Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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VITUS, DoMENico, an Italian engraver, was bom
about the year 1536. The facts of his life are
little known. He is supposed to have studied
engraving under Agostino Veneziano, whose style
he imitated with some success. In the prime of
life he retired to the monastery of Valombrosa,
in the Apennines. Among his plates are the
following :

St. Bartholomew ; inscribed, Dom. Vitis ordinis Valis-
umhrostB Monachus excidit RovuB. 1576.

St. Joachim holdiug a Censer ; after A. del Sarto.

Jupiter and Calisto ; inscribed, Dominicus J\ F.

A set of small plates representing the Passion, the
borders ornamented with birds, beasts, &c.

A set of plates from the Antique ; Dom. Vitus fee.

VIVAR^feS, FBANgois, was a native of France,
but passed the greater part of his life in England.
He was born near Montpellier, July 11, 1709, and
was apprenticed to a tailor, but was in the habit
of drawing, etching, and even engraving, during
his leisure. When eighteen years old he came to
London, where he studied under J. B. Chatelain.
Being a man of ability, he improved upon the
style of his master, and became one of the most
eminent landscape engravers of his time. He was
particularly successful in his plates after Claude
Lorrain. Eventually Vivares formed a school of
engravers, and to him and his fellow-countryman
Balechou must be accorded the credit of founding
the school of landscape engravingwhich was carried
to such perfection by the genius of Woollett and
others. In 1766 he entered the Incorporated Society
of Artists, and died in London, November 6, 1780,
after a residence of thirty years in England. He has
left some hundred and fifty prints ; among them
the following :

A set of four Views of Euins ; after J. Smith {of

Chichester).
Eight Views in Derbyshire ; after TJios. Smith ofDtri'i/.
A Landscape, called the Hop-gatherers ; aftei- Geo.

Smith (of Chichester).'
A Landscape ; after Gainshorough.
A View in Holland, by moonlignt ; after Van der Neer.
A Land-storm ; after Gaspard Foussin.
A Tempest, with the history of Jonah ; after the same.
A Landscape, Morning ; after Claude Lorrain.
The Companion, Evening ; after the same.
The Enchanted Castle ; aftei- tlie same.
A View in the Environs of Naples ; after the same.

VIVARES, Thomas, an English engraver, born
in London about 1735. He was one of the thirty-
one children of Fiangois Vivares, by whom he was
taught, and gained a prize at the Society of Arts
in 1761. He engraved several architectural plates
for the works of the brothers Adam, published in
1773, but some of his plates are after drawings by
himself. He also taught drawing. He exhibited
a few works at the Academy, the Society of Artists,
and the Free Society, between 1764 and 1788 ; after
the latter date we can find no trace of him.

VIVARINI, Andrea, or Andrea da Mdrano,
painter, flourished at Murano at the end of the
15th century, and was thought to have been of
the same family with Antonio and Bartolommeo
Vivarini, but of that there is no evidence. In
1501 he painted a largo altar-piece for the church
Trebaseleghe, near Noale, as we know from the
document recording payment for it, which still
exists in the parish archives. In the Venice
Academy there are two figures of saints by him.
They once formed part of an ancona in the church
of S. Pietro Martire, Murano, which has been
dismembered.



Vivarini



PAINTERS AND ENQEAVERS.



Vivarini



VIVARINT, Antonio, more properly Antonio
DA MuRANO, was an Italian painter of the first
half of the 15th century, who flourished at Murano,
and who, together with his partner, Griovanni da
Murano (Johannes Alemannus), must be looked
upon as the founder of the school of Murano. The
date at which tlie partnership began is uncertain,
and it is not known whether they practised else-
where than at Murano or no. Their works, how-
ever, seem to clearly prove the influence of Gentile
da Fabriano and of Pisano. Antonio was a native
of Murano, and a member of the artist family after-
wards known as the Vivarini, while the theory
that Giovanni was a member of the school of
Cologne is fairly supported by the characteristics
of his art. The Italian Giovanni da Murano, to
whom the later works of Johannes Alemannus have
been ascribed, is now allowed to be a myth, created
by that common form of artistic chauvinism which
demands a native founder for a national school.
The two painters signed their names jointly
Johannes el -Antonius de Muriano. Later the
signature varies, and appears as Johannes Aleman-
nus et Antonius de Muriano. Under the first
signature there is a large ' Coronation of the
Virgin,' in the Venetian Academy, dated 1440,
which has, however, been much damaged by
restoration. The Commendatore Morelli, we may
note, believes this picture to be merely a copy of
the one mentioned below, as now in the church of
S. Pantaleone, and the signature to be forged. A
Madonna Enthroned with Angels, and four Fathers
of the Church, dated 1446, is in the same gallery,
and bears the second inscription. Other works
produced during this partnership are: an altar-
piece in fourteen compartments, in the Brera, re-
presenting the Virgin and Child, with a Bene-
dictine monk kneeling before her, and numerous
Saints; and three altar-pieces in the sacristy of
the church of S. Zaooaria at Venice — two dated
1443, and the third 1444. Of works painted
by Antonio alone the following are known : an
' Adoration of the Kings,' in the Berlin Gallery, an
early production, probably painted before his con-
nection with Giovanni, and showing the influence
of Gentile da Fabriano ; SS. Peter and Jerome,
in the National Gallery; 'The Coronation of the
Virgin,', a large altar-piece in the church of S.
Pantaleoneat Venice, signed and dated 1444. This
last has been much repainted. In 1450 Antonio
seems to have parted company with his German
fellow-worker, to associate himself with his own
younger brother, Bartolommeo, who took the
name of Vivarini {q.v.). An altar-piece, the Virgin
and Child with Saints, in the Bologna Gallery,
dated 1450, is inscribed with the names of the two
brothers. Antonio, if we may believe Sansovino,
lived until 1470. His latest extant work is an altar-
piece in the gallery of the Lateran. It is signed
with his name alone, and dated 1464. Besides the
works already mentioned we may note : W. A.
Brescia. Seminario. S. Ursula between SS. Peter

and Paul.
Padua. S.Filippo. AM&donna, (yen/ fine fragment).

VIVARINI, Baktolommeo, who up to 1459
signed himself Bartolommeo da Mueano, but after-
wards adopted the name which is now so well
known, was the brother of Antonio da Murano.
In 1450 he, with Antonio, executed the Madonna
and Child, for the Carthusians of Bologna, which is
generally considered one of the best productions
of that time in Northern Italy, and is now in the



Communal Gallery of Bologna. A ' Glorification
of St. Peter,' signed and dated by the two brothers
in 1451, is in the Communal Gallery of Padua ;
and other examples are to be seen in the churches
of Pausola and Bergamo, and in S. M. d. Salute at
Venice. The S. Giovanni Capistrano in the Louvre
is dated 1459, in which year Bartolommeo first
commenced to sign himself 'Vivarini.' In 1464
he withdrew from his partnership with his brother,
and began to show the influence of Paduan masters
on his style. Bartolommeo's method was much
affected by the arrival of Antonello da Messina in
Venice, about 1470, and by the experiments in the
use of oil or varnish induced by his example. Crowe
and Cavalcaselle say that Bartolommeo was the first
Venetian to try the new system. In 1489 Vivarini
painted a ' Death of the Virgin,' for the Certosa of
Padna, which formerly bore, according to Moschini,
the following inscription : " Hoc opus factum fuit
Venetiis per Bartholomeum Vivarinum de Muriano
1499." This was afterwards so mutilated and doc-
tored as apparently to declare the authorship of
Giotto, under whose name it existed for a long
time in Lord Northwick's collection. The date
of Vivarini's death is uncertain, but it occurred
after 1499. Works : W. A.

'Bevgaxao. Lochis Carrara ) -^. . j ^ • j. i^oo
Gallery. | Virgin and Saints. 1488.

„ „ A Madonna. 1486.

Berlin. Museuvi. St. George and the Dragon.

„ „ St. Ambrose with four other

Saints. 1477.
London. JVat. Gall. Madonna and Child between

SS. Paul and Jerome.
Naples. Museum. Virgin and four Saints. 1465.

Paris. Louvre. S. Giovanni Capistrano (signed

OWs. Baetholomei. Viv-

EINI. TIE. MVEANO). 1459.

Venice. S. Maria For- \ Scenes from the Life of the
ntosa. J Virgin. 1473.
„ SS. Giov. e Paolo. St. Augustine.
„ „ SS. Dominick and Laurence.

1473.
„ Frari. St. Mark with four other Saints.

1474.
,, Academy. Virgin and four Saints. 1464.

Vienna. Belvedere. St. George and the Dragon.

1485.

VIVARINI, Giovanni. The theory that a
Muranese painter of this name existed at all is
now generally abandoned. It was first promulgated
by some Italian critics, notably Zanetti and Mos-
chini, who, zealous for the glory of the Venetian
school, sought to establish that the Giovanni da
Murano of the later signatures on the joint works
of Antonio da Murano and Johannes Alemannus
(q. v.), was a native artist, and not identical with
the German Giovanni. Taking advantage of this
hypothesis, certain Venetian dealers dismembered
an altar-piece purchased from the church of San
Stefano, at Venice (probably an ' Apotheosis of S.
Jerome,' executed for that church by the partners
in 1441), and, forging signatures on the separate
panels, invented, amongst others, the name of
Giovanni Vivarini. The fragments thus decorated
were foisted upon Signer Ascanio Molin, a wealthy
collector, but the fraud was speedily detected, and
denounced by Pietro Brandolese, Lazzaro, Lanzi,
and others.

VIVARINI, LuiGi, (Alvisb, Aloise,) the date
of whose birth is unknown, was a kinsman of
Bartolommeo Vivarini, under whom he certainly
studied. His earliest recorded works were painted
about 1464, when he and Carpaocio competed with

677



Viveroni



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



Vleriok



Giov. Bellini in the decorations for the scuola of
S. Girolamo, at Venice. These pictures of Alvise's
have, however, disappeared. The ' Adoration of
Christ,' dated 1476, in the sacristy of the church
of Montefiorentino, is one of his early productions,
and shows that he had then already commenced
the use of oil. In 1480 he painted a splendid
'Virgin and Saints,' for San Francesco, Treviso,
now in the Vernce Academy. To about this date
belong the SS. Matthew and John the Baptist, in
the same collection ; and the fresco of ' Christ
carrying His Cross,' in SS. Giovanni e Paolo. In
1488, Alvise Vivarini wrote a letter to the Signory
of Venice, requesting permission to share with the
Bellini in the commission to decorate the Hall of
Great Council. To this he received a favourable
reply, and thereupon executed two paintings, which
were burned in the fire of 1577. The subjects,
Vasari tells us, were ' Otho promising to mediate
between Venice and Barbarossa,' and ' Barbarossa
receiving his Son.' The Council were so pleased
with the pictures that, in 1492, Alvise was named
Depentor in Gran Gonseio, with a salary of five
ducats a month. Notwithstanding this work for
the State, he continued to paint altar-pieces for
private patrons. The ' Apotheosis of St. Ambrose,'
in the Cappella Milanesi of the Frari, Venice,
was probably the last production of Alvise, as the
inscription tells us that it was completed after his
death by Marco Basaiti. The date upon it is 1503.
After the Bellini, Luigi Vivarini was the greatest
of the Venetian quattrocentisti. Works :

Berlin. Museum, Virgin enthroned. (From S.

CristoforOj 3furano.)
„ „ Virgin enthroned. (Perhaps

from S. Maria dei Battuti,

Belluno.)
Ferrara. CostaUl. Gal. Coronation of the Virgin.
Milan. Brera. Christ in benediction. (/jiscriieiZ

' Alvisius Vivarinus de Muri-

ano pin. mcccclxxxxviii.'
„ Cam Bonomi. Male portrait ; signed and dated

1497.
Naples. Museum, Virgin and Saints.

Venice. Academy. Virgin enthroned, with Saints.

(From S. Francesco^ Treviso.

Signed 'Alvixe Vivariu p.

MCCOCLXXX.')

„ „ St. John the Baptist.

,j „ St. Matthew. (From the style

of these Jigures Moschini argues
mistakenly that tliere were two
Luigi rivarinis.)

„ „ S. Chiara. (Ascribed to Barto-

lommeo.)

„ Fran. Apotheosis of St. Ambrose.

(Inscribed ' Quod Vivarine,
tua fatale sorte nequisti,
Marcus Basitus nobile promp-
sit opus.')

„ Eedentore. The Virgin adoring. (Ascribed

to Giov. Bellini^

„ ^. Gioii. 2?i ) The Virgin adoring. (Ascribed

Bragora. ] to Giov. Bellini.)

„ „ Christ in Benediction. 1493.

„ „ The Resurrection.

„ C'orrer Museum. St. Anthony of Padua.
Vienna. Gallery. Virgin adoring. (Signed 'Al-

visius Vivarinus de Muriano
p. MCCOCLXXxviTT.' This pic-
ture aifd those in the Eedentore
and S. Giov. in Bragora are
almost identical in conception.)

VIVERONI, F., is mentioned by Strutt as the
engraver of some views in Ireland of little merit.

VIVIANI, Antonio, called Codagora, was
brought up in the Academy at Rome, and flourished

678



about tlie year 1650. He excelled in painting
architeetuial ruins, and perspectives of his own
composition. He has been confounded with Ottavio
Viviani of Brescia, w]jo painted similar subjects,
but in a very inferior style. Domenioo Gai'giuoJi
of Naples, Cerquozzi, and Miel put iii his figures.

VIVIANI, Antonio, called 1l Soedo d'Drbino,
from his deafness, was a native of Urbino. He
was a favourite scholar of Federigo Barocci, whose
nephew he is said to have been. He left some
pictures at Urbino, in the style of Barocci, various
frescoes in Rome, and a vast work in the Chiesa
De' Filippini, at Fano, consisting of scenes from
the lives of those apostles to whom the church was
dedicated.

VIVIANI, Ottavio, a painter of architectural
perspectives, was born at Brescia, and flourished
about the middle of the 17th century. He was a
pupil of Tommaso Sandrino, and is frequently
confounded with the abler An. Viviani (Codagora).

VIVIEN, Joseph, a French painter, was born at
Lyons in 1657. He went to Paris in 1677, studied
under Charles Le Brun, and, for a time, painted
portraits in oil with considerable success. But he
afterwards adopted pastel, which he carried to a
perfection unknown before him. His countrymen
called him ' the French Van Dyck ' ; and his popu-
larity was great all over Europe. He occasionally
illustrated his portraits with historical or em-
blematical subjects, characteristic of his sitter. In
1701 he was received into the Academy, and was
afterwards on its council. He passed the latter
part of his life in the service of the Elector of
Bavaria, for whom he painted some of his best
pictures. His own portrait, by himself, hangs
among those of distinguished artistsintheFlorentine
Gallery. He died in the Electoral Palace at Bonn
in 1735. His portraits of F^n^lon and of himself
are in the Munich Gallery.

ViyiER, G. (GuiLLATTME ?) Du Or DE, probably
a native of Liege, was an engraver, and flourished
about the middle of the 17th century. He is
often confounded with Jean Duvivier. He is said
to have engraved vignettes for books, and little
devotional leaflets. Dumesnil gives the follow-
ing eight plates by him, to which Nagler adds a
' Fagade of S. Germain en Laye.'

Christ in the Sepulchre ; after Ant. van den Heiivel.

The Four Evangelists, in one piece.

Temptation of St. Anthony ; after Ant. van den Heuvel

Thetis, Chiron, and the infant Achilles.

A Flemish Kitchen ; after Ant. van den Seuvel.

The Flageolet Player.

The Tippler ; in the manner of Eembrandt.

A Winter 'Landscape outside a fortified city.

A younger engraver of the same name, probably
a son, worked at Liege about 1700, and has also
been confounded with Jean Duvivier.

VIVIER, Iqnaz du. See Du Viviee.

VIVIER, Jean BEENAEto du. See Duviviee.

VL. See Val, Sebastiano De.

VLAMINCK. See De Vlamynck.

VLERICK, PiETEE, was born at Courtray in
1639. He was the son of a lawyer, who, perceiving
his inclination for art, placed him under Willem
Snellaert, a, painter in distemper, with whom he
remained only a short time. The reputation of
Karel van Yperen then induced him to become
that master's disciple. The morose and capricious
disposition of Karel drove Vlerick, two years
later, into the studio of Jacques Floris, at Antwerp.
He afterwards went to Paris, where he met with



Vleugbels



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Vogel



such encouragement that he was enabled to proceed
to Venice, where he entered the school of Tintoretto.
After four years at Venice, he proceeded to Rome,
where he studied from the antique, and from the
works of Michelangelo. He worked in conjunction
with Girolamo Muziano, supplying figures to the
landscapes of that painter. He also drew land-
scapes and ruins with the pen. In 1568 he returned
to Flanders, and established himself at- Tournay,
where he spent the rest of his life. He died at
Tournay in 1581. Van Mander, who was his
disciple, gives a list of his works.

VLEUG-HELS, Nicholas, was born at Valenci-
ennes in 1669, and studied first under his father,
Philippe Vleughels, then under P. Mignard, and
afterwards, while still quite young, in Rome, where
he spent twelve years. After a visit to Venice, he
settled down in Paris, where he became a member
of the Academy. In 1724 he was appointed presi-
dent of the French Academy in Rome, where he
died in 1737. He is stated to have been a skilful-
plagiarist rather than an original artist. A ' Holy
Family,' and a ' Visitation,' by him are in the
Hermitage at St. Petersburg. The Toulouse
Museum has a ' Vulcan giving Venus arms for
.^neas,' by him, and the Valenciennes Museum
two companion pictures, ' Le Lever,' and ' La
Toilette.'

VLEUGHELS, Philippe, a Flemish painter, born
at Antwerp in 1619. He was a pupil of C. Schut,
and also profited by the relationship of his mother,
Catherine Geerts, to Rubens, to spend much time
in the great artist's atelier. In 1641 he journeyed
to England, to place himself under the protection
of Van Dyck, whom, however, he found dead on
his arrival. He then settled in Paris, where he
was made a member of the Academy in 1663. He
died in 1694.

VLEYSj Nicholas, an inferior Flemish painter,
who flourished at Bruges towards the end of the
17th century, and died in 1703. There are pictures
by him in some of the churches of his native city.

VLIEGER. See De Vliegbr.

VLIEGHER, Serafy. See Db Vlieghee.

VLIET. See Van deb Vliet.

VOEIRIOT. See Woeiriot.

VOENIUS. See Veen.

VOERST, Corn, van der, (Voort). See Van

DER VoORT.

VOERST, RoEERT VAN, draughtsman and en-
graver, was born at Arnheim about 1600. His
style of engraving resembles that of Gilles Sadeler,
his plates being executed with the burin in a clear,
neat manner. He visited England when young,
and engraved a considerable number of English por-
traits, the latest bearing date 1635. Van der Doort
expressly calls him the king's engraver in his
famous Catalogue. For Charles I. he executed
two plates, one of his Majesty's sister, the other
after Van Dyck's picture of the Emperor Otho.
He died in 1669. 'The following portraits by him
may be named :

Charles I. and his Queen ; one plate ; after Van I>yck.

Sir Kenelm Digby ; after the same.

Inigo Jones ; after the same.

Christian, Duke of Brunswick ; after the same.

Sir George Oarew ; aftei' the same.

Philip, Earl of Pembroke ; after the same,

Ernst, Count Mansf eld ; after the same.

Simon Vouet, Painter ; after the same.

His own Portrait; after the same.

Prince Eupert.

James Stewart, Duke of Lennox ; after Geo. Gddorp.



Robert, Earl of Lindsay ; after Mierevelt.

Edward, Lord Lyttleton.

James, Marquis of Hamilton.

Henry Rich, Earl of Holland.

"William Fielding, Earl of Denbigh.

Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia ; «/<«■ (?. Van Sonthorst,

He also engraved a few plates of animals for the
drawing-book of Crispin van de Pass.

VOET, Alexander, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Antwerp in 1613, and, from his style, is
supposed to have been a pupil of Paul Pontius.
His handling of the graver is neat, but his draw-
ing incorrect. He worked chiefly after Rubens.
Among others, we have the following prints by him :

Judith with the Head of Holof ernes ; aftej- Rulens.
The Holy Family returning from Egypt ; after the same.
Virgin and Child, with Angels presenting Fruit ; after

the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after the same.
Death of Seneca ; after the same.
The Roman Daughter ; after the same.
The Entombmeut of Christ ; after Van Dyck.
Christ bearing the Cross ; after the same.
Folly, holding a Oat ; after Jordaens.
The Card-players ; after De Vos.
Landscape ; after Foitijuieres.

VOET, Ferdinand, a Flemish painter of the 17th
century, who settled at Rome, where he worked
from 1640 to 1691, and was appointed painter to
the Pontifical court.

VOET, Kabel Borohart, was born at ZwoUe
in 1670, and was first taught by his elder brother,
the Burgomaster of ZwoUe (who, though not a
professional artist, had learned drawing for the
purpose of his studies in botany and natural his-
tory), and under him became a correct draughtsman
of flowers, plants, and insects. Descamps asserts
that his talents recommended him to the patronage
of the Earl of Portland, whom he accompanied to
England, where he was much employed by that
nobleman, as well as by King William III. He
subsequently went with the Earl to his summer
palace at Zorgvliet, where he painted ' The Products
of the Twelve Months,' with backgrounds from
the neighbourhood. At the instance of King
William, he compiled a book of drawings from
insects. After this he settled at Dordrecht, where
he devoted himself to his ' Systematic Classification
of Beetles,' with illustrations from nature. He
died at the Hague in 1745. .

VOGEL, Bernhard, a German engraver, was
born at Nuremberg in 1683, and was a pupil of
Christoph Weigel. He lived chiefly at Augsburg,
where he engraved many portraits, some with the
graver, others in mezzotint. He died at Nuremberg
in 1737. The Kupeczky Gallery of Portraits was
brought out by him. The two following are,
perhaps, his best plates :

Christoph Weigel, Engraver ; after Kupeczky. 1735.
Johann Kupeczky, Painter. 1737.

His son, Johann Christoph, also practised mezzo-
tint engraving, and produced some plates after
Kupeczky.

VOGEL, Christian Lebeecht, was born at
Dresden in 1759, and having in his twelfth year
painted his own portrait in pastel, ho was placed
under Johann Eleazar Schenau. He was patron-
ized by Count Solins, by whose direction he, in
1780, proceeded to Wildenfels, where he painted
many portraits and family pictures of distinction.
The portraits of his own two children (now in the
Dresden Gallery) procured him many commissions
for other things of the kind. He also painted two

679



Vogel



A BIOaEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Voligny



altar-pieces, on tlie subject of ' Suffer little cliildren
to come unto Me,' for the churches at Wildenfels
and Liechtenstein. He became a member of the
Dresden Academy in 1800, and a professor in 1814.
He died at that city in 1816.

VOGEL, Karl Fribdeich Otto, wood engraver,
was bom at Berlin in 1816. He was the second
son of JoHANN Daniel Vogel, and his career
was passed in intimate relations with his elder
brother, Johann Philipp Albert, who is still alive (?).
As an illustrator of books, he v/orked under Baum-
gartner, at Leipsio, in 1834-5, but returned with
his brother to Berlin, where he died in 1851, while
engaged on a block of ' The Temple of Peace,'
after Kaulbach, for the title-page to Decker's
Illustrated Bible. His chief undertakings were the
cuts for Baumgiirtner's ' Shakespeare,' 1838, and
for Kugler's ' History of Frederick the Great,'
1844-51, after the designs of Menzel.

VOGEL, LuDWiG, a Swiss historical painter,
born in 1788. He studied at the Vienna Academy,
from which he was expelled on account of his
strictures on the teaching. In 1810 he went to
Rome, where lie worked under Overbeds, and formed
a friendship with Cornelius. His reputation was
won by his pictures of the Swiss war of independ-
ence. He died at Zurich in 1879. Amongst liis
best known works are :

Return of the Swiss from the Battle of Morgarten,

■Winkelreid's Fight with the Dragon.

Putting the Stone on the Eigi.

Tell before Gessler.

The Fight of Adam Naf at Kappal.

VOGEL VON VOGELSTEIN, Karl Christian,



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 177 of 201)