Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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were bom at Antwerp. As a rule Hieronymus is
considered the ablest of the three, but it is likely
that many of Jan's prints are ascribed to him, and
vice versd, in consequence of the identity of their
monograms. For an exhaustive account of their
work, the student is referred to M. Alvin' s 'Cata-
logue RaisonnS de I'CEuvre des Trois Freres, Jean,
J6rome, et Antoine Wierix ' — Bruxelles, 1866. M.
Alvin gives a list of two thousand prints by them.
Only the most important are mentioned in the fol-
' lowing articles.

' _ WIERIX, Anthonie, (Wierx, or Wieeinx,) de-
signer and engraver, the youngest of the family of
the Wierixes, was bom at Antwerp or Amsterdam
about 1555. His small plates are executed in the
finished style of his brothers, but his larger prints
exhibit more freedom and facility. He engraved
subjects similar to theirs, and frequently worked
in conjunction with them. His prints are usually
signed with his name. The following are perhaps
the best :

Pope Clement VIII. ; Ant. Wierix. J Philip II.

■Wuhelm, Elector FaUttine. | Aichdnke Ernst.

Pliilippe Emanuel de Lorraine, Duo de Merooeur.

Horgpet, Queen of Philip III. of Spain.

Cardinal Eellormin.

Albert of Austria, Archbishop of Toledo and Governor

of the Low Countries.
St. Sebastian. lAnt. Wiercx fee. Hier. Wiercx inv.)
St. Theresa. (From his oion design.)
St. Dominick receiving the Eosaiy from the Virgin (Do.)

The Marriage of St. Catharine. (Bo.)

The Entombment. (Do.)

St. Jerome praying, with Angels ; dated 1584. (Do.)

Susannah and the Elders. (Do.)

Virgin and Child, in a landscape. (Do.)

Virgin and Child, in a Heart. (Do.)

The Eepeutant Magdalene. (Do.)

The Adoration of the Magi ; after M. de Vos.

The Crucifixion ; ve)-y fine; after the same.

The History of the Prophet Jonah ; in four plates ;
after the same.

A Biposo ; after Cam. Procaccini.

The Death of S. Francis ; after the same.

Christ between SS. Peter and Paul ; after Sprangher.

Death of the Virgin ; after Otto van Veen.

A series of sixty-nine plates from the Life and Passion
of Christ, with the Death and Assumption of the
Virgin ; in these he was assisted by his two brothers.

WIERIX, Hieronymus, (or Wibrinx,) was born
at Antwerp or Amsterdam in 1561. Died in 1619.
He is supposed to have learned the art of engrav-
ing from his brother Jan, whose style he followed
so exactly, that it is difficult to distinguish their
works. His prints are more numerous than those
of Jan Wierix, and chiefly consist of devout and
allegorical subjects, saints, and fathers of the
church, many of them from his own designs.
They are sometimes marked with his initials thus,
EI. W., or HI. W. F., or J. Hieronimus W. Fe. ;
sometimes with a monogram composed of an H, an
/, and an E, joined together and followed by a W,

thus, Py,"W^. The following are his chief

plates :

The Emperor Charles V.

Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre.

Queen Elizabeth. | Philip II. of Spain.

■William the Silent.

Sigismund III., King of Poland.

Ludwig, King of Hungary.

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain.

Archduke Albert. | Ignatius Loyola.

Alessandro Famese, Duke of Parma.

Sir Francis Drake.

Henriette d'Estragues, Marquise de Verneuil. 1600.

St. Cecilia. (From his own design.)

The Temptation of St. Anthony. (Do.)

St. Bruno, the founder of the Carthusians, (Do.)

S. Carlo Borromeo. (Do.)

The Holy Family beneath a Tree. (Do.)

The Virgin upon the Crescent. (Do.)

The Crucifixion. (Do.)

The Death of Lucretia. (Do.)

A Pieta ; after J. Malmse.

Christ blessing little Children ; after C. van den Broeck.

The Genealogy of Christ ; after Bol.

The Virgin with the Crown ; after J. van Eyck.

The Death of the Virgin ; after Stradanus.

Christ at Table, in the house of Simon the Pharisee ;
after 0. van Veen.

The Entombment ; after the same.

Christ crowned with Thorns ; after G. Mostaert.

The Scourging of Christ; after the same; vert/ fine.

The Baptism of Christ by St. John ; after S. Sondius.

The Charge to Peter ; after M. de Vos.

The Passion ; after the same.

The Triumph of Truth ; after the sam£.

The Vision of Daniel ; after Verhaegt.

Jupiter and Danae ; after the same.

Christ expiring on the Cross ; after P. Aquila, con-
sidered his master-piece.

The Doctors of the Church ; after Ph. Galle.

WIERIX, Jan, (Wierx, orWiERiNX,) draughts-
man and engraver, was born at Antwerp or Am-
sterdam in 1549. It is not known by whom he
was instructed, but he appears to have formed his
style by an attentive study of the works of Albrecht
Diirer, and has copied several of the prints of that




master with a preciaion bordering on servility.
The date of his death is unknown. M. Alvin says
he is the truest artist of the three ; that he has
most originality and most style, although both
Jerome and Anthonie excel him in silky softness
and polish. His plates are executed with the
graver, in a very neat, finished style, and his
drawing is remarkably correct. He usually signed
his work with the initials /. W- F., sometimes he
used 1. H. W. F.-i to which he occasionally added
his age, and the date of the year in which the
plate was engraved. The following are among his
best works :

Eodolphus n., Emperor of Germany.

Philipp Willem, Prince of Orange.

Eleanore de Bourbon, Princess of Orange.

James I., King of England, and his Queen ; scarce.

Philip 11. of Spain.

Marie de' Medicis, Queen of France.

Henry IV., King of France.

The Marquise de Verneuil (after F. Clouet, probably a

copy from Hieronymus' larger plate).
The Virgin enthroned.
The Eesurreotion ; inscribed Insanus Miles, etc. {From

his ovm design^
Mary Magdalene seated at the Entrance of a Grotto ;

J. Wier inv. etfec. (Do.)
An allegory, the Eedemption of Mankind. (Do.)
Orpheus charming the Beasts. (Do.)
The Four Elements ; Wierix. 1601. (Do^
The little Satyr; copied from Alirecht Siirer, when

Wierix was only twelve years of age.
Adam receiving the forbidden fruit from Eve ; also

copied from Diirer; upon a tablet is inscribed Albert

DUrer inventor, Johanes Wierix fee. (et. 16.
St. Jerome in meditation ; copied from Alirecht Siirer.
Melancholy ; signed Johan "Wiricx Fecit an. 1602.
The Christian Virtues giving Oil to the "Wise Virgins ;

after Grilles Coignet.
The Marriage of St. Catharine ; aftei- D. Calvaert.
Abraham's Sacrifice ; after M. de Vos.
\ The Death of Moses ; after the same.
Descent from the Cross ; after 0. van Veen.
The Last Judgment ; copied from Martin Rota's print

after Michelangelo.
Descent from the Cross ; after Sem. Fassari.

WIERTZ, Antoinb Joseph, was born at Dinant,
February 22nd, 1806, but at the age of fourteen
came to Antwerp, and studied under Herreyns and
Van Bree. In 1832 he gained the Roman pension,
and spent some time in Italy, where he painted the
portrait of Lsetitia Bonaparte, and the best of his
historical pictures, the ' Fight for the Body of
Patroclus.' Wiertz was an artist whose technical
powers were unequal to the rendering of his un-
doubtedly large and noble conceptions. He aspired
to combine the qualities of Homer, Michelangelo,
and Rubens, and, as might have been expected, the
outcome was an extravagance, at first merely fan-
tastic, but later gloomy, morbid, and devoid of all
ffisthetic instinct. Yet for a time the prestige he
enjoyed was extraordinary. An atelier was built
for him at Brussels at the government expense,
where he carried on his experiments in the use of
painting mediums. He succeeded in inventing a
process he called " matt-painting," the merit of
which was that it obviated the occurrence of reflec-
tions on a painted canvas. He accepted commis-
sions only for portraits, refusing to make his
imaginative creations a means of livelihood. In
this, as in other points, there was some affinity
between the Belgian master and our English poet-
painter, William Blake. At Wiertz's death in
Brussels, June 18th, 1865, the house in which he
had lived in that city, built to imitate a ruined
temple, was converted into a museum, in which a



large number of his works are now preserved, and
which is known as the " Mus^e Wiertz." Among
the most famous pictures of the collection are the
'Triumph of Christ' (1848), ' Napoleon in Hell,'
' The Suicide.' Towards the end of his career he
made some essays in sculpture, which he had
studied in his youth. 5.8.

WIEEX. See Wierix.

WIESSNER, KoNBAD, painter and engraver, was
born at Nuremberg, June 1st, 1796. He first
practised as a topographical draughtsman, but in
1811 began to attend the Nuremberg Academy,
and at the same time to study engraving under
A. Gabler. He afterwards visited Munich, and
travelled in the Bavarian Highlands, making
studies from nature. On his return to Nuremberg,
he took a prominent part in founding the Alhrecht
Diirer- Verein, of which he became director. Until
1826 he was busily engaged at Nuremberg in the
production of engravings, lithographs, and draw-
ings, but in that year he removed to Ratisbon, to
superintend the painting in the porcelain factory.
In 1827 he was again at Nuremberg, and thence-
forth was much occupied as a teacher at various
institutes, combining with such labours his work
as a creative artist.

WIGAN Isaac, a Flemish painter of subjects
known as ' Desserts ' (tables set with fruit, cheese,
oysters, etc.). He was probably a pupil of Jan
van Es, was born in 1615, and died in 1662-3.

WIGMANA, Geeaed, was bom at Workum, in
Friesland, in 1673. He went to Italy when young,
and is said to have studied Raphael and Giulio
Romano. On his return to Holland he took to
painting subjects of a cabinet size, which he dis-
figured by exaggerated expression, and inattention
to propriety of costume. He had the vanity to
call himself 'the Raphael of Friesland. '_ Disap-
pointed at the unfavourable reception his works
met with in his own country, it is said by Descamps
that he visited England, where he met with no
better success. He returned to Holland, and settled
at Amsterdam, where he died in 1741.

WIJCK, Jan, (called in England John Wyok or
Wtke,) the son of Thomas Wijck, was born at
Haarlem about the year 1640, and was instructed
by his father, whom he accompanied to England.
Jan Wijck distinguished himself as a painter of
battles, sieges, huntings, and processions. He
sometimes painted large pictures, such as the
' Battle of the Boyne,' and the ' Sieges of Naar-
den and Namur,' but they are inferior to his small
pictures. In the equestrian portrait of the ' Duke
of Schomberg,' by Kneller, the horse and the battle
in the background were finely painted by Jan
Wijck. He painted several views in Scotland,
etched a plate called 'The Siege,' and also made
designs for a book on hunting and hawking. He
died at Mortlake in 1702.

WIJOK, Thomas, (Wyck, or Van Wyck,) was
born at Beverwyck about 1616. He was a pupil
of his father, and improved himself by a, resi-
dence in Italy, particularly in the environs of
Naples, where he executed many sketches which he
subsequently worked up into drawings of coast
views. He excelled in painting shipping and sea-
ports, with small figures, very frequently odd
characters, such as quacks, alchemists, and misers,
in a style resembling that of Peter van Laar. He
also painted fairs, public markets, and the interiors
of chemists' laboratories. In 1660 he was appointed
Dean of the Guild at Haarlem. He came to Eng-



land about the time of the Reetoration, and was
much employed. He painted a View of London be-
fore the fire, and another of the north bank of the
Thames, from Southwark, exhibiting the mansions
of the nobility in the Strand ; of these there are
prints. He also painted the 'Fire of London'
more than once. He died at Haarlem in August,
1677. We have twenty-one scarce etchings by
Thomas Wijck of landscapes and figures ; the
best known of them is 'The Open Coffer.' His
pictures are to be met with in numerous European
galleries. The following may be mentioned :

Amsterdiim. S. Museum.



Eustio Interior.

An Alchemist.

Buins of a Boman Temple.

Woman with Children.

WIJCKERSLOOT, J. van, a Dutch painter of
the 17th century, supposed, from the extreme rarity
of his works, to have painted as an amateur. He
may be identical with one Johannes Wijckersloot,
a clergyman at Weesep, near Dordrecht, in 1661.
His few known cabinet pictures are carefully exe-
cuted in the manner of Teniers. The Berlin
Museum has a portrait of a young lady by liim.
WIJELANT. See Vrelandt.
WIJNANTS, Jan, one of the founders of the
great Dutch school of landscape painting, was born
at Haarlem, probably about 1615. Details con-
cerning him are of the very scantiest, and no
additional light has been thrown on his career by
modem researches. Tradition asserts him to have
been the master of Philips Wouwerman, and of
Adriaen van de Velde. His earliest known pictures
are dated 1641 and 1642. In the records of the
Guild of St. Luke at Haarlem, one Jan Wijnants,
probably the painter, is mentioned as a dealer in
works of art, and the marriage registers of Haar-
lem show that in 1646 one Jan Wijnants, widower,
married Luytgen van den Ende, a native of Goch,
but there is no evidence by which we can identify
the master with the contracting party. It seems,
however, that Wijnants worked at Haarlem, and
from 1665 onwards at Amsterdam. A picture by
him in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg is dated so
late as 1679. It is assumed that he died at Am-
sterdam. Wijnants is well represented in most of
the leading European galleries, yet his works are
not numerous, when we take into account his long
career as a painter. Smith catalogues two hundred
and fourteen. Their comparative scarcity, how-
ever, is explained by the extreme care and finish of
their technique. In the rendering of natural phe-
nomena, Wijnants was a master of the first rank,
but he never succeeded well with human figures
or animals, and was obliged to rely upon the aid
of his contemporaries, Lingelbach, Adriaen van de
Velde, Ph. Wouwerman, Helt-Stokade, and others,
for the Uouffage of his landscapes. It is probable
that many works ascribed to him are by Jan
Wouwerman. Pictures by him :

Amsterdam. E. Museum. Landscape, with hunters. (The

figures by Adr. v. de Velde.)
„ „ The Farm.

„ „ Hilly Landscape.

{And Jive others.)
Antwerp. Museum. Two Landscapes, with figures

by Adr. v. de Yelde.
Berlin. Museum. Landscape — a harvest field,

with figures by Adr. v. de


Copenhagen. Gallery.

Dresden. Gallery.

" )>

Dulwich. Gallery.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gall.

Glasgow. Gallery.

Hague. Museum.

London. Nat. Gallery.



Petersburg. Hermitage.
Vienna. Gallery.


Museun. Four Landscapes.


Landscape, with a hunting-
party painted by Philips
Landscape, with a Woman

driving an Ass.
Small Landscape, with shep-
herds and sheep.
Two Landscapes, companion

Landscape, with figures by Jan

Two Landscapes.
Borders of a Forest, with figures

by Helt Stokade (?).
A Bead on the Dune.s.
Landscape with figures.
Landscape, with man fishing,

and female bathers.
Landscape with Sportsman.
Two other Landscapes.
Eight Landscapes with figures.
Three Landscapes, one dated

An Italian Landscape. 1679.

{And seven others.)
Two Landscapes.

WIJNEN, D0MiNicn& van, (called Ascanius,)
was born at Amsterdam in 1661, and studied in the
school of the Hague painter Doiidyns, after which
he went through Germany to Rome, and spent
several years there copying. His original paint-
ings are of a jocose nature. He was unfit to deal
with money, and became dependent on Bonaventura
van Overbeck, for whom he painted comic scenes
and the burlesque ceremonies elaborated by the
Flemish painters in Rome. He died at Amsterdam
at some date unknown.
WIJNGAERDB. See Van den Wijngabrde.
WIJNTRACK, D., (or Wijnteanck,) a Dutch
painter, lived at Drenthe in the 17th century, and
was noted for his painting of water-fowl. He
enriched the pictures of Wijnants, Ruysdael, and
other painters with wild ducks and other aquatic
birds. His own landscapes represent marshy
grounds with pools backed by alders and willows,
serving merely as backgrounds for their feathered
population. The birds are full of life and activity,
their plumage soft and flexible, and their colouring-
true. Pictures painted entirely by himself are rare.
Nothing of his history is recorded. A landscape
by Hobbema, dated 1667, in the National Gallery,
contains ducks of Wijntrack's painting. There
are two pictures by Wijntrack in the Hermitage,
St. Petersburg ; and one is ascribed to him in the

WIJTMAN, Matheus, was bom at Gorcum in
1650, and studied for some time under Hendrik
Verschuringh. His first pursuit was landscape
painting; but he afterwards became a scholar of
Jan Bijlaert, and applied himself to painting con-
versations, and domestic subjects, in which he
imitated the style of Caspar Netscher with suc-
cess. He also painted flowers and fruit, and his
pictures of that description possessed great merit.
He enjoyed a considerable reputation at his death,
in 1689. The Dresden Gallery has a picture by
him of a young girl turning over the leaves of a

WILARS. See Villard,

WILBAUT, Jacques, painter, born at Chateau
Porcien in 1729, was the nephew and pupil of
Nicolas Wilbaut. He painted portraits and his-
torical subjects, and many pictures for churches
and monasteries. Most of his works perished in





the French Revolution; but in the Museum of
Eheims and the parish church of Eethel there are
pictures by him. He died in his native town, June
18, 1816.

WILBAUT, Nicolas, painter, born at Chfiteau
Porcien (Ardennes) in 1686, was a pupil of Jean
Jouvenet. He worked much as a decorative painter
for the religious houses of Champagne, Lorraine,
and Picardy, and was employed for seven years by
the Elector Frederick Augustus at Dresden, where
he painted many portraits of distinguished persons.
He also worked for a time at Leipsic. He died in
his native town, May 4, 1763.

WILBOEN, Nicolas (incorrectly called Wel-
EHONNEk). The real name of this engraver is
Nicolas Wilboen ; it was Professor Christ who
turned him into Welbronner. He is stated by
BruUiot to have produced eighteen etchings marked
with the letters if. NW. and fourteen more, one of
which has his name in full, Nicolas Wilborn, and
the date 1536. We may name :

Adam ; a small upright plate ; dated 1534.

Eve, with the Serpent.

A Portrait of Bernard KnipperdoUing, the chief of the

Anabaptists of Miinster, dated 1536 ; copied from a

print by H. Aldegrever.
Victory and Fame ; copy from the Master of the

A Sacrifice to Priapus ; copy with variations, fr(ym the

A Triton making love to a Siren ; copy in reverse /rom

the same.
A winged Horse.
A Frieze, with the Triumph of Paris and Helen ; dated

Saturn in a Car drawn by a Frog and a Dragon, and

other symbols.
Infants amusing themselves with warlike sports, on a

frieze ; dated 1533.

WILD, Charles, an English architectural
painter in water-colours, born in London in 1781.
He was articled to T. Malton, the writer on per-
spective, and in his early years worked as an archi-
tectural draughtsman. His drawings occasionally
appeared at the Royal Academy between 1803 to
1820, and upon one occasion at the British Insti-
tution. But he chiefly exhibited at the Water-
Colour Society, which he joined as an Associate in
1809. He seceded on the introduction of oil
paintings, but was re-elected in 1820, and after-
wards became Secretary and Treasurer of the
Society. In 1807 he commenced the publication
of a series of illustrations from the English
cathedrals. • In that year appeared drawings of
Canterbury ; in 1809, of York ; in 1818, of Chester
and Lichfield ; in 1819, of Lincoln ; and in 1823,
of Worcester. During this period he also produced
some of the drawings for Pyne's ' Royal Resi-
dences.' The close of the Napoleonic wars opened
up fresh fields for his pencil, and from 1821 on-
wards he exhibited many drawings from France,
Belgium, and Germany, publishing works, also,
based upon them. In his latter years he gradually
lost his sight, perhaps through straining his eyes
while sketching the roof of Henry VII.'s chapel at
Westminster, in a glare of light. He died in
London August 4, 1835. Wild was thoroughly
imbued with the spirit of Gothic architecture.
His details are correctly drawn, and the pictorial
adjuncts of his works are in good taste and keep-
ing. There is a large collection of his drawings
in the South Kensington Museum.

WILDE. See De Wilde.

WILDENS, Jan, was bom at Antwerp m 1580,
and was in 1591 a pupil of Pieter Verhulst, but
was largely indebted for his progress to his own
diligent studies from nature. In 1604 he was
received a Master of the Guild of St. Luke. His
talents attracted the attention of Rubens, who
employed him to paint backgrounds, clouds, and
trees in his pictures. He frequently did as much
for Snyders, Diepenbeeck, and Johann von Bock-
horst. He produced landscapes of his own also,
several of which are in public buildings at Ant-
werp. Other pictures by him are, a ' Winter Land-
scape,' at Dresden; a 'Stag Hunt' and 'Heron
Hawking' at Nuremberg ; ' Skaters,' in the Venice
Academy; a 'Landscape' in Lord Bute's Collec-
tion (an important example); and others at Augs-
burg and Madrid. He died at Antwerp in 1653.
His portrait by Van Dyck was engraved by P.
Pontius. Hollar, Hondius, Malham, and Nolpe
have engraved after him. Zani and Brulliot say
that he was an engraver as well as a painter,
and the latter attributes to him several views of
chateaux in Holland, which are marked, J. W.
fecit. Rohhertus de haudom excudit Amstelodami,
1616. His son, Jbeemias, born in 1621, was also
a painter. He died a few weeks after his father.

WILDER, Gbobg Cheistian, designer and en-
graver, was born at Nuremberg in 1797. He
studied drawing under Zwinger, and engraved
under Gabler, and in 1819 went to Vienna, where
he spent more than twelve years, drawing and
etching architectural objects in the neighbourhood.
He afterwards travelled in Western Germany,
sketching the buildings of Nuremberg- and Batisbon
in the same manner. He died at the former city
in 1855. His brother, Johann Cheistoph Jacob
Wildee, (bom 1783, died 1838,) was also a
draughtsman and etcher. He has left a number
of landscape plates from his own design or after
Klein, F. Kobell, Schallhas, and others.

WILEBORTS. See Willeboets.

WILHELM VON KOLN (or Mbister Wilhelm).
See Koln.

WILKIE, Sir David, was born at Cults, in Fife-
shire, on November 18, 1785. His father, the
Rev. David Wilkie, was the minister of the
parish, and his mother, Isabella Lister, the daughter
of a farmer at Pitlessie. The Wilkie family came
originally from Midlothian, where, at Batho Byres,
a small property had been in their possession for
some four centuries. Isabella Lister was the min-
ister's third wife, and David her third son. As
soon as he could crawl he began to evince a bent
towards art. He could draw after a fashion before
he could read or even talk distinctly. At his first
school, the village school of Pitlessie, he used to
make portraits of his companions, for which they
had to pay with marbles, pencils, &c. At the age
of fourteen he was sent to Edinburgh, to the
Trustees' Academy, into which at first he had some
difficulty in winning admission. Before the end
of his course, however, he won a prize of ten pounds
for a sketch of ' Diana and Calisto.' In 1804 he
returned to Cults, and began work upon his ' Yit-.
lessie Fair,' for which he found plenty of material
among the natives of the district. It is an extra-
ordinary production for a lad of eighteen. In this
same year Wilkie painted many portraits, the pro-
ceeds of which enabled him to make his way to
London. He arrived in May, 1806, took lodgings
at 8, Norton Street, Portland Road, and a few
months afterwards he was at work in the schools




of the Koyal Academy. Before he left Scotland
he had painted a smalS picture called ' The Village
Recruit. This and a few studies brought in the
funds on which he lived during his first year in
London. Stodart, the pianoforte-maker, who was

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 186 of 201)