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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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and only released through the generosity of some
brother artists. When Sir William Soanies was sent
on an embassy to Constantinople by James II.,
Vorstermans proposed to accompany him, but Sir
William dying en route, the painter accepted an
invitation to go to Poland with the Marquis of
Bethune, and there, it is believed, he died in 1699.
There is a small landscape by him in the Dresden

VORTEL, WiLHELM, painter, was bom at
Leipsic in 1793, and learnt glass-painting from
the elder Mohn. Interrupted in his studies by a
term of military service on which he entered in
1813, he resumed them on his release, acquired
the elements of landscape painting in Dresden,
and in 1817 accompanied the younger Mohn
to Vienna, and was engaged in painting windows
at Laxenburg. On his return to Dresden he was
commissioned by the brothers Boisser6e to repro-
duce npon glass various works after the early
Gi'rman and Flemish masters, Meister Wilhelm,
Jan van Eyck, Memling, and Van der Goes. Vortel
further painted upon glass Raphael's Madonna di
San Sisto, and Murillo's Madonna in the Leuchten-
berg Gallery, and executed windows for castles and
private chapels in Hanover, Meiningen, etc. He
died at Dresden in 1844.

VOS. See De Vos.

VOSCHER,- Leopold Heinkich, landscape
painter, was born at Vieima in 1830. He was a
pupil of the landscape painter Hansch, and sought
subjects for his art in Switzerland, Italy, and the
romantic mountain districts of his own coimtry.
In 1864 he settled in Munich, where he practised
successfully for some years! He excelled in the
treatment of aerial perspective and effects of light
and shade. He died insane in 1877, at Vienna.

VOSMEER, (or Vosmaer). See Wouters,

VOSTERMAN. See Vorsteeman and Vorster-

VOSTRB, Simon, the famous French printer and
publisher of 'Livres d'Heures,' who flourished
about 1488 — 1520. is supposed by some authorities
to have been the designer and engraver, as well as
the publisher, of his illustrations. These consisted
of prints in the manilre crible'e (dotted white), and
are generally considered to be impressions from
wood, though certain experts hold that they were
engraved from metal. For a full discussion of the
technical points involved, see Willshire's 'Intro-
duction to Ancient Prints,' vol. i., London, 1877,
and Renouvier, ' Des Gravures sur Bois jdans les
Livres de Simon Vostre,' Paris, 1862.

VOUET, Adbin, brother and pupil of Simon,
born in Paris in 1599, was a mediocre artist, who,
after studying with his brother in Italy, practised
in Paris, chiefly as a decorative painter. He died
in Paris, May 1, 1641. Examples of his work are
in the Lyons and Nantes Museums. A younger
brother, Claude, was also a pupil of Simon at Rome,
and returned with him to Paris. No further par-
ticulars concerning him are known.

VOUET, Jacques, the son and pupil of Simon,
was painter to the maitrise, was received by the


Academy in 1664, and was employed on decor-
ative work in the Tuileries, in conjunction with
Mosnier, Oorneille the younger, and Bonnemor.
No further details concerning him have survived.

VOUET, Simon, a French historical painter, born
in Paris in 1590. His father, an obscure artist
named Laurent Vouet, was his first teacher.
Under this tuition he made considerable progress,
for at the age of fourteen he paid a visit to England,
practising as a portrait painter. In 1611 he ac-
companied the French Ambassador to Constanti-
nople, where he distinguished himself by painting
from memory a portrait of the Sultan, whom he had
seen but once. Towards the close of the following
year he made his way to Venibe, and devoted him-
self to copying the works of the great Venetian
colourists. Settling at Rome in 1613, his studies
were influenced successively by Caravaggio and
by Guide. He rapidlj- acquired a reputation, so
that in 1 620 he was summoned to Genoa on a com-
mission to decorate tlie palace of the Doria family.
On his return to Rome he was fortunate enough
to find patrons in Pope Urban VIII. and the
powerful Barberini entourage. Thus patronized,
he secured a position in the front rank of the Roman
art-world, and in 1624 was elected Prince of the
Academy of St. Luke. About this time he married.
His wife, Virginia di Vezzo Vellatrano, was, like
himself, an artist. In 1627 he was summoned to
France by Louis XIII. to occupy a position even
more prominent than that which he had filled at
Rome. He was appointed principal painter to the
king, was assigned apartments in the Louvre, and
was granted an ample pension. -The royal com-
missions came thickly upon him. He was engaged
in the palaces of the Luxembourg, the Louvre, and
St. Germain, and by Richelieu at the ChMeau de
Rueil. So great a favourite was he with Louis
XIII, that the king became his art-pupil. The
royal favour brought that of the nobility in its
train, and so supreme did Vouet become, that when
Nicolas Poussin visited France in 1640, he found
himself unable to cope with the rival influence —
not always fairly exercised, it was said. Vouet's
first wife died in 1638, and two years later he
remarried, Le Sueur being one of the witnesses of
the ceremony. The closing years of his life were
clouded by much physical suffering, and he died
in Paris in 1649. Vouet's merits are most apparent
in the works of his Italian period. His art was
marred by success. The multitude of his com-
missions led to mannerism, and to those constant
repetitions with which the eye is wearied. Over
the French school he exercised a despotic influence
in his time, similar to that subsequently wielded
by Le Brun and David. Most of the ar(ists of the
succeeding generation passed through his studio,
amongst them Le Sueur, Le Brun, P. Mignard,
J. B. Mola, and Dufresnoy. There is an etching
by him, a 'Holy Family,' dated 1633. The follow-
ing is a list of Vouet's pictures in the chief
European collections:

Avigaon. Museum.

Mater Dolorosa.

Dresden. Gallert/.

St. Louis.

Florence. UJlzi.

Tbe ADuunciation.

)) 1)

P. rtrait of himself.

Hampton Court.


Lyons. Museum.

The Crucifixion.

Marseilles. „

The Vir^u and Child.

Montpellier. „


Munich. Pinakothek.

Virgin and Child.

Paris. Louvre.

The Presentation. 1641

») »

The Holy Family.





Louvre. The Crucifixion.

„ „ The Entombment.

J, „ iloman charity.

I) „ Portrait of Louis XIII.

„ „ Allegory of Eiches.

„ „ Faith.

Petersburg. Sermitaye. Virgin and Child (two pictures) .

„ „ Venus and Adonis.

„ „ Death of Lucretia.

Rome. Pal. Consenatori. Three allegorical figures.

Itouen. Museum. Apotheosis of Sb. Louis. '

J, » Ananias and Sapphira.

Tours. „ Portrait of himself.

Valenciennes. „ St. Stephen.

VOUILLEMONT, Sebastien, a French engrayer,
was born at Bar-sur-Aube, about 1610. He was
a pupil of Daniel Rabel, and afterwards went to
Eome, where he studied under Cornelis Bloemart.
He engraved after the Italian masters, as well as
after his own designs and those of Rabel, his
master. He has left one hundred and forty-five
plates. The following are among the best :

The Murder of the Innocents ; after Raphael. Ifi41.

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after the same.

Mount Parnassus ; after the same.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

The Virgin and Infant Christ ; after Parmigiano.

The Marriage of St. Catherine ; after Albani.

A young Man presenting Money to a Fortune-teller.

VOULLEMIER, Mlle. Anne Nicole, a Erencli
artist, born at Chatillon-sur-Seine in 1796, was a
pupil of Regnault and of Aubry. She gained
medals of the third and second class, and exhibited
a large number of miniatures at the Salon between
1819 and 1850. She died in 1886.

VOUW. See Db Vodw.

VOYEZ, Nicholas Joseph, was born at Abbeville
in 1742. He went to Paris when very young,
and became a pupil of Beauvarlet, his fellow-
citizen. He engraved vignettes for Marmontel's
.'Contes' and for 'L'Indigent,' a drama of Mer-
cier's ; also a series of ' Tetes d'Expression ' after
Le Brun, which he afterwards transformed into a
set of 'Figures Rdpublicaines.' Among his plates
we may name the following :

Louis XVI. ; engraved in 1785.

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France.

Marie Adelaide Clotilde Xaviere, of France.

Prince Henry of Prussia.

The Sister of Charity ; after Eisen.

Funeral of St. Gregory ; after Van Loo.

Angelica and Medoro ; after Blanchard.

The Astrologer ; after G. Dou.

An old Man in meditation ; after the same.

His brother Franqois Voyez, also an engraver,
was born in 1746. He, too, was a pupil of Beau-
varlet, and engraved after Greuze, Touzd, Bon de
BouUongne, and others. Several plates signed
Voyez only are ascribed to Nicholas.

VOYS, (Vois). See Db Vois.

VRAC, Lb. See TodeniJiees, Robert.

VRANCX, (or Veanck). See Feancken, Seb.

VEEE, (or Vebem). See De Veee.

VRBLANDT (Vkedelandt, Wyelandt,)
WiLLBM, a miniaturist of the 16th century, who
was cotemporary with Memling, at Bruges. In
1477 he took a prominent part in commissioning
Memling to paint an altar-piece for the chapel of
the Booksellers' Guild, in which body Vrelandt
held a position of trust. An inventory of 1499
describes this work as ' an altar-table with four
wings, by Master Hans, including the portraits of
Willem Vreland and his wife.' Messrs. Crowe and
Cavalcaselle (' Early Flemish Painters ') suggest
that the altar-piece in the Turin Gallery, 'The

Seven Griefs of Mary,' may be identical with this.
Vrelandt is further known as the illuminator of the
MS. 'Histores de Haynnaut ' (Brussels, ' Biblio-
theque de Bourgogne,' 2 vols.). He died in 1481.

VRIENT. See Db Vrient.

VRIES. See De Vbies.

VROMANS, NiooLAAs, was born in Holland
about 1660. He was called ' The Snake Painter,'
from his partiality for painting serpents and other
reptiles. He also painted all sorts of wild plants,
briars, and creepers, among which he placed toads,
frogs, mice, moths, worms, spiders in their webs,
birds' nests, and other objects. His pictures are
rare in England. He died about 1719.

VROOM, Hendrik Coenelisz, was born at Haar-
lem in 1566. He was the son of a sculptor and
potter, who died when he was still very young,
and his mother having afterwards married Cornelis
Henricksen, a painter on china, he was by him
taught the rudiments of design. He at first painted
views of towns, and resided some time at Rotter-
dam. He afterwards visited Spain and Italy, and
during a stay of two years at Rome, was employed
by the Cardinal de' Medici, and became acquainted
with Paul Bril, whose advice and assistance were
of great service to him. On leaving Rome he visited
Milan, Genoa, Turin, Venice, and Paris, and then
returned to Haarlem. There he painted many
small devotional subjects, which he purposed
to dispose of in Spain, and with that intention
embarked a second time for Seville. Being ship-
wrecked, however, on the coast of Portugal, he
lived there for a time and painted sea-pieces. On
his return to Holland he applied himself entirely
to that branch of painting. About this time Lord
Nottingham ordered the famous suit of tapestries,
representing the defeat of the Spanish Armada, of
Frans Spiering, who employed Vroom to make the
designs. This necessitated a visit to England, during
which Isaac Oliver painted his portrait. Vroom
returned to Haarlem, where he died in 1640. The
tapestries from his design were burnt in 1834, with
the Houses of Parliament. They are engraved in
a work by John Pine, published in 1739. Works :

Amsterdam. Museum. Admiral Heemskerk sinking the
Spanish Galleons. 1617.
„ „ Keturn of the vessel in which

Houtmau made his first
voyage to India.
„ „ View of Amsterdam and the Y.

Augsburg. Gallery. Battle on the Haarlemmer Meer.

„ „ Harbour of Amsterdam.

„ „ Taking of Damietta.

Haarlem. Museum. Arrival of the Earl of Leicester

at Flushing, in 1586.

He left two sons, of whom Cornelis, who died in
1661, was a landscape painter, and Feedbrik, who
died in 1667, an historical painter and architect.

VROOMANS. See Veomans.


VUECHTLIN. See Wbchtlin.

VUEZ, Aenould db, (Wdez, d'Hhez, Duez,) an
historical painter, was born at Hautpont, near St.
Omer, in 1642. He was apprenticed to a painter
at St. Omer, and afterwards entered the school of
the Franciscan, Brother Lucas, in Paris. Three
years later he proceeded to Venice and Rome.
There he won the first prize at the Academy, and
copied Raphael's ' School of Athens.' He was
afterwards invited by Le Brun to assist him at
Paris and Versailles. Having killed an ofiScer in a
duel, he fled to Constantinople, but under the pro-
tection of Louvois he ventured back to Lille, to paint





in the Hospital chapel. He died at Lille in 1719
or 1720. His works used to be numerous in the re-
ligious establishments at Lille, Cambrai, and Douay.
A great many have now been gathered into the
Lille Museum. They are rich in composition,
full of architecture, but bad in colour.

VUIBERT, Rbmi, (or Wibeet,) a French painter
and engraver, was born (in Paris or Troyes) about
1607, and is supposed to have been a, scholar of
Simon Vouet. He probably worked from 1639
to 1643 in Paris, and then resided for a consider-
able time at Rome, and died there. He was on
intimate terms pi friendship with N. Poussin, who
speaks of him in his correspondence with M.
de Chanteloup. His works as a painter are little
known, but he etched twenty-nine plates after
Italian painters (including eighteen after Raphael),
as well as some from his own designs. The dates
on them range from 1635 to 1663. We may name
the following :

Adam receiving the forbidden Fruit from Eve; after

The Judgment of Solomon ; after the same.
Apollo and Marsyas ; after the same.
The Descent from the Cross ; after N. Poussin.
The Cure of one possessed of a Devil ; from his own

St. Andrew ; after the statue try Duquesnoy. 1629.

VDLPE, Fra Gabriele de, was living at Palermo
in the 16th century, and is the author of a paint-
ing of the 'Virgin and Child, with Angels, and
SS. Peter, John Baptist, Rocli, and Sebastian, and
a donor,' which is now in the vestibule to the
sacristy of San Domenico, Palermo ; it is dated

VDORMACE. See Woensam.

VYL, (Vijl). See Den Uyl.

VYOLL. See Fyoll.

VYTENBROECK. See Uijtenbeotok.

VYTH, JoHANN Maktin, (or Vbyth). See






WAA6EN, Feiedrich Lttdwig Heineioh, was
born at Gottingen in the middle of the 18th century,
was a student under Ferdinand Kobell, and, in 1780,
went for a term to Rome. He afterwards practised
in Hamburg-, where he started an academy for
drawing and painting. His works consisted of
portraits, historical subjects, and landscapes, in
' the style of Poussin.

WAAGBN, Kael, probably a son of Friedrich
L. H. Waagen, was born at Hamburg about 1800.
He studied at Dresden and Prague, and then
settled at Breslau as a miniature-portrait painter
and picture restorer. After a visit to Italy, where
he painted landscapes, he became a lithographer
for a time, but finally returned to portrait painting.
He died in 1873.
WAAL. See De Wael.
WAARD. See De Waaed.
WAAS, Aaet van, (or Waes,) was a native of
Gouda, and scholar of Wouter Crabeth. After
a tour in Italy, he returned to Gouda, where he
painted genre pictures, and died in 1646, accord-
ing to Balkema ; in 1660, says Immerzeel. This is
all we know of his life ; but in Hazard' s catalogue
of prints nine grotesque subjects are attributed to
him both as painter and engraver. One of these
represents a painter, disgusted with his art, " qui
fait ses ordures sur la palette et les pinceaux."
At the bottom of the print is inscribed " Om dat
ich door de honst, &c. 1645."

WABBE, Jakob, painter, flourished at Hoorn
in the early part of the 17th century, and is known
by various portraits and historical works, among
the most important of which were four scenes from
the life of Joseph, for the hospital at Hoorn.

WACH, Kael Wilhelm, a German historical
and portrait painter, bom at Berlin in 1787. He
was a pupil of Kretschmar, but his studies were
interrupted by the war of independence in 1813,
in which he took part as an officer of landwehr.
At the peace, he speut some time in Paris, studying
under David and Gros, and in 1817 went to Italy,
where he joined the neo-German group. On
settling in Berlin in 1819, Wach opened an atelier,
and acquired great vogue as a teacher. He had
also a large practice as a portrait painter, and
devoted much attention to the chemistry of colours
and varnishes. He became a member and pro-
fessor of the Berlin Academy. He died in Berlin,
November 25, 1845. There are by him :
Berlin. Nat. Gall. Male Portrait.

„ „ The Madonna.

„ „ Psyche surprised by Cupid.

„ Gamson Church. The Crucifixion.

„ Schloss. S. John in Patmos.

„ Werder'sche Kirche. Faith, Hope, and Charity.

„ Raca/nski Coll. Christ and His Disciples.

„ „ The Madonna.

,j „ Portrait of Cornelius.

„ „ Countess Eaczynski.

Moscow. Ch. ofSS Peter \ rj^^ Altar-pieces.
and Paul. )

WACHSMUTH, Fbedinand, painter and etcher,
was born at Muhlhausen in 1802. He studied in
Paris under Gros, and then travelled in Algeria in
quest of subjects for genre pictures. He was pro-

fessor at the school of St. Cyr, and obtained a
second-class medal in 1833. He died in 1869. He
engraved after Wouwerman ' A Halt of Huntsmen.'
The Museums of Amiens, Avignon, and Ver-
sailles possess examples of his work, in history,
genre, and portraiture.

WACHSMUTH, Hieeonymus, was a German
engraver of the 18th century, who resided chiefly ^
at Vienna. He engraved, among other plates,
the ' Elements ' and the ' Seasons,' from his own
designs, and seems to have been a humble imitator
of Bernard Picart.

WACHTER, Eberhaed Geoeg Feibdeioh von,
painter, was born at Balingen in Wiirtemburg,
Feb. 29th, 1762. He was educated at the ' Karls-
Sohule,' at Stuttgart, where he studied jurispru-
dence, with the intention of devoting himself to
the law, but in 1778 he abandoned this idea, and
going to Paris, entered David's atelier. He there
became an ardent believer in the classicism which
the French master had brought into vogue. When
the events of the Revolution, however, drove him
away to Rome, he came under the influence of
Carstens, which, combined with the example of the
great Italians, caused a vast change in his artistic
predilections. He embraced the Roman Catholic
faith, and after his return to Germany, his art had
little in common with that of the French school.
He strove after ideality of conception, often to
the loss of vigour in execution. He worked for
some time in Vienna, and later in Stuttgart, re-
ceiving many important commissions, and leaving
his mark upon the generation of artists which
succeeded him. He died, August 14th, 1862, at
Stuttgart. Pictures :

Stuttgart. Gallery, Job and his Friends.

„ „ The Choice of Hercules.

„ „ The Ship of Life.

WACHTLIN. See Wechtlin.

WADDINGTON, S , an English landscape

painter, was born in 1736 (?). He painted some
good landscapes in the style of Claude, but died at
the age of twenty-two, in 1758.

WAEGEMAN, Heinrich, was born, according to
Fiissli, at Zurich, in 1536. He was little known as
a painter, but some of his drawings, in the style of
Paolo Farinato, have been preserved.

WAEL (Wael). See De Wael.

WAELSCH, Jas. See Baebaej.

WAERD (Waaed). See De Waaed.

WAES. See Waas.

WAESBERGE, Izaak, was a Dutch engraver,
who flourished from about 1660 till 1660. We
have by him several portraits, engraved in a style
resembling that of Cornells Vissoher ; among them
that of Admiral de Ruyter, after H. Berckmans.

WAGEMAN, Thomas Chaelbs, an English por-
trait painter, was born in 1787. He had a large
practice in theatrical portraits, and exhibited at
the Academy and in Sufiblk Street, from 1816 to
1857. He died in 1863. There are by him :

London. Kensington Mus. Portrait of T. Stothard.
„ '„ ' Fawcett as Autolycus. 1828.





WAGENBAUER, Maximilian Joseph, land-
scape and animal painter, was born at Grating,
near Munich, in 1774. He was a pnpil of the
elder Dorner, and served in the Napoleonic wars.
King Max I. created him court painter, and, in

1815, director of the gallery. His death occurred
at Munich, May 12, 1829. Works :

Berlin. Nat. Gall. Mountaia Tarn in Bavaria.

„ „ Cattle at Pasture.

Munich. iV. Finakothek. Landscape, with a young Ox.

„ „ Evening Landscape, with

Figures and Cattle.

„ „ Morning Landscape, with

Figures and Cattle.

„ „ Landscape, with Setting Sun.

„ „ Landscape, with a Cow.

„ „ Scene near Marquardstein.

WAGGONER, . In Painters' Hall, London,

there is a picture of the ' Great Fire,' by a painter
of this name. The Society of Antiquaries pos-
sesses another, which is engraved in Pennant's
' London.'

WAGNER, Albert, was born at Stuttgart in

1816. He studied at the Stuttgart school of art,
and afterwards at Munich. He painted mountain
landscapes, and has also left some lithographic
views. He died at Stuttgart in 1867.

WAGNER, Edmund, son and pupil of the en-
graver Friedrich Wagner, was born at Nuremburg
in 1830. He attended the Academy at Antwerp for
some considerable time, and visited England, after
which he returned with his father to Munich. He
was a successful painter of dogs and game. He
lost his life near Munich in 1859, through the
accidental discharge of his gun.

WAGNER, Friedrich, engraver, was born at
Nuremburg, May 24, 1803. After a thorough
grounding in the technicalities of his art under
Reindel, at Nuremburg, he completed his education
in Paris, and returning to Germany, found employ-
ment on such works as small engravings for pocket-
books. In 1833 he was commissioned by the
Albrecht Dtirer Society to engrave Guido Rent's
'S.John in the Desert.' Other undertakings were
plates in illustration of Nuremburg sculpture in
the Middle Ages, and of Swabian monuments of
the Middle Ages, and the Atlas of Plates for
Kugler's ' Kunstgesohichte.' In 1852 he settled
at Stuttgart, but afterwards moved to Munich,
where he died in April, 1876. His plates are very
numerous ; the following are perhaps the best :

Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper ; a copy after Morghen.

Noah ; after Oppenhehn.

Hieronymus Holzsohuher ; after Dtirer.

Sakuntala ; after Biedel.

S. Sebastian ; after Carlo Dolce.

The Cherry-Seller ; after Kreul.

The Banquet in honour of the Peace of 'Westphalia;

after Sandrart,
The Descent from the Cross ; after Rubens.
Ecce Homo ; after Durer.
Diirer's Portrait of himself.
The Madonna della Tenda ; after Raphael.

WAGNER, Hans. See Subss.

WAGNER, Hans Erhaed, was, according to
Professor Christ, a native of Strasburg, and en-
graved a considerable number of copper-plates,
which were printed by Johann Heyden. lie flour-
ished about 1690.

WAGNER, Jacob, was probably of the same
family with Hans Erhard Wagner. He is said by
Professor Christ to have inscribed his prints, J.
Wa. fee.


WAGNER, Johann Geoeg, son of an indifferent
painter, Johann Jakob Wagner, was born nt
Meissen in 1732, and was a scholar of Dietrich,
who was his uncle. He painted landscapes with
pastoral subjects, nymphs bathing, and other
Arcadian relaxations, the picturesque scenery on
the borders of the Meuse, and also maritime com-
positions. His pictures have been frequently sold
in England as the works of Dietrich. He died
in 1766. He is sometimes called 'the younger,'
to distinguish him from another now forgotten
painter of the same name, who flourished a
century earlier.

WAGNER, Johann Martin, painter and sculptor,
was born at Wiirzburg in 1777. His father, who was
sculptor to the court, gave him his first teaching,
but in 1797 he placed himself under Fiiger at the
Vienna Academy, where he gained the first prize
in 1802 for '.^neas inquiring of Venus the road
to Carthage.' In 1803 he went to Paris, and in
1804 to Rome. During a long stay in the latter
city and a tour in Greece, he acquired a profound
knowledge of classic antiquity. While in Greece,
he effected the purchase of the .fllginetan marbles,
now in the Munich Glyptothek. He died at Rome
in 1858.

WAGNER, Joseph, draughtsman and engraver,
was born at Thalendorf, on Lake Constance, in

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 179 of 201)