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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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historical painter, was born at Wildenfels in
Saxony in 1788. He was a pupil of his father,
Christian Lebrecht Vogel, the court painter, and
was ennobled by the King of Saxony in 1831. In
1804 he became a student at the Dresden Academy.
From 1808 to 1812 he was in St. Petersburg, where
he practised with success as a portrait painter. In
1813 he went for seven years to Italy, where he
became a Catholic, a.nd joined the Nazarenes. In
1820 he succeeded Kiigelgen as professor at the
Dresden Academy. In 1824 he was appointed court
painter. After visits to London and Italy he retired
to Munich, where he died in 1868. The Berlin
National Gallery possesses a portrait of Ludwig
Tieck by him. He also painted Pius VIL, the
Kings of Saxony and Holland, and the sculptor

VOGELAEB, Carel van, (or De Vogel,) called
also Carlo di Fiore and Distelbloem, was born at
Maestricht in 1653. He painted still-life, chiefly
flowers and fruit. He studied in his native town
and in Italy, and also practised for a time in Paris
and Lyons. He finally settled at Rome, where he
gained the friendship of Maratti, who occasionally
employed him to paint accessories in his pictures.
He died at Rome in 1695. In the Dresden Gallery
there is a picture ascribed to Maratti, in which he
is said to have painted the fruit.

VOGELSANCK, Isaac, a Dutch landscape,
cattle, and decorative painter, was born at Amster-
dam in 1688. He was a pupil of Huchtenburgh.
Migrating to England about 1715, he practised in
London, in Ireland, and in Scotland. He was much
employed on accessories for portrait painters. He
died in London in 1753.

VOGHTER, Heinbich, a German engraver on
wood, was born at Strasburg, about 1490. He
imitated the style of Albreoht Durer with some


success. He executed the cuts for a drawing-
book, entitled ' A Book of the extraordinary and mar-
vellous Art, very useful to all Painters, Sculptors,
Goldsmiths,' &c., printed at Strasburg in 1540.
Zani, however, says he died in 1537. His son,
Hbinrioh Voghtee the younger, was also a wood
engraver. He was born in 1513, and was at work
in 1545.

V06T, Adolf, landscape and animal painter,
was born at Liebenstein, in Saxe-Meiningen, in
1843, and was taken to America when a child. He
studied first in Philadelphia, then (in 1861-5) at
Munich, and afterwards at Zurich and in Paris.
He returned to America, and died in 1871 at New
York. Among his best pictures are :

Harvest Scene in a Sfcorm.

Niagara in Summer. | Niagara in Winter.

The returning Harvest Waggon. | The Smithy.

VOIRIOT, Gdillaume, a French painter of the
18th century. He became a member of the Academy
in 1759, his reception pictures being portraits of
Pierre and of Nattier. He exhibited portraits at
the Salon and at the Academy of S. Luke from
1759 to 1791.

VOIS, Adb. db. See Db Vois.

VOISAKD, Etienne Claude, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1746, was a pupil of B. Baron.
Together with some plates after French painters,
he has left a copy of Woollett's Battle of La Hogue
on a smaller scale.

VOISEUX, , a French artist of whose life

no details are known. Two pastel portraits by
him, dated respectively 1766 and 1767, are in the
Valenciennes Museum.

VOLAIRE, (or Voljere,) Jacques, painter, was
born, probably either at Toulon or Nantes, about
1736. His father, a native of Nantes, worked at
Toulon as painter to the Arsenal. Jacques, who
appears to have also held some official post in the
arsenal, became acquainted with Joseph Vemet
when the latter visited Toulon, and attached him-
self to the master as con)panion and assistant,
going with him to Bordeaux, Bayonne, and
Rochelle._ In 1763 the friends parted company,
and Volaire settled in Rome, where his marines
in the manner of Vernet attracted considerable
attention. Later on he visited Naples, and there
painted an ' Eruption of Vesuvius,' of which he
multiplied replicas. Voluire died at Naples early
in the 19th century. The following are among his
best known works :

Two Sea-pieces. {Palace of Gompiegm.)

Eruption of Vesuvius. {Havre Museum.)

Eruption of Vesuvius, with view of Portici. {Nantes

Eruption of Vesuvius by night. {Toulouse Museum.)

VOLCKER. See Volkf.r.

VOLDERS, Louis, painter, and a native of
Brussels, flourished about the middle of the 17(h
century. No details of his life are known, though
several of his works have survived. He is believed
to have been a pupil of Crayer, but his portraits
have been frequently ascribed to Coxie. There
are two pictures by him in the Hotel de Ville at
Louvain, and one in the church of Notre Dame de
la Chapelle at Brussels.

VOL^EE. See Volaike.

VOLIGNY, — , is mentioned by Florent le Comte
as an engraver, but his talent lay in pen portraits
washed with Indian ink. He is probably identical
with VOLIGNY DE Tonneres, engraver, who died in




VOLK, JoHANN Georg Babtholomaus, was born
at Ochsenfurth on the Maine in 1747, and studied
first under his father, and then in the Augsburg
Academy, under Giinther. He painted portraits,
landscapes, and historical pictures. He died in
1815. His elder son, Ferdinand Volk (1772—
1829), lived and worked as a painter at Ratibor in
Silesia. Karl V6lk, his second son, was settled
as a painter in Hungary.

VOLKAERT, Nicolaas and Klaasz, father and
son, painters of Haarlem, flourished in the 15th
century ; the elder about 1450, the younger from
1480 to 1506. They painted chiefly in distemper,
and made designs for the glass painters. Their
name occurs occasionally on fragments of windows
from disestablished convents and churches.

VOLKER, Pbiedrich Wilhelm, son of Gottfried
W. Volker, was born at Berlin in 1799, and died at
Thorn, February 17, 1870. He painted flowers
and fruit, and was employed, like his father, in the
porcelain factory at Berlin.

VOLKER, Gottfried Wilhelm, (or Volokek,)
flower painter, was born at Berlm in 1775. He
was a pupil of Johann Feiedbich Schulze, a
flower painter, and succeeded him as superintendent
of the painters in the Royal Porcelain Manufactory
at Berlin. In 1811 he became a member of the
Berlin Academy, and died in that city in 1849.
Two ' Vases of Fruit and Flowers ' by him are in
the Berlin National Gallery.

VOLKER, Otto, (or Volckeb,) landscape painter,
was born at Berlin about 1810, and studied first
under Blechen and then in Italy. He became a
member of the Berlin Academy in 1845, and died
in 1848.

VOLKER, Wilhelm, was bom at Wertheim in
1812, and by the help of the Princes of Lowenstein-
Wertheim, was educated at the Munich Academy.
He devoted himself to landscape and genre paint-
ing, and travelled for improvement in the Bavarian
highlands and the Tyrol. In 1848 he painted a
room in the palace of the Prussian ambassador at
Munich with hunting-scenes, landscapes, and
famous German battles. In the following year he
painted two altar-pieces for the court chapel of his
patron at Lowenstein, and afterwards two others,
together with a 'Nativity,' at Aschafienburg. In
1851 he published an ' Art of Painting ' (Leipsio),
and in 1853 became teacher in the cantonal school
of St. Gall, where he died in 1874.

VOLKHART, Georg Wilhelm, a German sub-
ject painter, was born in 1815 at Herdicke
(Westphalia). He practised at Diisseldorf. His
subjects were frequently taken from the history of
Mary, Queen of Scots, and from the wars between
England and France. In his later years he painted
many portraits. He died at Diisseldorf, March 14,

VOLLENHOVEN, Herman van, a Dutch painter,
who flourished at Utrecht in the early part of the
17th century. It appears that he was a member
of the Guild at Utrecht in 1611, and Dean in
1627, and that in 1612 Beemt de Visscher was his
pupil. No further details of his life have trans-
pired, and he was long known only through an
engraving, dated 1614, by Simon van de Pass, after
a picture by him of ' Christ and the Disciples at
Emmaus.' But a signed picture of his, dated 1612,
was acquired by the Hague Museum in 1873. The
subject is an artist (probably himself) painting
the portraits of an old man and woman seated

before him. This picture is now in the Rijks
Museum at Amsterdam.

VOLLER, Ae'etqen de. See Claessen.

VOLLERDT, Jan Christian, or Chbistoph, (or
VoLLAEET,) was born at Leipsic in or about 1709,
and was a scholar of Alexander Thiele. He is
credited with the execution of maiiy small land-
scapes, views on the Rhine and in Switzerland,
somewhat in the manner of Chr. Geo. Schiitz, en-
livened with figures and animals, many of which
were imported into England early in the present
century. He died in 1769. Some of his pictures
have been engraved. There is a Rhine landscape
by him in the Bordeaux Museum.

VOLLERT. See Vollerdt.

VOLLEVENS, Johannes, was born at Geertrui-
denberg in 1649. He was a scholar first of Nicolas
Maas, and afterwards of Jan de Baan, with whom
he remained eight years. Prom 1672 onwards he
worked independently, and after the death of De
Baan (1702), he succeeded to the greater part of
his practice, and became one of the most popular
artists of his time. The Prince of Courland and
the Prince of Nassau, Stadtholder of Friesland,
were among his particular patrons. He died at the
Hague in 1728. The Rijks Museum, Amsterdam,
has two portraits by him, one of them being that
of William III. His son, Johannes Vollevens,
was also a good portraitist. He was born at the
Hague in 1685, was appointed court painter to the
Princess Dowager of Orange, and was dean of the
painters' guild at the Hague in 1748. It is sup-
posed he was a short time in England. He died
at the Hague in 1758.

VOLLMER, Adolph Feiedeich, painter and
etcher, was born at Hamburg in 1806. He travelled
through Germany with the cosmorama painter
Suhr, studying subsequently under Rosenberg at
Altona, and under Eckersberg at Copenhagen.
From 1833 to 1839 he was at work at Munich, and
travelling in the Tyrol and Italy. He lost his sight
in 1866, and in 1875 died at Hamburg. He painted
harbours and other sea views, also views in Venice
and on the Elbe. He has left some thirty etchings
and lithographs.

VOLMAR, Johann Georg, was born at Mengen,
in Swabia, in 1770, but withdrew to Switzerland to
escape the conscription, and took to landscape
painting at Lausanne. He studied entirely from
nature, without the help of a master. After a
journey to Italy, he became professor in the School
of Art at Berne, where he died in 1831. One of his
largest works was ' The Parting of Nicolas von der
Fliie from his Family,' which was engraved by
Lips. His brother, Xaver Volmae, etched some
of his works. Xaver's son, Joseph Volmar, (born
1795, died 1865 at Berne,) was a sculptor as well
as a landscape and animal painter, with particular
skill in painting horses.

VOLPATI, Giovanni Battista, born at Bassano
in 1633, was an indifferent painter, and the author
of some treatises on the fine arts. The most import-
ant of these is ' La Verita Pittoresca.' He died in

VOLPATO, Giovanni, draughtsman and en-
graver, was born at Bassano in 1733. He received
his first training from his mother, an embroiderer,
and then studied under the engraver Remondini.
While still young, however, he went to Venice,
where he received some instruction from Wagner
and Bartolozzi, and engraved several plates after
Piazzetta, Mariotto, Amiconi, Zuccarelli, M. Ricci,





and others. He worked some time for the Duke of
Parma, until a plate from the Monument of Algarotti
at Pisa brought him into wider notice. He afterwards
visited Rome, where Gavin Hamilton employed
him to engrave several plates for his ' Sohola Italica
Pioturas' ; and he was the principal artist employed
on the well-known set of coloured prints from the
works of Raphael in the Vatican. In Rome he
founded a School of Engraving, in which several
excellent artists received their education. He died
in Rome in 1803. In signing some of his earlier
works he Gallicized his name into Renard. Vol-
pato was one of the many Italians of the 18th
century whose merits were greatly overrated. Like
that of his son-in-law and pupil, Rafaello Morghen,
his fame depended chiefly on the dearth of really
able men in Italy in his time. Among his best
plates are the following :


The four Sibyls ; after Saphael.

The Marriage of Alexander and Eoxana ; after the same.

Modesty and Vanity ; after Leonardo da Vinci (?).

Perseus and Andromeda ; after Polidoro da Caravagnio.

Christ praying on the Mount ; after Correggio.

The Feast in the house of Simon ; after Paolo Veronese.

The Marriage of Oana ; after Tintoretto. '

The Gamesters ; after Michelangelo da Caravagyio.


The Death of Lucretia. Innocence.

Juno. Hebe.

Melancholy. Gaiety.


The School of Athens.
The Dispute of the Sacrament.
Heliodorus driven from the Temple of Jerusalem.
Attila stopped by SS. Peter and Paul.
St. Peter delivered from Prison.
The Parnassus.
The Fire in the Borgo.

The Mass of Bolsena. This plate was actually engraved
by Rafaello Morghen.

VOLPE, Vincent, painter, practised at the
English court from 1514 to 1530, and amongst
other works is said to have painted the banners for
the famous vessel, 'The Great Harry.'

VOLPELlilRE, Mile. L. P. Julie, a native of
Marseilles, and pupil of S^rangeli, practised in
Paris in the first part of the 19th century, gaining
a medal of the second class in 1810, and exhibited
portraits, sacred subjects, etc., at the Salon from
1808 to 1839. She died in Paris in 1842. She
painted a ' S. Martin ' for the church at Perpignan,
and in the Versailles Museum there is a portrait of
Colonel Jean Baptiste Jourdain by her.

VOLPONI, Giovanni Battirta di Pibteo di
STEfANO, a painter of Pistoja, who flourished at
the beginning of the 16th century, and painted in
conjunction with II SoUazzino, and with Bernardino
del Signoraccio for various churches of his native

VOLTERRA, Daniels da. See Riociaeelli.

VOLTERKA, Francesco da, who resided much
at Pisa, is known, from the records of the Campo
Santo, to have painted the ' History of Job ' on its
south wall. This fresco is in six compartments,
and was painted between 1370 and 1372. Like
the rest of the earlier pictures in the Campo Santo,
it is now almost obliterated, but some idea of its
weird realism may still be formed from Lasinio's
' Pitture del Campo Santo,' and other reproductions
in Italian books on art. Francesco da Volterra is
supposed to have been identical with Francesco di

Maesteo Giotto, a painter of Florence, whose
name occurs in the records of the city Guild for

VOLTERRA, Giov. Paolo Rossetti da. See


VOLTERRANO, II. See Feanceschini, B.

VOLTZ, JoHANN Michael, painter and engraver,
was born at Nordlingen in 1784. In 1801 he was
apprenticed to F. Weber of Augsburg, and four
years later entered the academy of H. von Herz-
berg, with whom he studied etcliing and engraving.
He returned to Nordlingen in 1812 ; in 1819 he
travelled in the highlands of Baden, and found
materials for many costume and genre pictures
in sepia. He died at his birthplace in 1858. He
worked largely as an illustrator, furnishing the
plates for editions of the ' Arabian Nights,' and of
many German classics. Of his pictures we may
name :

Berlin. Nat. Gallei-y.

» "


A Menagerie.
Cows drinking.
A Tillage ; morning.
Watering the Cattle.

VONCK, Elias, (or Vonk,) was a Dutch artist
of talent, who painted birds, animals, and still-
life, in the manner of Hondecoeter and Snyders.
He died at Amsterdam in June, 1652. Jan Vonck,
■probably his son and pupil, painted the same
subjects. He flourished at Amsterdam about 1660.
In the R. Museum of that city there is a study
of dead birds by him, and in the Dresden Gallery
there is a landscape by Jacob Ruysdael (No. 1808)
with animals beautifully painted by Vonck. It is
signed with Ruysdael's monogram, and with /.
Vonck fe. There seems to have been a third VoNCK,
who resided atMiddelburg about 1750 ; he painted
birds and still-life subjects in the manner of Aart

VON DBR EMBDE, August, was bom at
Cassel in 1780. He studied painting at Cassel,
Dresden, Diisseldorf, Munich, and Vienna ; and
established himself at Cassel, where he painted
portraits, scenes of peasant life, and children. He
also copied the old masters in sepia. Many of his
genre subjects have been engraved. He died in
1862 at Cassel. His two daughters, Kaeoline and
Emilie, were also painters.




VONWYL, Jakob, (or Von Wyl,) was born at
Lucerne in 1595. He painted in the style of Hol-
bein. Many of his better works were burnt at the
destruction of the abbey church at Lucerne, but
his very remarkable ' Dance of Death ' is still to
be seen in the Library of the Canton. He died
in 1621.

VOOGD, Hendeik, a landscape painter, was born
at Amsterdam about 1764-7, and studied first at the
school of design there, and afterwards under
Juriaan Andriessen. He was furnished by a friend
with the means to visit Italy, whence he sent to
the Society des Sciences, at Haarlem, a landscape
which obtained for him a pension of fifty ducats
per annum for three years. Thus encouraged, he
continued his studies with assiduity till he was
acknowledged to be the best landscape painter in
Rome, and designated 'the Dutch Claude.' At
intervals he sent pictures to the exhibitions at
Amsterdam, chiefly landscapes with cattle. He
died at Rome in 1839. He executed some land-




Bcape etchings, and made several drawings after
Claude for the use of the engraver Volpato.

VOORDECKER, Henri, painter, bom at Brus-
sels in 1779, was a pupil of J. B. de Roy, and
painted landscapes, animals, and simple domestic
subjects. His ' Village and Chapel of Waterloo,'
' Children playing with Poultry and Pigeons,' may
be named, also a 'Huntsman's Family,' in the
Amsterdam Museum. He died at Brussels in

VOORHOUT, Johannes, was born at Uithoorn,
near Amsterdam, in 1647. He was the son of a
watchmaker, who placed him under Constantine
Veebodt of Gouda, a painter of conversations and
gallant assemblies, with whom he passed six years.
After this he became a pupil of Jan van Noordt,
under whom he studied five years. In 1672, when
the French army entered Holland, Voorhout took
refuge at Friedrichstadt, and from thence removed
to Hamburg. After an absence of three years, the
desire of revisiting his native country induced him
to return to Amsterdam, where his success was no
less prompt than it had been at Hamburg. He
painted the principal citizens, and received com-
missions for several historical subjects, among
them a ' Death of Sophonisba. ' Voorhout died in
1720. Two conversation pieces by him are in the
Stockholm Gallery, and a 'Luna and Endymion,'
' Venus upon the Clouds,' and ' Birth of Samson,'
in the Brunswick Museum. He had a son or
brother, Jan VooEHoni, who died in 1749, and left
a picture of 'The Good Samaritan,' now in the
Brunswick Museum.

VOORT, (VoOKSE, or Vooes). See Van dbr


VOORT, M. Van dbr. See Van dee Vooet.

VORMACIA. See Wobnsam.

VORSTBRMAN, Lucas, the elder, (or Vostee-
MAN,) engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1578,
and at first studied painting in the school of
Rubens. He was afterwards advised, however, by
his preceptor, to devote himself entirely to engrav-
ing. Few painters have had the satisfaction of see-
ing so great a number of their best works finely
engraved as Rubens. He was surrounded by artists
of ability, who worked immediately under his eye,
and had the advantage of his advice. Of these
Lucas Vorsterman was one. His plates are executed
entirely with the graver, which he handled with
great facility, though he was always more attentive
to the general effect than to the neatness and
regularity of the execution. His plates after the
'Adoration of the Magi,' and the 'Descent from
the Cross,' by Rubens, are regarded as master-
pieces of engraving. He visited England in the
reign of Charles I., and lived here about eight years,
from 1623 or 1624 to 1631, being employed by the
king and the Earl of Arundel. He died later than
1656. Vorsterman usually signed his plates with
his name, but he sometimes used a cipher com-
posed of an L. and a V. joined together thus,

V^ - The following are among the best of his

very numerous plates :

Charles I., King of England ; after Van Dyck.

Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. Do.

Isabella Olara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain. Do.

Gaston, Duke of Orleans. Do.

Ambrosio Spinola, Governor of the Low Countries. Do,

Wolfgang Wilhelm, Duke of Bavaria. Do.

Anthony van Dyck, Paiuter. Do.

Peter de Jode, the ekler, Engraver. Do.

Karel van Mallery, Engraver. Do.

Jacques Callot, Engraver. Do.

Theodoor Galle, Engraver. Do.

Wenzel Koeberger, Painter. Do.

Deodato Del Monte, Painter. Do.

Lucas van Uden, Painter. Do.

Cornelis Saftleven, Painter. Do.

Orazio Gentileschi, Painter. Do.

Jan Lievens, Painter and Engraver. Do.

William Cavendish.

Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk ; after Holbein.

Sir Thomas More ; after the same.

Erasmus ; after the same.

The Emperor Charles V. ; after Titian.

Charles, Duke of Bourbon ; after the same.

Charles de Longueval, Count of Busquoi ; after Rulens.

The Fall of the Rebel Angels ; after liubens.

Lot and his Daughters leaving Sodom. Do.

Job tempted and tormented by Demons. Do.

Susanna and the Elders. Do.

The Nativity, or Adoration of the Shepherds. Do.

The Adoration of the Magi. Do.

The same subject, differently composed. Do.

The Holy Family, with St. Anne. Do.

Another Holy Family, in which the Infant Christ is
embracing the Virgin. Do,

The Eeturn from Egypt. Do.

The Virgin and Infant Christ, and St. John. Do.

The Tribute-Money. Do.

The Descent from the Cross. Do.

The Angel at the Sepulchre. Do.

St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.

The Martyrdom of St. Laurence.

Mary Magdalene renouncing the Vanities of the World.

The Battle of the Amazons ; a large print on six sheets.

The Holy Family ; after Saphael. .

The Entombment of Christ ; after the same.

St. George ; after the same.

Christ praying in the Garden ; after An. Carracci.

Lot and his Daughters ; after Orazio Gentileschi.

The Virgin and Child, with Pilgrims ; after Caravaggio.

A Pieta ; after Van Dyck.

St. Theresa ; after the same.

Christ at the Pillar ; after G. Zeghers.

The Death of St. Francis ; after the same.

St. Ignatius ; after the same.

The Fable of the Satyr, with the Peasant who blows
hot and cold ; after J. Jordaens.

A Concert of five persons, one of whom is a Girl playing
on the Guitar ; after Adam de Coster, being a Com-
panion to the Concert engraved by Bolswert, after
Theodoor Bomhouts,

VORSTERMAN, Lucas, the younger, was the
son of the elder artist of the name, and was bom
at Antwerp about the year 1600. Although he
had the advantage of his father's instruction, his
plates are inferior in every respect to his. The
following are considered the best :

A Bear-Hunt ; aftei- F. Snyders.

Lucas Vorsterman the elder ; after Van Dyck.

Sir Hugh Cartwright ; after Diepenbeeck,

The Trinity; after Bubens.

Part of the AViitehall ceiling ; after the same.

The Virgin in the Clouds, surrounded by Angels ; after
Van Dyck.

The Triumph of Eiches ; after Holbein.

The greater part of the Plates for the Duke of New-
castle's book on Horsemanship ; after desipis by

Several Plates in the Teniers Gallery.

VORSTERMANS, Johannes, (or Vcstekman,)
was born at Bommel in 1643. He was the son and
pupil of a portrait painter, but afterwards studied
at Utrecht, under Herman Saftleven. He visited
Paris, assumed the title of ' Baron,' and, for a short
time, kept up the establishment of a man of rank.
His necessities, however, obliged him to return to
Holland, and, in 1672, on the approach of the Frencli
army, he moved from Utrecht to Nimeguen, where
his talents became known to the Marquis of Bethnne,





for whom lie painted several landscapes and views
on the Rhine, and by whom he was employed to
collect works of art. Soon after the Restoration
he came to England, and painted a view of Windsor,
and some other works for the king, but, demanding
extravagant prices for his pictures, he did not
receive many commissions, was arrested for debt,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 178 of 201)