Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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the Landgrave appointed him his principal en-
graver. Among others, we have the following
prints by him :

The Landgrave of Hesse-Oassel ; after Graff.
The Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel ; after Kschbein,
Apollo playing on the Lyre ; after the same.
A Landscape, with a Waterfall; after Everdingen.
A Landscape, moonlight ; after Dietrich.

WEISSENBRUCH, Johannes, a Dutch painter,
and pupil of Salomon Leonardus Verveer, was born
at the Hague in 1822, and died there in 1880. The
Eijks Museum at Amsterdam has two views of
towns by him.

WEITSOH, Feiedeich Geoeg, historical painter,
was bom at Brunswick in 1758, and was the son
of the painter Johann Friedrich Weitsch. He
entered Tischbein's atelier at Cassel in 1776, and
visiting Holland and Italy for improvement, studied
chiefly the works of the Dutch animal painters.
A few successful portraits, however, had already
shown where his real talent lay, and he subsequently
devoted himself to figure painting. In 1781 he
returned to Brunswick, and six years later was
appointed court painter at Berlin. In 1797 he
became director of the Berlin Academy, and died
in that city. May 28, 1828. Among his best por-
traits were those of Soult, Alexander von Humboldt
(Berlin National Gallery) of Jerusalem, the father
of Goethe's "Werther" (do.), of his own father
(Brunswick Gallery), of the Prince of Orange,





and the Hereditary Prince and Princess of Bruns-

WEITSCH, JoHANN Fribdeioh, called 'Pacha
Weitsch,' from his fancy for Oriental costumes,
was born at Hessendamm, near Wolfenbiittel, in
1723. He was the son of a house-tiler, but from
his youth had a bent towards art. Having
become a sergeant in the army, his colonel once
called upon him to copy a few landscapes, which,
though his first attempts at painting, were so suc-
cessful that he thenceforth devoted himself ex-
clusively to art. He copied pictures in the gallery
at Salzdahlen, and was then appointed to a post in
the porcelain factory at Furstenberg. He pursued
oil painting at the same time, and studied from
nature and the old Dutch masters. His works
were at first small landscapes and views of
towns, but later on he took to woody scenes, and
especially oak forests with cattle. In 1788 he
became inspector of the Salzdahlen gallery, and
died in that place in 1803. Four landscapes by
him are in the gallery at Brunswick.

WELBRONNER. See Wilboen.

WELL, Aenold van, born at Dordrecht in 1772,
was a scholar of Andries Vermeulen, and painted
cabinet pictures in the manner of the Van Strys,
also winter scenes, and landscapes by moonlight.
He died in 1818.

WELLER, David, was horn at Kirchberg in
Saxony in 1759, and after studying at the Meissen
school of design, was placed in the porcelain factory,
where he painted historical pictures and portraits
upon china. Later on he took to iiower painting
in oil and gouache, and to portraiture in pastel,
but he had to struggle hard for a livelihood. His
merits at last procured him the appointment of
court painter to the Elector, but this preferment
only reached him a few days before his death. He
died at Dresden in 1789.

WELLER, J. The print-room of the British
Museum possesses the chalk portrait of a painter
of this name, executed with care and knowledge,
and inscribed se ipse pinxit, cetat 30, 1718.

WELLS, Joanna Mary, nee Boyce, born in
1831, painted portraits, genre pictures, and oc-
casionally landscapes. At the age of eighteen
she entered the school of Mr. Carey, and after-
wards worked under Mr. Leigh, in Newman
Street. Her first exhibited work was a life-size
head, which appeared at the Academy in 1855.
In the same year she went to Paris, where she
joined the ladies' class in Couture's atelier. The
year 1857 she passed in Italy, and in December
was married at Rome to Mr. H. T. Wells, now R. A..
Before returning to England, she painted the
greater part of ' The Boys' Crusade,' exhibited at
the Academy in 1859. Subsequent exhibited works
were : ' The Outcasts,' ' The Heather-Gatherers,'
' Do I like Butter ? ' ' La Veneziana,' ' Peep-Bo I '
and 'A Bird of God.' This last was left complete
on her easel at the time of her death. She died
in child-bed, on July 15, 1861.

WELLS, William Peedeeick, an English land-
scape painter in water-colour, born in London in
1762. He was taught by J. J. Barralet, and in his
early years wavered between pastel and oil. One
of the earliest practitioners in water-colours, he
took an active part in the foundation of the Old
Society in 1804, and iu 1806 was its President.
Between 1795 and 1813 he exhibited at the Royal
Academy, and also, between 1805 and 1812, with
his own sofifttv. jje travelled on the continent,


extending his tours to Norway and Sweden. The
latter half of his life was chiefly occupied in
teaching drawing, of which he was professor at
Addisoombe for many years. He died in 1836.
There is a water-colour drawing, ' The Dawn,' by
him in the South Kensington Museum.

WELSCH, JouANN Fmedeich, painter, bom at
Nieder-Wesel in 1796. He served as a volunteer-
in the war of liberation, and afterwards studied art
in Berlin and in Holland. He first became known
by his genre pictures and portraits, but afterwards
settled at the Hague, and produced chiefly views
of Dutch towns. He finally became director of
the drawing school at Munster, working also as a
restorer of pictures, and publishing a book on that

WELTE, Gottlieb, painter and etcher, was
bora at Mayence in 1745, and first taught by his
father, an obscure painter of landscapes and ani-
mals. He afterwards settled at Frankfort, where
he painted the figures in the landscapes of Schiitz.
Later on he visited Russia, and, after maintaining
himself for a time by his musical talents, died in a
village near Revel in 1790. In the castle of Ober-
pehlen, near Dorpat, he decorated a room, and also
painted many conversation pieces, bambocciate,
and caricatures. There is a series of fifty-eight
etchings by him.

WBNCELAS, (or Wenoeslads). See Ollmutz,
Wenzel von.

WENDELSTADT, Kael Peiedeich, painter
and etcher, was bom at Neuwied in 1786. He was
early left an orphan, and was brought up as an
artist by his foster-father, the art connoisseur Dr.
Grambs, of Frankfort, who at last sent him to
Paris for improvement. He there cultivated his-
torical and portrait painting, and upon his return
in 1817 was appointed inspector of the Stadel
Institute. He also acquired a good collection of
his own, and was a teacher of drawing. In 1840
he hanged himself at Antwerp. He painted many
portraits and altar-pieces, and has left ten etchings
after various masters.

WENDLER, Friedeich Moeitz, a German
painter, was born at Dresden in 1814, and died
there October 16, 1872. His ' Death of the Chamois
Hunter ' is in the Dresden Gallery.

WENETZIANOW, Albxei Gawrilowitsch, was
born at Ndjine in 1775, and studied in the St.
Petersburg Academy. He painted portraits, house
interiors, and genre subjects, and after becoming a
member of his Academy, died in the government
of Twer, December 5, 1846. Among his works
are :

The Thresbing-floor.

Peasant Girl receiving the Oommunion.

A Feasant Lad. (Hermitage.)

WBNG, (Wengh, Wenig, or Wening).

This name is affixed to a print dated 1509, repre-
senting a man and woman almost naked. Over
the head of a man, who is attended by a dog, is
written Paris, and over the woman, Egenoe, pro-
bably in mistake for (Enone. The print appears
to be by a German, working in the style of the
early Italian engravers.

WENG, J. G. (or Wenig). This name is affixed
to a print representing ' Minerva visiting the
Muses.' It is etched in the manner afterwards
employed by Romeyn De Hooghe, and dated 1630.

WENNG, Kael Heineich, painter and litho-
grapher, was born at Nbrdlingen in 1787. He




studied art in his native town, and afterwards
went to Stuttgart to learn engraving under Mtiller.
He soon determined, however, to devote himself
to painting, and after travelling in Switzerland and
Italy, he went to Munich, to work under Langer.
In 1816 he was appointed professor of drawing
to the Lithographic Institution at Stuttgart. While
there, he executed a number of original litho-
graphs, designed a large cartoon of the Flood,
and lithographed Weitbrecht's frieze in the Sohloss
Bosenstein. In 1827 he left Stuttgart for Munich,
where he was employed at the Cotta Literary
Institute. Returning to Stuttgart in 1837, he
worked industriously both as a painter and teacher
of art ; he published a book on perspective, and
brought out a new invention in lithography, by
which plates could be reproduced without a press.

WENTZEL, JoHANN Pbiedrich, was born at
Berlin about 1660, and studied perspective and
decorative painting under the elder Harms. He
was employed by the Elector Friedrich of Bran-
denburg, and received a stipend from him to
enable him to visit Italy. After his return he
painted a ' Coronation Ceremony at Konigsberg,'
and four allegorical cartoons for tapestry ; he was
also a painter of portraits, and of scenes for court
festivities. He settled at Dresden after the death
of Friedrich, and died there in 1729.

WENTZEL, Michael, was born at Grosssohonau
in Saxony about 1790, and was for a time dancing-
master at the Leipsic theatre. He however took
to flower-painting in gouache, and afterwards
worked in oil at Vienna. About 1828 he went to
Italy, and there commenced the painting of land-
scapes, panoramas, &o. Later on he settled at
Leipsic, where he published a series of motives for

WENZEL, See Ollmutz, W. von.

WERDMOLLER, Johann Rudolph, painter and
modeller, was born at Zurich in 1639. His father
was a distinguished officer in the Venetian and
Swiss services, and possessed a collection which
incited the son to the choice of art as a profession.
He studied for three years under Konrad Meyer,
and then worked independently, directing his
attention chiefly to landscapes and to civil and
military architecture. He also produced a number
of portraits, studied flower painting under Marel
at Frankfort, and visited Holland. He was
drowned in the Sihl, in 1668.

WERENFELS, Rudolph, was born at Basle iii
1629. He received his first instruction at Amster-
dam, but afterwards studied some time in Italy.
He chiefly practised portraiture, and was employed
at several German courts. He died in 1673.

WERFP (or Wbrf). See Van der Werff.

WERNER, Anna Maria, (or Marianne, nde
Hatd), was born at Dantzic in 1688. She studied
under her father, Andreas Hayd, and in 1705
married the painter Christoph jfosEPH Werner of
Augsburg. Subsequently she became noted as a
miniature painter at Berlin, and in this capacity
was invited to the court of Dresden in 1721. She
died in that city in 1763.

WERNER, Jacques Cheistophe, natural "history
painter, was born in France in 1798. He was the
author of an ' Atlas of European Birds,' and was
appointed painter to the Museum of Natural His-
tory at the Jardin des Plantes, in recognition of
his skill in the delineation of birds and animals.
Many drawings by him, on vellum, are in the
Museum there. He died in Paris in 1856.

WERNER, Joseph, was born at Berne in 1637.
He was the son of an obscure painter, by whom he
was first instructed. He was afterwards sent to
Frankfort, where he became a scholar of Matthaus
Merian the younger. After a time his preceptor
introduced him to a M. Miiller, an amateur of for-
tune, who invited Werner to accompany him to
Rome. During his residence there, he copied the
works of Pietro da Cortona and Andrea Sacchi ;
but his predilection for high finish induced him to
take to painting portraits and historical subjects
in miniature. In returning from Italy he passed
through France, where his talents attracted the
notice of Louis XIV. He was invited to Versailles,
where he painted the king, and several personages
of the court ; and was also employed in historical
and emblematical subjects. He was compelled,
however, by the intrigues of Le Brun, to leave
France, and moved in 1667 to Augsburg, where he
painted in the Kreuzkirche, and produced for the
Blectress of Bavaria seven pictures from the Life
of the Virgin, and some allegories for the Elector.
He was then invited to Vienna, where he painted
a portrait of Leopold I. About this period he
recommenced painting in oil, in which he was
thoroughly successful. Returning to Berne, he
painted a large picture, ' The Marriage of Justice
and Prudence,' for the Rathhaus, which procured
him an invitation from Frederick, Elector of Bran-
denberg and first King of Prussia, to take the post
of director of the newly-founded Berlin Academy ;
this post he held from 1696 to 1707, when
a change of ministry caused his displacement.
He died at Berne in 1710. A ' Temptation of
St. Anthony ' by him is in the Augsburg Gallery ;
an ' Allegory of Avarice ' in that of Munich ; and a
' Tobias burying the Dead ' in that of Vienna.

WERNHER, a monk of Tegernsee in the 11th
century, was famous for his skill as illuminator,
glass painter, and ornamentist.

WERTMiJLLER, Adolf Ulrik, a Swedish
painter, was born at Stockholm in 1749. He went
to Paris in his youth and worked in the Academy
there. In 1787 he was appointed painter to the
King of Sweden. In 1797 he emigrated to America,
where he died at some date unknown. Nagler
wrongly asserts that he died at Stockholm in 1811.
He was a member of the Stockholm Academy.
Works :

Stockholm. Musewm, Aria'dne abandoned at Naxos.
„ „ Marie Antoinette and her

„ „ Portrait of Count Armfelt.

„ „ Portrait of himself.

„ „ David with the Sling.

WBRY, Gerard, one of the pupils of Rubens,
born in 1605, died in 1644. He was known chiefly
as a copyist of his master's works, and never
attained to any distinction in the school.

WERY, Pierre Nicolas, born in Paris in 1770,
died at Lyons in 1827. The Lyons Museum has a
landscape by him.

WESEL, Tblman von. See Tblman.

WEST, Benjamin, was born in Chester County,
Pennsylvania, in 1738. From early childhood he
evinced an inclination for drawing. His biographers
dwell on his childish attempts, and would persuade
the world that he was a prodigy in art from his
cradle. At eight years old he received some lessons
in the management of colour from a party of
Cherokee Indians, who were pleased with his rude
drawings of birds, fruits, and flowers. On the death





of his mother, in his eighteenth year, he moved to
Philadelphia, and afterwards to New York, painting
portraits in both places. He found this profitable,
and was enabled to amass money; but he yearned
to be acquainted with the higher walks of art.
For that purpose he planned a journey to Rome,
which he was enabled to carry out by the help of a
merchant named Kelly, and one Allen, a shipowner.
He arrived at Eome in July, 1760. An American
artist was a novelty in Rome, and caused a sens-
ation. Having a letter of introduction to Lord
Grantham, he was at once introduced to the best
society. He stayed in Italy about three years,
visiting Florence, Bologna, Venice, and Parma,
making copies of celebrated pictures, and painting
some originals. When his funds ran short, he
received a fresh supply from his two merchant
friends, and from the Englishman, Gavin Hamilton.
In the middle of the year 1763 West arrived in
London, at first with no intention of remaining in
England ; but his reception there decided his future
course. Patronized by the Church and by royalty,
and favourably received by artists and literary
men, he sent for the lady to whom he had been
engaged before he left America, married, and
settled for life in England. For nearly sixty years
he held a prominent position among the painters
of the country ; he produced numerous pictures
both from sacred and profane history, and probably
his works had some effect, at the time, in inciting
others to attempt such subjects ; but he did not
create a school, nor did his style survive him. He
struck a blow, however, for realism in art. His
' Death of Wolfe ' contained a startling innovation
in the substitution of the military regulation coat,
the cocked hat, and the musket with the bayonet
for the ample paludamentum, the helmet, spear,
and shield. In 1765 West was chosen both a
member and a director of the Incorporated Society
of Artists, and in the following year sent ' Pylades
and Orestes' and 'The Continence of Scipio' to
their exhibition. In 1768 he was one of the
' four commissioned to draw up the plan for the
Royal Academy, and in 1772 was appointed his-
torical painter to the king. On the death of Sir
Joshua Reynolds, West was elected to the presi-
dent' s chair, and took his place on the 24th March,
1792. He delivered an inaugural address, which
was much applauded, but, says his biographer, it
must have caused him little thought, as it dwelt
on but two topics — the excellence of British art,
and the great benevolence of his Majesty. He
died on the 11th March, 1820, and was buried in
St. Paul's cathedral. Many of his more important
works were painted for George III. Those formerly
in the National Gallery have been removed to pro-
vincial museums, as may be seen by the following

Glasgow. Gallery. Pylades and Orestes.

Hampton Court. Death of Bayard.

„ The Oath of Hannibal.

„ Germanicus and the Wife of


„ St. Peter denying Christ.

„ Cyrus liberating the Family of

„ Death of Bpaminoudas.

„ St. George and the Dragon.

„ Kegulus leaving Rome. (Eight
Eoyal portraits.) .

Liverpool. Walker Gal. Cleombrotus.

London. Orosvenor So. Death of General Wolfe.

No.ttingbam. Museum. Christ healing the Sick.

WEST, Ohaeles, an English engraver, was born

in London about 1750. He produced many plates
in stipple, and also in a mixed process of etching
and stipple. His best plate was ' The Silver Age,'
after Henry Walton (1787).

WEST, Francis Eobbbt, an Irish historical
painter, and son of Robert West junior, was bom in
1748. After studying under Boucher and Van Loo
in Paris, he succeeded his father as master of the
Dublin Society's School. There he acquired a high
reputation as a teacher and draughtsman. At the
London Free Society he exhibited in 1774 an
' Adoration of the Shepherds,' and at the Royal
Academy in 1790 a couple of portraits. He died
in Dublin in 1809.

WEST, Johannes Hendeik van, a modem Dutch
painter, was bom in 1803. He was a pupil of C.
Kruseman ; he practised art only as an amateur,
but one of his pictures, 'The Poet Cats and his
Family, ' was crowned by the Felix Meritis Society,
of Amsterdam ; and another, ' The Billet Doux,' is
in the Rijks Museum, in the same city. West was
elected a member of the Amsterdam Academy.
He died in 1881.

WEST, Raphael Lamae, an English historical
painter, born in 1769. He was the son of Benjamin
West, and studied in the schools of the Academy.
Though gifted with considerable powers, he did
not reach success, owing, it is said, to want of
industry. He inherited a competence from his
father. He died at Bushey in 1850. ' Orlando and
Oliver,' in the Shakespeare Gallery, was by him.

WEST, Robekt, topographical draughtsman,
drew a series of views of ancient buildings in
London and Westminster, which were pubhshed
between 1736 and 1739.

WEST, Robert, an Irish historical painter, bom
in Waterf ord early in the 18th century. He studied
under Van Loo in Paris, where he gained the first
medal in the Academy. For many years he was
master of the school of the Royal Dublin Society,
but was at last compelled to resign through mental
infirmity. He died in 1770.

WEST, Robert Lucius, an Irish historical
painter, the son of F. R. West, whom he succeeded
in 1809 as master of the Dublin Society's School
He exhibited on two occasions, 1808 and 1822, with
the London Royal Academy, and was elected one
of the original members of the Hibernian Academy
in 1823. There is a portrait by him of his father,
in the Hibernian Academy. He died after 1824.

WEST, Samuel, portrait and genre painter, was
born at Cork about 1810. He came to London, and
began to exhibit at the Eoyal Academy in 1840,
contributing some twenty-three pictures between
that year and 1867, when his name appears for the
last time. His subjects were chiefly portraits, and
portrait-groups of children. He painted a few
historical subjects, and in the last years of his life
made many excellent copies in water-colour from
the old masters. Works :

Cardinal Wolsey leaving London after his fall.

Charles I. taught drawing by Hubens.

WEST, William, landscape painter, was bornm
1801, at Bristol, where he practised for most of his
life. He began exhibiting at the Academy in 1845,
with a picture from Bible history, but afterwards
turned his attention to landscape. His style was
imitative, and his subjects taken from Wales, Nor-
way, and the coast of Devonshire. In 1851 he was
elected a member of the Society of British Artists,
to whose exhibitions he was a constant contributor.
He died at Chelsea in January, 1861.




WESTALL, RicHAED, was bom at Hertford in
1765. He was apprenticed to an heraldic engraver
who lived in Gutter Lane, Cheapside. Towards the
end of his time he was permitted by his master to
attend the Royal Academy schools, where he formed
an acquaintance with Lawrence. He and Lawrence
afterwards took a house, jointly, at the corner of
Greek Street and Soho Square. It had two en-
trances ; on the door in Greek Street was placed
the name of Westall, on that in the Square the
name of Lawrence. The subjects Westall chose,
and the style in which he represented them, were
suitable to his time, and he became a favourite
with the public. He was one of the early prac-
titioners in water-colour, but it is chiefly as an
illustrator of books that he is now remembered.
His ' vignettes ' are very numerous ; some of the
best are in editions of Orabbe, Moore, Gray, and
the ' Arabian Nights.' He was employed by Alder-
man Boydell to illustrate Milton and to paint five
subjects for the Shakspeare Gallery ; and his repre-
sentations of Church of England services and cere-
monies were popular with the serious part of the
public. Westall was elected an Associate of the
Academy in 1792, and an Academician in 1794.
In 1808 he published a volume of poems, with the
title, ' A Day in Spring,' vdth plates engraved by
J. and 0. Heath after his own designs. Towards
the close of his life he lost much of his fortune in
amateur attempts at picture dealing. Westall
gave lessons in drawing to the Princess Victoria,
now her most gracious Majesty. He died on the
4th December, 1836. There is a ' Cassandra pro-
phesying the Fall of Troy ' by him, in water-colour,
in the South Kensington Museum. His 'Christ
crowned with Thorns ' is in AH Souls' Church,
Langham Place.

WESTALL, William, brother of Richard West-
all, was born at Hertford on the 12th October, 1781.
He studied under his brother, and in the schools
of the Royal Academy. When only nineteen, he
was appointed draughtsman to Captain Plinder's
Australian expedition. After being out some two
years, his ship was wrecked ofE the north coast of
Australia, and he rescued by a ship bound for China.
There he remained several months, visiting the in-
terior and making sketches, which have now much
interest. From China he made his way to Bombay,
whence he explored the Mahratta country, making
drawings at Kurlee and Elephanta. Returning
to England after an absence of four years, he
soon afterwards set out for the West Indies, taking
Madeira on the way, and there coming near to
losing his life by a second shipwreck. In 1805 he
returned to England, and began to contribute fre-
quently to the Academy. In 1811 he was elected
an Associate of the Water-Colour Society, and in
the year after a full member. This honour he
resigned, and a few months later he was elected an
A.R.A. His work was chiefly topographical land-
scape in water-colour. He died from the effects
of an accident on January 22nd, 1850. Works :

Port Jackson, Sydney. (South Kensington Museum.)

The Cottage Door. (Do.)

A Village Church and Green. (So.)

' Views of scenery in Madeira, at the Cape, in China

and India.' 1811.
' Views of the Yorkshire Caves.' 1818.
' Britannia delineata.'
'Picturesque Tonr on the Eiver Thames.' (Jointly

with Samuel Owen.)

Z Z 2

WESTCOTT, Philip, an English portrait painter,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 184 of 201)