. du

A set of four plates ; after F, van Laar,
Several Landscapes, &c. ; after Fh. fVouwerman.
A set of twelve Landscapes ; after J. van Goyen.
A set of twelve Landscapes ; after Herm. Swanevelt.

VISSCHER, Claes Jansz, an engraver and print-
seller, was born at Amsterdam in 1580, and

XX 2

probably belonged to the same family as the artists
already mentioned. We have a variety of etchings
by him, partly original, partly after other artists.
He also engraved several portraits. His prints are
sometimes marked with a monogram, composed of

a C, an I, and a V : thus, ■^.; the first letter for

Glaes, which is an abbreviation of Nicholas. Of
the large number of plates inscribed C. J. Visscher
exc, many were no doubt only pubhshed and
sold by him. The following are some of his own
works :

Charles I., King of England, in around hat. Marked
with the above monogram.

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury.

James II.

James, Duke of Monmouth.

John Calvin.

Desiderius Erasmus.

An Allegory on Human Life.

A set of twelve Views of Haarlem and its neighbour-

A View of the Castle of Lowenstein,

A set of Landscapes, with Views of the Castles of
Abcou, Pymerendt, Muyden, and Toatenbvu:g.

A set of four plates from the Story of the Prodigal
Son ; after Vinckehoons.

There has been a good deal of confusion over
the Visschers. Nagler points out that a print-
selling business was carried on at Amsterdam
in the middle of the 16th century by Jan Claesz
Visscher ; that he had a son, an engraver,
Claes (Nicolas) Jansz, (the above,) whose early
plates are frequently signed de Jonge (the
younger) ; that, later, Claes Jansz succeeded to
his father's business, and thenceforth signed him-
self C. J. Vissoher, Nicolaus Joannis Visscher,
or Nic. Jo. Piscator.

VISSCHER, Lambebt, the brother of Cornelis
and Jan Visscher, was born at Amsterdam in 1634,
and passed most of his life in Rome, where he
died. In conjunction with Cornelis Bloemaert and
Fran9ois Spierre, he engraved some plates from
the paintings by Pietro da Cortona, in the palace
of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. We have also
some portraits by him. The following are perhaps
his best plates :

Marie Th&ese, Queen of France ; after Van Loo.
Anne of Austria, Queen of France ; after the same.
Jan de Wit, Pensionary of Holland ; afterj. de Baan.
Cornelis Tromp, Vice- Admiral of Holland^ after F. Bol.
Seleucus yielding Stratonice to Antiochus ; after P. da

Virtue withdrawing a young Man from the embraces of

Sensuality. Bo.

VISSCHER, Theodooe, a landscape and animal
painter, was born at Haarlem about 1650, and
studied under Nicolas Berchem, but afterwards
spent twenty-five years in Rome, where, from his
drunken habits, he acquired the name of ' Slempop.'
Some of his pictures, however, are painted fairly,
and resemble those of his first master. He died
about the end of the 17th century.

VISSELLET, M., an engraver, supposed to have
been a Frenchman, who lived about the commence-
ment of the 17th century. Dumesnil enumerates
forty-three plates by him of subjects from the
New Testament ; they are coarsely engraved, and
resemble the wood-cuts of J. Stella, of which they
seem to be imitations. Some are signed MV. F.,
and one M- Vissellet F.

VITA, Dblla (Vite). See Della Vite.

VITALBA, Giovanni, was an Italian engraver,
who was born about the year 1740. He was a





.pupil of Wagner, whose stylo he imitated. In
1765 he came to England, and engraved several
plates for Boydell. He was still living in 1790.
Among others, we have the following prints by
him :

Cupid, with two Satjnrs ; after Affoslino Carracci.

' Spring ' and ' Summer ' ; after Fil. Lauri.

Herodias with the Head of St. John ; after L. Pasinelli.

VITALE. See Cavalli.

VITALT, Alkssanduo, born at Urbino in 1580,
was a scholar and imitator of Eederigo Barocci,
who was so pleased with his talent that he painted
on some of his pictures. Vitali died in 16'iO.

VITALI, Candido, was born at Bologna in 1680.
He was brought up in the school of Carlo Cignani,
and by his advice devoted himself to painting
animals, birds, flowers, and fruit. He died in

VITALI, GlosEFFO, was a native of Bologna,
and flourislied about the year 1700. He was a
scholar of Giovanni Giuseppe dal Sole, and painted
historical subjects. There are several of his works
in the churches at Bologna, the best being an
' Annunciation,' in Sant' Antonio ; a ' S. Petronio,'
in SS. Sebastiano e Rocco ; and a ' Martyrdom of
St. Cecilia,' in the church of that saint.

VITE, Antonio, was a disciple of Gherardo
Stamina, and was born at Pistoja. He flourished
about the year 1378, and was perhaps identical
with one Antonio di Filippo of Pistoja, whose
name occurs in records of the period. He is said
to have worked at Pisa, for the Campo Santo, at
Prato, in the Palazzo del Ceppo, and in various
churches of his native town.

VITE, Giovanni della. See Miel.

VITE, PiETRO and Tim. della, (or Viti). See


VITELLI, (or Vitel). See Wittel.
VITBRBO, Lorenzo di. See Lobenzo di


VITO, San. See Amalteo, Pomponio.

VITRINGA,WiQER[JS, sometimes calledWiLLiAM,
a marine painter, was born at Leeuwarden in 1657.
He was a lawyer by profession. His pictures have
features in common with those of Bakhuisen,
Willem van de Velde, and Rietschoof, but are not
servile imitations. His ships are well drawn. His
pictures are seldom signed, and are often ascribed
to other artists. His drawings, in Indian ink
washed with bistre, are frequently signed and
dated. He seems to have worked at Alkmaar,
where his name occurs in the Painters' Guild
registers in 1696. He died at Wirdum in 1721.

VITTINGHOFF, Karl, Baron von, who often
worked under the name of Fischbach, was born at
Presburg in 1772. He lived at Vienna, where he
painted and etched landscapes, with figures and
animals. He illustrated an edition of 'jEsop's
Fables.' He died in 1826.


VITTORB DI MATTEO, a painter of the Venetian
school, and the disciple and assistant of Giov.
Bellini. He was one of the artists chosen by
Bellini to value Giorgione's frescoes in the Fondaco
in 1508, and in 1515 worked under his master in
the Hall of Council. It seems highly probable, as
pointed out by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, that he
was identical with Vittore Belliniano {q.v.).

VITULINI, Bernardino, was born in Serravalle,
and lived at Belluno. He is known to have painted
frescoes in the church of Ampezzo, Cadore, in


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