Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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was bom in 1815. In the early part of his career
he lived in London, and exhibited at the Royal
Academy between 1844 and 1861, also occasionally
at the British Institution and in Suffolk Street.
His practice was, however, chiefly in the north of
England, and the greater part of his career was
spent in Liverpool and Manchester, where his
portraits were held in high repute. Examples
are to be seen in the Salford Museum. He died
at Manchester in January, 1878.

WESTENBEEG, Pibtee Geoege, painter, was
born at Nymeguen in 1791. In 1808 he began the
study of art under J. Hulswit, and at the Amster-
dam Academy, and afterwards became known as
a painter of landscapes and town views. He
was a member of the Royal Academy of Amster-
dam. He died at Brummen, December 26th, 1873.
In the Rijks-Museum there is a ' View of Amster-
dam in Winter' by him, and in the Rotterdam
Museum a ' Rustic Scene.'

WESTERBAEM, J., a portrait painter, was
living in 1669 at the Hague, and painted the
portraits of Arnold Gesteramus and Jacob Batiliere,
which were engraved by Hendrik Bary.

WESTERHOUT, Arnold van, an engraver, was
bom at Antwerp in 1666. After having received
some instruction in design and engraving in his
native city, he went to Italy, and worked for some
time at Florence for the Grand Duke Ferdinand.
In 1700 he established himself at Rome, where
he engraved several plates from his own designs,
and after the works of Daniele da Volterra, Maratti,
Lenardi, and others ; also some portraits in mezzo-
tint. He died at Rome in 1725. Plates by him :

Cardinal Giaoomo Antonio Moriga; after Lod. Ant.

Prince Eospoli ; after the same.
Michelangelo Tambnrini, General of the Jesuits;

after Ant. Odati. ,

The Transfiguration ; after Baphael.
St. Andrew upon the Clouds ; after Domenichino.
A Female Figure, with a Unicom ; after Ann. Carracci.
The Descent from the Cross ; after Dan. da Volterra.
Attila before Eome ; after Algardi.
St. Paul preaching at Athens ; after Lenardi.
The Muses protecting the Monuments of Art from the

Destruction of Time ; after the same.
The Abjuration of the Priest, Miguel Molinos.

WESTERMAYR, Cheistianb Heneiettb, nie
Stotzee, painter, etcher, and embroiderer, was born
at Weimar in 1772, and instructed in the school of
her native town. About 1800 she married Konrad
Westermayr, whom she afterwards assisted in
many of his works. She herself painted portraits
in oil, and copied the works of Raphael, Leonardo,
Van Dyck, and other old masters. She died at
Hanau in 1830.

WESTERMAYR, Konhad, painter and engraver,
was born at Hanau in 1765. He was the son of a
goldsmith, and learnt drawing in the school of
his -birthplace, afterwards producing pastel por-
traits upon parchment, and miniatures. A pension
from the Landgrave enabled him to study at the
Cassel Academy. He afterwards studied engraving
under Lips at Weimar. In 1807 he became a
teacher at Hanau, and died there in 1826. Two of
his best plates are a 'Madonna' after Guido, and
' Gotz von Berliohingen ' after Tischbein.

WESTFALIA. Giov. di. See Veldenaeh.

WESTPHALEN, Albeet von. See Aldegrevee,

WET, G. and J. See Duwbtt.





WETTE, Frans de. See De Wette.

WETZEL, Jakob, draughtsman and painter,
was born at Hirslanden, near Zurich, in 1781, and
studied under Walser. He painted landscapes in
■water-colours, chiefly views among the Italian
lakes. He died at Richterschwyl in 1834.

WEYDE, Julius, genre painter, was born at
BerUn in 1822, and first studied at the Academy
there. He afterwards became a pupil of Venne-
man at Antwerp and of Delaroche in Paris. In
1848 he settled in Berhn, and became well known
by his scenes from bourgeois life. He died near
Stettin in 1869.

WEYDEN, EoGEE van der (or Weyde). See
Van deb Weyden.

WEYDMANS (or Weydeman). See Weijdmans.

WBYDMULLEB, Johanna Elisabeth, nee
Kbuger, was born at Sorau in 1725. She was her
father's pupil, and became a clever painter of
flowers, fruit, and portraits upon glass. She taught
drawing to the Saxon Royal family, and died
in 1807.

WEYER, Gabriel, a German painter, etcher,
and wood engraver, was bom at Nuremburg about
the year 1580, and was one of the most productive
workers of his time. He painted historical and
allegorical pictures, and made many designs for
the engravers. He also executed several wood-
cuts (which are marked with a monogram com-
posed of a G. and a TFOi ^nd left a number of pen
drawings washed in Indian ink. He died at Coburg
in 1640.

WEYER, Hans. See Wbiner.

WEYER, Jakob Mathias, (or Johann Mathias,)
was born at Hamburg at the beginning of the 17th
century, and was a pupil of J. A. Decker, under
whom he painted horses and battles. He after-
wards studied under Wouwerman. He chiefly
produced landscapes with rustic figures and skir-
mishes. He died about 1690. The Brunswick
Gallery contains the following pictures by him :

Brunswick, Gallery. The Battle with the Amalekites.
„ „ The Conversion of Saul.

„ „ A Camp.

WBYERMAN. See Weijerman.

WEYGANDT, Sebastian, was born at Bruchsal
in 1780, and taught successively by Engelhard, the
sculptor Giinther, and Sohweickart. He settled
as a portrait painter, first at Augsburg, and after-
wards at Wallerstein, where he painted the family
of the prince. He was also for a time court painter
to the Margrave of Ansbach, and to the Prince of
Hohenlohe. In 1804 he was at Breslau, where he
painted several French officers, among them Prince
Jerome Bonaparte, who took him to Cassel as his
court painter. He was appointed director to the
projected Westphalian Academy in Rome, but the
Westphalian kingdom being put an end to, he never
entered upon the office. He died at Cassel in 1824.

WEYLER, Madame. See Kuglee.

WEYLER, or WEYLLBR, Jean Baptiste, a
painter of portraits in pastel, miniature, and
enamel, was born at Strasburg in 1749. He worked
in Paris, and became an Academician in 1779, his
reception work being a portrait in enamel of the
Comte d'Angivilliers, director-general of archi-
tecture to Louis XVI., which is now in the Louvre.
He exhibited miniatures of many distinguished
persons at the Salon, between 1775 and 1790,
among them those of Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne,
and Peter the Great, etc., painted on commission
for the French Government. His pupil, Mademoi-


selle Kugler, who became his wife, worked in the
same qenre. He died in Paris, July 25, 1791.

WEYNERS. See Weiner.

WHARTON, Philip F., an American painter,
was bom at Philadelphia in 1841, studied in the
Academy in that city, and later in Dresden and
Paris. His picture of ' Perdita at the Sheep-shear-
ing Festival ' received a medal at the Philadelphia
Exhibition of 1876. He died at Media in 1880.

WHEATLEY, Francis, was born in London in
1747. His father, a master-tailor, placed him at first
under a good teacher, and afterwards at Shipley's
drawing-school, which he left after a time for the
schools of the Academy. When young he obtained
several premiums from the Society of Arts, and,
having formed a friendship with Mortimer, he
assisted that artist in painting a ceiling at Brocket
Hall, for Lord Melbourne. He was also employed
on the decorations at Vauxhall. He met with
considerable employment in painting small whole-
length portraits, which induced him for some time
to make that his particular pursuit. After practis-
ing some years in London, he eloped to Dublin,
with the wife of Gresse, the painter. In Dublin
he was much employed in portraiture, and painted
a large picture, representing the ' Irish House of
Commons,' in which he introduced portraits of all
the more remarkable Irish politicians. On the
tardy detection of his irregular course of life he
returned to London, where he appears to have
now met with no serious obstacle to the pursuit
of his profession. He painted a picture of the
Gordon Riot, from which Heath engraved an ex-
cellent print for Boydell, and became very popular
as a painter of rural and domestic subjects, for
which he had a peculiar talent. When Boydell
projected the Shakespeare Gallery, he was engaged
to contribute twelve pictures. He was a contri-
butor also to Macklin's ' Poets' Gallery.' Wheatley
first exhibited at the Academy in 1771, his subjects
at that time being portraits. Later on he sent
genre pictures and landscapes, some in water-
colours but more in oil. He frequently drew with
the pen, using Indian ink for the shadows. An
etching and a mezzotint by him are also known.
He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy
in 1790, and Royal Academician in 1791. He was
a martyr to the gout for several years, and died
in 1801. In his best work, Wheatley is an excellent
painter, approaching Morland in freedom of hand-
ling and in sense of beauty. Works :

London. N. Port. Gall. Group of officers, with camp in

The second Duke of Newcastle, with a shooting party.
The Disaster {Sir Charles Tennant, Bt.).
The ' Cries of London.'

WHESSELL, John, an English engraver, who
was at work in London towards the close of the
18th century. He engraved after Serres, Stothard,
Singleton, Gainsborough, and others.

WHICHELO, C— John M— , an English marine
painter in water-colours, born towards the close of
the 18th century. He practised in London, and
became marine painter to the Prince Regent. Be-
tween 1810 and 1846 he occasionally exhibited at
the Royal Academy and the British Institution,
but his works chiefly appeared, from 1823 onwards,
at the Old Water-Colour Society, of which he was
elected an associate in that year. He died in

WHITAKER, George, a water-colour painter,
born about 1834, who chiefly painted the scenery




of his native Devonshire, where he resided for most
of his life. He died at Dartmouth, September 16,

WHITAKER, James William, was born at
Manchester, and apprenticed to an engraver for
calico printers. Coming into a small fortune, he
migrated to Llanrwst, North Wales, where he
practised landscape painting in water-colours. He
was elected an Associate of the Old Water-Colour
Society in 1861, and a member in 1864. Falling,
however, into habits of intemperance, he failed to
improve in his art, and was drowned at Bettws-y-
Coed on the 9th September, 1876.

■Water-mill and Cottages, Stoke Gabriel, Devonshire.
(South Kensington Museum.)

WHITCOMBE, Thomas, an English marine
painter, born about 1760. His works, which dealt
with storms, naval battles, &c., appeared at the
Royal Academy from 1783 to 1824. His best work
was the 'Destruction by night of the Spanish
batteries before Gibraltar, 1783.'

WHITE, Chaelbs, an English engraver, was
born in London in 1761. He was a pupil of
Franker, on leaving whom he quitted line engraving,
and worked chiefly, if not entirely, in stipple. He
was for some time engaged on trifling subjects
from designs by ladies, but in the latter part of his
life he was employed on works of more import-
ance, among them a series of plates of ' The Ruins
of Rome,' and others for works on natural history.
He also helped to illustrate Bell's edition of the
Poets, and was the author of some comic drawings,
among them a ' Masquerade at the Pantheon.' He
married a daughter of Gerard Van der Gucht. He
died in Pimlico, August 28, 1786.

WHITE, Charles William, an English en-
graver, was bom in London early in the 18th
century. He was a pupil of George White, and
practised from about 1760 to 1785. His plates are
chiefly after Stothard, Cosway, Pether and Bunbury.
WHITE, Edwin, an American painter, born about
1817. He began to paint when only twelve years
old, and studied in Paris, Rome, Florence, and
Dtisseldorf. His pictures were chiefly historical,
the subjects of many being taken from American
history. Among them we may mention ' Washing-
ton resigning his Commission,' 'The first New
England Thanksgiving ' ' The Signing of the Com-
pact on the Mayflower.' He died in 1877.

WHITE, Geoege, the son of Robert White, was
born about 1671.. He was instructed in drawing
and engraving by his father, but first practised as
a portrait painter, both in oil and in miniature.
After the death of Robert White he finished the
plates left incomplete by him, and also engraved
some portraits in the same style. Those of the
Duke of Ormond and Lord Clarendon, prefixed to
the 'Rebellion in Ireland,' may be especially
praised. But his best prints are in mezzotint, in
using which process he frequently etched the out-
line before the ground was laid upon the plate.
He engraved much after Kneller, and is said to
have become so troublesome to that painter by
constantly requesting him to touch on proofs, that
Sir Godfrey forbade him his house. His death is
supposed to have occurred about -1734. A small
chalk portrait of Martha Blount by him is dated
1732. The following are his best plates :


Sir Eiohard Blackmore, M.D. ; afte)' J. van der Bank.
Sylvester Petyt, Principal of Barnard's Inn.

Nicholas Sanderson, Professor of Mathematics at Cam-
Jean Baptiste Monnoyer, Painter; after Kneller.
John Drydeu ; after the same.
Alexander Pope ; after the same.
Thomas Bradbury ; after Gibson.
George Hooper, Bishop of St. Asaph ; after Sill.
Colonel Blood (who stole the Crown).
William Dobson, Painter ; from a picture ty himself.
A Man playing on the Violin ; after Frans Hals. 1732.


James Gardiner, Bishop of Lincoln ; after M. Sahl.
Charles II. of Spain; begun by Eobert "White, and

finished by George White, whose name is affixed.
The Duke of Ormond.
Lord Clarendon.

WHITE, Heney, an English wood engraver
and pupil of Bewick. He had previously worked
under James Lee. Settling in London he produced
much good work, notably' the illustrations for
Hone's ' House that Jack Built,' ' The Matrimonial
Ladder,' <fec.

WHITE, John Blake, an American painter,
born in South Carolina, in 1781. He studied for
four years in London under Benjamin West, and
returning to America, settled at Charleston, where
he combined painting with the practice of law.
His works, chiefly historical pictures, and portraits,
are numerous in America. He was also well known
as a writer of plays, essays, &c. He died in 1859.

WHITE, Robeet, engraver and draughtsman,
was bom in London in 1645, and was a pupil of
David Loggan, for whom he drew and engraved
several architectural views. He was much em-
ployed in drawing portraits with black lead upon
vellum, and in engraving plates from them. The
heads of Sir Godfrey Kneller and his brother, in
Sandraart's ' Lives of the Painters,' were engraved
from drawings by White, whose portrait Sir Godfrey
painted in return. In 1674 he engraved the head-
ing to the first ' Oxford Almanack,' and the title-
plate to the ' History of Oxford Antiquities.' Few
artists have left more English portraits than
Robert White. They are frequently disfigured,
however, by large, tasteless borders. Most of his
plates are executed with the graver ; he scraped a
few heads in mezzotint, but they are very inferior
to his other prints. He made money in the course
of his career, but was in poverty at his death,
which occurred at Bloomsbury in 1704. Of his
numerous portraits (Vertue gives a list of 275), the
following are the best :

James I. ; after C. Janssens.

George, Earl of Cumberland, habited for a tournament.

Charles I. ; ^ter Van Dyck.

Another of Ciharles I. ; after B. Van Voerst.

Prince Eupert ; after Kneller.

Charles II. ; after the same, 1679.

Another of Charles II., in the robes of the Garter.

James II. under a canopy, with Archbishop Sancroft

and Chancellor Jefferies.
James II. when Duke of York, in the Garter robes.
Maria Beatrix of Bste, his consort ; after Kneller. 1686.
Henry, Duke of Gloucester. | Lady Mary Johffe.
Heneage, Earl of Nottingham. | Thomas, Duke of Leeds.
Su: Edward Ward, Chief Baron. 1702.
Chief Justice Treby of the Common Pleas. 1694.
Samuel Pepys ; after Kneller.
George, Earl of MelvU ; after Sir John Medina.
James, Earl of Perth ; after Kneller.
Another portrait of the same ; after Riley.
Bishop Burnet ; after Mrs. Beale.
Sir Alexander Temple. | Lady Susanna Temple.
Lady Anne Clifford.
Thomas Flatman ; after Hayla.
Sir John Fenwiok ; after TVissing.





The Seven Bishops ; seven small ovals in one plate.
The Five Bishops who suffered Martyrdom ; five ovals

in one plate.
Duke of ilorf oik, mezzotint ; after Kneller.
John, Earl of Radnor, ditto ; ditto.

WHITE, Thomas, engraver, vras born in London
about 1730. He was for some time employed by
Ryland to assist in the backgrounds of his plates,
and afterwards engraved the greater part of the
architectural prints for Wolf and Gandon's con-
tinuation of the ' Vitruvius Britannious.' His name
is also afSxed to a landscape after Brueghel, etched
by T. Saunders, and finished by White and Ryland.
He died in London about the year 1775.

WHOOD, Isaac, an English portrait painter,
bom in 1688. Though but a poor artist he obtained
a good practice, and was much patronized by the
then Duke of Bedford, for whom he made many
copies. A suit in Chancery, which he had to defend
in his later years, occasioned him much loss. He
died in London, February 24, 1752. There is an
edition of ' Hudibras ' illustrated by him. Amongst
his portraits are :

Cambridge. Trin. Sail. Several Portraits.
Lambeth Palace. Archbishop "Wake. 1736.

Wobum Abbey. Duke of Marlborough. 1734.

„ „ Hon. John Spencer. 1737.

„ „ The third Duke of Bedford.

{And others.)

WIBERT. See Vuibekt.

WICAR, Jean Baptists, (or Vicae,) was bom
at Lille in 1762. He was the son of a cabinet
maker, to whom he was for a time apprentice, but
entered the school of design in his native town in
1773. In 1780 he went to Paris with a pro-
vision from the Lille municipality, and studied
painting under David and engraving under Le Bas
and Bervic. He accompanied David to Rome,
and in 1784 proceeded to Florence, where he
made drawings of the entire Pitti collection, to
be used for engraving. In one year he produced
four hundred drawings from paintings and statues,
three hundred from cameos, and one hundred and
forty from busts and other portraits. Upon his return
he set about the projected engravings, and brought
out four volumes between 1789 and 1807. In 1793,
returning to the French capital from a second
sojourn in Rome, he became a member of the
Conservatorium in Paris, and in 1796 was chosen
by Bonaparte to inspect the art treasures of Italy,
and to select those to be carried ofE to Paris.
About 1800 he settled in Rome, and became well
known as a painter of portraits, producing among
others those of the Duke and Duchess of Torlonia,
of Murat, and of Pius VII. In 1805 he became
a member of the Roman Academy of S. Luke, and
a few years afterwards director of that of Naples.
He died at Rome in 1834, having bequeathed his
collection of drawings and works of art to his
birthplace, with a fund sufficient to send three
pensioners annually to Rome. Pictures :

Joseph interpreting the Dreams. {Lille— his first

The Concordat between Pius VII. and Napoleon.
The Raising of the "Widow of Nain's son. {Lille

Portrait of Murat. (Do.)
„ himself. (.Do.)

„ M. Lesage Lenault. (Do.)

Virgil reading the ' jSlneid ' before Augustus. (Do.)
The Resurrectiou. (Archbishop of Ravenna)

WICHMANN, Adolph, historical painter, was
bom at Celle, Hanover, in 1820, and in 1838 en-

tered the Dresden Academy, where he worked in
Bendemann's atelier till 1847. On quitting Dres-
den in 1847 he worked in Venice and Rome tiU
1851, and the next year returned to Bendemann.
He settled in Dresden, where he died in 1866, His
best known pictures are :

Christ the Comforter.

The Bequest granted. {^Munich, New Finakothek.)

The "Virgin and St. Ehzabeth watching the sleeping

Child Jesus. (Lieye Gallery.)
Rachel weeping for her Children.

WICHMANN, J., a German engraver, flourished
about the year 1683. His name is afiBsed to a
large plate of the Siege of Vienna. The portraits of
the German and Turkish generals are introduced
at the top, and those of the Emperor of Germany
and the Sultan at the bottom.

WICHMANN, Otto Gottfeied, genre painter,
was born at Berlin in 1828, and was a pupil of
Robert Fleury, in Paris. After a stay of two years
in that city he went to Rome, where he died in
1858. His ' Paolo Veronese in "Venice,' and ' Cathe-
rine de' Medici and the Poisoner,' are in the
Berlin National Gallery.

WICKENBBRG, Petee Gabeiel, a Swedish
landscape and marine painter, bom in 1812. He
settled in Paris in 1837, and exhibited at the Salon.
He died of consumption in 1846. There are by

Amsterdam. Fodor Mus. "Winter Scene.
Stockholm. Nat, Gall. Moonlight on the Dutch coast.

„ „ "Winter Scene in Holland. 1840.

„ „ Eve mourning for Abel. 1835.

„ „ Landscape with Sheep.

, WICKER, JoHANN Heineich, an engraver, was
born at Frankfort in 1723, and died in 1786. His
works were chiefly ornamental borders, coats of
arms, and "vignettes for books ; he also engraved a
few portraits and painted flowers in water-colours.

WICKSTEAD, Philip, was a native of London,
and a disciple of Zoflfany. He distinguished him-
self chiefly by painting small whole-length por-
traits. He was at work about 1773 in Rome.
There he became acquainted with Mr. William
Beckford, whom he accompanied to Jamaica. He
practised there some time as a painter, but after-
wards became a planter, and failed. This disap-
pointment caused him to take to drink, and
hastened his death, which took place in 1790.

WICKSTEED, James, engraver, was bom in
1719. He practised in London, working in the
stipple manner, and died July 11, 1791.

WIDEMAN, Elias, was a native of Germany,
and practised at Augsburg. He was chiefly em-
ployed by the booksellers, for whom he engraved
a great number of portraits, frontispieces, and
other plates, from his own designs. His most
important work is a set of portraits of illustrious
personages, published, at Augsburg in 1648.

WIEGMANN, Rudolph, a well-known German
architect, practised occasionally as a painter in
water-colours. He was born at Adensen in Han-
over in 1804, and died in 1865. As a painter he ia
known by the following architectural views, among
others :

The Engel'.b-irg. (For the Duke of Cambridge.) 1834.

The Via Sacra. 1834.

View of Borne from the Loggie of the Vatican. 1836.

The Interior of Bonn Cathedral. 1842.

Interior of San Marco at Venice.




His -widow, Mabie Wiegmann, n6e Hakckb, is a
successful portrait painter.

WIELINGr, Nicolas, an historical and portrait
painter, is supposed to have been a native of the
Hague, where his name occurs La the Guild books
for 1661, but the year of his birth is unknown. He
was much employed by Friedrich Wilhelm, the
Elector of Brandenburg, who appointed him painter
to the court in 1671. He died at Berlin in 1689.
His manner is more Flemish than Dutch ; and
some of his pictures have a touch of Van Dyck.
He had a son, Mathias, who was a scene painter.

WIERENGEN. See Wieeinqen.

WIEEINGA, Gerard, bom at Groningen, was
the son and scholar of his father, Jan "Wiehinga
(1709 — 1780), a painter of ornaments, and also
studied under J. Andriessen. He worked for a
time in the Diisseldorf Gallery, but in 1790 returned
to his native place, where he gave lessons in
drawing, and painted landscapes, chiefly sunsets
and winter scenes, for one of which he obtained a
gold medal from the Leyden Academy. He died
in 1817.

WIBRINGEN, CoRNELis Claesz, was born at
Haarlem about 1570-80. He was brought up to
a sea life, and excelled in painting s'ea-pieces and
storms. He was also a good landscape painter, as
appears by a series of fourteen plates after him
by Claesz Jansz Visscher. He died in 1635. A
picture by him of 'The Sea Fight at Gibraltar,'
was painted in 1623 for Prince Maurice of Nassau,
and his ' Arrival of Frederick, the Elector Palatine,
and the Princess Elizabeth, at Flushing, in 1613,' is
in the Haarlem Museum. He also etched several
landscapes and sea-views. His son Nicolaas, also
a marine painter, was registered in the Haarlem
Guild in 1636.

WIERIX, the brothers Anthonie, HiBRONTirDB,
and Jan, engravers, who flourished at Antwerp
from about 1562 to 1618, are generally said to have
been natives of Amsterdam, but M. Louis Alvin, the
chief authority on the subject, asserts that they

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 185 of 201)