Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Artists, between 1834 and 1874. He died on the
19th September, 1877.

WILLIAMS, Pbnry, painter, was born at Mer-
thyr Tydvil in 1798. His father was a house-
painter, and he himself was sent as a boy to London,
to study in the Royal Academy, at the charges of
Sir John Guest, Mr. Crawshay, and some other
Welsh magnates who were interested by his talent.
He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1824.
In 1827 he went to Italy, and settling in Rome,
continued to contribute constantly to English ex-
hibitions, his works being chiefly Italian landscapes
and character subjects, painted in the manner of
the Italian school of fifty years ago. His 'Italian
Girl with a Tambourine,' and ' Italian Peasants,'
had for a time a place in the National Gallery.'
They have now been relegated, the first to the
Nottingham, the second to the Leicester Museum.
For nearly sixty years he was a, familiar figure in
Rome, where he was very popular. He died in 1885.

WILLIAMS, Roger or Robert, mezzotint en-
graver, was a native of Wales, and flourished about
1700-15. He is stated to have studied under
Theodoras Freres. He has left a number of por-
traits, among them the following :

Charles I. ; after Van Dyck.

Edward, Lord Littleton," Lord Keeper ; after the same.

Charles II. ; two plates ; after Lely and Kneller.

James II., when Duke of York ; after Cooper.

Mary Beatrix, his Queen ; after fVissing.

"William III., when Prince of Orange ; after the same.

Mary, Princess of Orange , after the same.

Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort ; after the same.




William Eussell, Duke of Bedford ; after the same.

Geoige, Prince of Denmark ; after the same.

Anne, Princess of Denmark ; after the same.

Lord Cutts, when Mr. Outts ; after the same.

George Fitzroy, Duke of Northumberland; after the

Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond ; after the same.
James Ktzroy, Duke of Monmouth ; after the same.
James Butler, Duke of Ormond ; after the same.
Charles Somerset, Marquis of Worcester ; after the same.
Ann Scott, Duchess of Monmouth ; after the same.
Catharine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester; inscribed

Mrs. SeMey ; after the same.
The Countess of Derby.
Sir Charles Cotton ; after Biley.
Theophilns, Earl of Huntingdon ; after Kneller.
Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland ; after the same.
Sir George Eooke ; after Ddhl.
Sir John. Houblon, Alderman of London ; after Closter-

John Campbell, Duke of Argyll ; after the same.
Sir Richard Blackmore, M.D. and Poet ; after the same.
Sir Edmund King, M.D. ; after Lely.
William, Earl of Portland ; after Simxm Dubois.

WILLIAMS, SamueI/, wood engraver, was born
at Colchester in 1788. After serving an apprentice-
ship to a house-painter, he turned his hand to
wood-cutting, and soon gained employment on
natural history books. He also designed and en-
graved the illustrations for an edition of ' Robinson
Crusoe,' published in 1822. Good examples of his
power are to be seen in Hone's ' Every-day Book '
(1825). Between 1831 and 1845 he was an occa-
sional exhibitor at the Royal -Academy. He died
on the 19th September, 1863.

WILLIAMS, Solomon, an Irish portrait painter,
bom in Dublin about the middle of the 18th century.
He was a pupil of the Dublin Academy, but
spent several years in Italy. While there he made
many good copies of Titian's pictures, and was
elected a member of the Bologna Academy. On
his return he practised in Dublin, with the ex-
ception of a few years spent in London, where his
works occasionally appeared at the Royal Academy
and the British Institution. On the establishment
of the Royal Hibernian Academy he was elected
one of the original members. He died August 2,
1824. There are by him :
Dublin. Royal^D^Un | p^^^^^j^ ^j ^^^^^^ Valiancy.

„ „ „ Mr. Pleasant.

WILLIAMS, T. H., an English landscape painter
in water-colours, who worked at Plymouth and
Exeter in the early part of the 19th century. His
pictures were occasionally exhibited at the Royal
Academy and the British Institution, between 1801
and 1830. He also practised as a draughtsman,
and drew and etched plates for the following
publications :

'Picturesque Excursions in DeTonshire and Cornwall.'

' The Environs of Exeter.' 1815.

'A Tour in the Isle of Wight.'

' A Walk on the Coast of Dorsetshire.' 1828.

WILLIAMS, William, an English subject, land-
scape, and portrait painter, who practised in London
and Norwich in the latter half of the 18th century.
The Society of Arts awarded him a premium in
1758, and he exhibited occasionally at the Royal
Academy between 1770 and 1792. His ' Marriage '
and ' Gallantry ' were engraved by Jukes, and
several of his Shakespearian subjects by Valentine

WILLIAMSON, John, a respectable English
portrait painter, who practised his art between 1788
and 1818, He died at Liverpool in the latter year.

WILLIAMSON, Pbtek, an engraver who flour-
ished about the time of the Restoration. He lived
in London, and was apparently a publisher also.
We have by him some portraits, among them King
Charles 11., Queen Catharine of Braganza, and
Mildmay, Earl of Westmoreland. He also engraved
some small illustrations of Charles II.'s escape after
Worcester, dated 1667. He was employed for a
time by David Loggan.

WILLINGEN. See Van deb Willingen.

WILLIOT, Loms Augdste Adolphb, painter,
was born at St. Quentin in 1829, and was a pupil of
Cogniet. He exhibited landscapes, chiefly of Fon-
tainebleau and its neighbourhood, at the Salon
between 1856 and 1866, in which latter year he
died from injuries received through the falling in
of a ceiling.

WILLIS, Beowne, an English draughtsman, was
born at Blandford in 1682. He enjoyed some repute
as an artist, and was a member of the St. Martin's
Lane Academy. But he is chiefly remembered as
an antiquary. He published many antiquarian
works, several with his own illustrations, notably :

' Survey of the Cathedral of Llandaff .' 1719.
' Survey of the Cathedral of St. Asaph.' 1720.
' Survey of the Cathedral of Bangor.'
' Survey of the Cathedral of St. Davids.'
' A Survey of the Cathedrals.' 1727-30.

He died in 1760.

WILLIS, Heney Beittan, painter, was bom at
Bristol, and was a pupil of his father, a landscape
painter of little note, practising in that town. After
a visit to America in 1842, the younger Willis
settled in London, where he became well known
as a painter of English scenery and of cattle, both
in oils and water-colours. He occasionally con-
tributed to the Royal Academy exhibitions, but the
greater number of his works appeared at the shows
of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, of which
body he became an Associate in 1862, and Member
in 1863. His ' Group of Highland Cattle in Glen
Nevis,' exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition of
1876, belongs to the Marchioness of Lome. He
died in 1884.

WILLISON, Geoegb, a Scotch portrait painter,
born in the first half of the 18th century. After
studying at Rome, he practised in London, ex-
hibiting at the Society of Artists and the Royal
Academy from 1767 to 1777. He then went to
India, where he acquired a fortune, though not in
the practice of his art. Settling in Edinburgh, he
died there in 1797. There is a portrait of the
Nabob of Arcot, by him, at Hampton Court.

WILLMANN, Eduabd, a German engraver, born
in 1820, was a pupil of Frommel. He engraved
views of Paris, Heidelberg, and Baden, after his
own drawings ; ' Spring-time,' after Bjiaus ; the ' Four
Seasons,' after Julius Marak ; ' Ancient Athens,'
after Hoffmann ; the Buildings of the Vienna Ex-
hibition, after Feldscharek. He was Professor of
the Art School at Carlsruhe, where he died in 1877.

WILLMANN, Michael, whose name is usually
written Michiel Willemans, was born at Konigs-
berg in 1630. When young he went to Amster-
dam, to become the scholar of Jacob Backer, but
afterwards entered the school of Rembrandt, under
whom he studied several years (1650 — 1654 ?).
On his return to Germany, he was much patronized
by the Elector of Brandenburg, for whom he
painted several large pictures, notably one of
' Vulcan forging the Arms of Mars.' He was also
employed at several other courts in Germany,





especially Prague and Breslau. After returning
to Konigsberg he entered a Cistercian monastery
near Leibus in Silesia, where he died in 1706. He
etched a few plates in the style of Eembrandt,
among them a ' St. Joseph.' There is a portrait by
Willmann in the Dresden Gallery.

WILLMORE, Arthur, engraver, born at Bir-
mingham, June 6th, 1814, was a younger brother of
J. T. Willmore, and served his apprenticeship in
art under his brother. He first exhibited at the
Academy in 1858. He was a frequent contributor
to the 'Art Journal,' and engraved designs by
Bartlett, Brockedon, Birket Foster, Dore, W. Collins,
and others, for the illustration of books. Towards
the close of his life he was afflicted with lung-
disease, which caused the stooping over his plates
to become increasingly irksome and painful to him.
He died November 3rd, 1888. Among his plates
we may mention :

Agrippina landing the Ashes of Germanious; after

Ancient Kome ; after the same.

Koyal Volunteer Review, Edinburgh ; after Sam. Btruifk.

On the Thames ; after David Cox.

The Lord of the Glen ; after Mc Whirter.

Mount Bdgcumbe ; after Copley FieldiTig.

The ' Kevenge ' ; after Sir Oswald Brierly,

Dutch Fishing Boats ; after E. W. Cooke.

Summer- Time ; after Rubens.

Farm at Laeken ; after the same.

Young Shrimpers ; after Collins.

Fisher-Boys, Coast oi Norfolk ; after the same.

WILLMORE, James Tibbitts, was born at
Erdington, Staffordshire, on the 15th September,
1800. He was apprenticed to William Radclyffe,
an engraver at Birmingham. On the expiration
of Hs time he came to London, and was employed
for three years in the studio of Charles Heath.
After that his independent career began. In
1843, the first year he exhibited with the Eoj'al
Academy, he was elected an associate engraver. He
worked after John Chalon, Leitch, Stanfield, Land-
seer, and Turner, being especially sucQpssful with
the latter. Several plates in the ' Rivers of France '
were by him. In his last years ill health made it
impossible for him to pursue his art. He died on
the 12th March, 1863. The following is a list of
his better plates :

Kilgarran Castle ; after Turner.

Penmaen Mawr ; after the same.

Ulleswater ; after the same.

Windermere ; after the same.

Mercury and Argus ; after the same.

Ancient Italy ; after the same.

Oberwesel ; after the same.

The Fighting TOm&aire ; after the same.

The Golden Bough ; after the same.

Venice, Bellini's picture carried to the Eedentore ; after
the same.

Grossing the Bridge ; after Sir E. Landseer.

Byron's Dream ; after Sir C. Eastlake,

Wind against Tide ; after Stanfield.

Harvest in the Highlands ; after Sir A. W. CaUcott.

WILLS, the Rev. James, painted about the
middle of the last century. In 1760 he exhibited
a ' Liberality and Modesty ' with the Society of
Artists, and in 1761 a 'St. Peter returning from
Prison.' He also presented a large picture of
' Suffer little children to come unto Me,' to the
Foundling Hospital, but failing to meet with success
in art, he took orders, and became first curate, and
afterwards vicar, of Canons, Middlesex. He was
for a time chaplain to the Chartered Society of
Artists. In 1754 he published a translation of Du
Fresnoy's 'Art of Painting.' He died in 1777.


WILMOT, Olive. See Seeees.

WILS, Jan, (or Wilts,) a Dutch landscape
painter, was bom at Haarlem about 1600. Berchem
married his daughter, and he has the credit of
having improved that master in his style of land-
scape painting, whilst the latter frequently embel-
lished Wils' landscapes with cattle and figures. "
These joint productions are now attributed entirely
to Berchem ; they may, however, be distinguished
by a peculiar green in the vegetation, and less of
freedom in the handling than the real works of that
master. Wils also imitated Jan Both with consider-
able success. He died at Haarlem in 1669 (?).
There is a ' Rocky Landscape,' by Wils, with figures
by Wouwerman (?), in the National Gallery.

WILSON, Andrew, a Scottish landscape painter,
was born at Edinburgh in 1780. He received some
early instruction from Alexander Nasmyth, and
in 1796 came to London and studied for a short
time in the schools of the Royal Academy. He
then went to Italy, and spent a considerable time
at Rome and Naples, where he laid the foundation
of an intimate Imowledge of the works and style
of the great masters. After a short stay in London
in 1803, he returned to Italy, and settled at Genoa,
where he was made a member of the Ligurian
Academy. In this capacity he was one of the
modem artists whose works were inspected by
Napoleon. It is said that an envious brother
Academician sought to prejudice Bonaparte, who
was admiring Wilson's picture, by telling him that
the author was an Englishman, and provoked the
dignified rebuke : " Le talent n'a pas de pays." At
Genoa he was chiefly occupied in purchasing
pictures of the old masters, of which he obtained
no less than fifty-four. Returning in 1806, he
practised in water-colours for some time, and
taught drawing at Sandhurst Military College.
In 1818 he removed to Edinburgh as master of
the Trastees' School, where he trained several good
artists. During this period his works regularly
appeared at the Scottish exhibitions. But he pre-
ferred Italy, and returned thither with his wife and
family in 1826. There he spent the next twenty
years, painting works inspired by Italian scenery,
and aiding many collectors in their purchases of
pictures. Those acquired by the Scottish Royal
Institution were mostly selected by him, and in iiiis
manner he formed the nucleus of the Scottish
National Gallery. He died at Edinburgh whilst
on a visit there in 1848. There is much refinement
in his style, and his success in aerial effects obtained
for him in Italy the title of the Scottish Claude.
Works :

li. )

ian's Villa. VOU.
tisland. J

Edinburgh. S. Nat. Gall. Tivoli.
„ „ Hadrian'f

„ „ Bnmtisland.

London, S. Kensington-! ^^ ^ ^gQ^

Museum, j I

„ „ Harlech Castle. 1807. VWater-

„ „ Sandhills, St. An- 1 colomrs.

drews. 1820.
„ „ Leith Roads. 1822. J

WILSON, Benjamin, portrait painter, was bom
at Leeds in 1721. He came to London when
young, and there worked as a clerk, but practised
art in his leisure. Dr. Berdmore, master of the
Charterhouse, took him under his protection,
but it does not appear that he was regularly
educated in art. Hudson, however, gave him some
assistance, that painter, with Hogarth, Lambert,
and others, having become acquainted with him.




He endeavoured to introduce more relief and
chiaroscuro into his pictures than had before been
•ommon, and his heads have more warmth and
nature than those of the generality of his con-
temporaries. Zoffany occasionally painted dra-
peries for him. From 1748 to 1750 he worked in
Ireland, but in the latter year he settled in London,
in Great Queen Street, where he is said to have
made £1500 a year by the painting of portraits.
About the year 1773 he was appointed master
painter to the Board of Ordnance, which post he
retained till a few years before his death. He suc-
ceeded Hogarth as serjeant painter in 1761, and
painted the King and Queen in 1776. He died at his
house in Great Russell Street, in 1788. General
Sir Robert Wilson was one of his sons. He was
known as an electrician and chemist, was elected
an F.R.S. in 1756, and published a book entitled
•Experiments and Observations on Electricity.'
In addition to his numerous portraits he painted a
' Belshazzar's Feast.' There are several mezzotints
after him ; two represent Garrick in the characters
of Hamlet and King Lear. Wilson left a few
good etchings, among them the following :

An old Man's Head, with hat, feather, and raff; in

imitation of Sembrandt.
A small Landscape. (Do.)
His own Portrait.
' The Kepeal,' a caricature published upon the repeal

of the American Stamp Act. It contains portraits of

the leading ministerialists.

WILSON, James, an English mezzotint engraver,
was born about 1735. He worked in London, and
died after 1786. The following plates are by him :

Master Skinner ; after F. Cotes. 1770 ; and another,

dated 1786.
Lady Broughton ; after Reynolds. 1771.
Nelly O'Brien ; after the same.
Mrs. Abiugton ; after the same.
Elizabeth, Lady Arran ; after the same.
John Wilkes ; cfter Pine. 1764.
Miss Nailer as Hebe ; after the same.
The Fair Nun ; after Morland.

WILSON, John W., an English landscape
painter, was born in 1812. His father was "Jock "
Wilson, the marine painter, in whose vigorous
style he painted many pictures. His best work
is, however, to be found in his farm-yard and
cattle pictures. He died at Folkestone, January
30, 1875.

WILSON, John, (called "Jock Wilson,") a Scot-
tish landscape and marine painter, was born near
Ayr on the 13th of August, 1774. He was
apprenticed to a well-known decorator in Edin-
burgh named Norie, and afterwards received some
teaching in landscape from Alexander Nasmyth.
He settled for a time in Montrose, where he
painted landscapes and taught drawing, but about
1798 he moved to London, where he was employed
to paint scenery for two or three theatres. In
1807-1809 he exhibited at the Royal Academy.
He won a premium from the British Institution
for a ' Battle of Trafalgar,' which was afterwards
bought by Lord Northwick. Wilson was one of
the founders of the Society of British Artists, and
one of its most constant supporters. But although
domiciled in the south, he never relaxed his con-
nection with his northern brothers of the brush,
who had elected him an honorary member of the
Scottish Academy. His fine memory and rare
conversational powers made him the centre of a
VOL. II. 3 A

delighted circle wherever he went. His last years
were spent at Folkestone, where he died on the
29th of April, 1855. Works :

Coast Scene. (Scottish National Gallery.)
A Ferry Boat. (Do.)
Coast Scene. (South Kensington Museum.)
Landscape witfi Cattle. (Glasgow Gallery.)

WILSON, RiCHAED, a distinguished landscape
painter, was born at Pinegas, in Montgomeryshire,
August 1, 1714. He was the son of a beneficed
clergyman, who was collated to the living of Mold,
in Flintshire, soon after his son's birth. At an
early period of his life, young Wilson discovered
a marked disposition for drawing, and was in 1729
sent to London, where he was placed under the
tuition of Thomas Wright, an obscure portrait
painter. To this brancli of art Wilson at first
devoted himself, and acquired a considerable
reputation. After having practised some years in
London, he went to Italy, where he continued to
paint portraits, until a landscape, painted in his
leisure moments, was accidentally seen by Zucca-
relli, and caused that artist to strongly recommend
him to abandon portraiture for landscape. The
French painter, Vernet, was at that time, too, in
Rome, and happening to visit Wilson's painting
room, was so struck with a landscape of his, that
he ofiered in exchange for it one of his own best
pictures ; the proposal was accepted and the pic-
ture delivered to Vernet, who placed it in his
exhibition-room, and recommended the painter to
the attention of the cognoscenti. Wilson's progress
in landscape must have been rapid, as he had
pupils in that line while still in Rome, and Mengs
painted his portrait, receiving a landscape in return.
During his stay in Italy he travelled to Naples
with Lord Dartmouth, for whom he painted some
fine landscapes. He came back to England in
1755. He was introduced by Thomas Sandby to
the Duke of Cumberland, for whom he painted his
'Niobe,' which was in the first exhibition of the
Society of Artists, in 1760. Wilson, however, did
not at once attain success, partly from the inability
of the public to recognize his merits, partly from
the jealousy of some among his co^jtemporaries,
and partly also from his own unconciliatory dis-
position. He lost the favour of the Court by an
unfortunate outburst of temper. Having painted
a view of Sion House for the king, he submitted
it to Lord Bute, who objected to the price demanded
(sixty guineas). Thereupon the painter angrily
retorted that if the king could not pay it all at
once he would take it in instalments. Although
he was chosen a foundation member at the institu-
tion of the Royal Academy in 1768, he had still
long to struggle with poverty. But after the death
of Hayman in 1776, he became librarian to that
institution, and retained the post until his decayed
health obliged him to retire. The death of his
brother about this time placed him in possession of
a small estate at Llanberis, North Wales, where he
died in May, 1782. It is probable that had Wilson
met with warmer encouragement his art would
have been even finer than it is. In colour, com-
position, and aerial truth, few landscape painters
have equalled and none excelled him." It is only-
in a certain emptiness, or lack of material, that
they fall below the level of Claude. Works :

Dublin. JVat.


An Italian Landscape.

Biver scene, with figures.





Glasgow. Gallery. Sketch for a landscape.

J, „ View near Tivoli.

„ „ Lake of Como.

,, „ Scene on an English river.

„ „ The Convent, twilight. *

„ „ Landscape, with figures.

London. Nat. Gallery. Euins of Maecenas' Villa, Tivoli.
jj „ Destruction of Niobe's Children.

',1 „ Landscape, with figures.

jj „ Lake scene, with ruin and

„ Ancient Roman Euin.

J, „ View in Italy, sometimes called

Hadrian's ViUa.
ji „ Lake Avernus, with the Bay of

„ „ On the Eiver Wye.

„ „ Eooliy river scene.

„ Smith KensiTigton Xl&nisc&fe, with river and

Museum. J ruins.
„ „ Landscape, evening.

„ „ Italian Landscape, with figures

(Venus, Adonis, and Cupids)

by Cipriani. Signed R. W.
J, „ Landscape, with a bay and

ruined buildings.
„ ■ „ Italian river scene.

In 1774 Wilson painted a picture of Niagara, after
a drawing. Some of his best pictures have been
very finely engraved by Woollett {q. v.). His chief
pupils were Joseph Farington, R.A., and William
Hodges, E.A.

WILSON, W , an English engraver in mez-
zotint, who flourished in the reign of Queen Anne.
He has left some portraits, among them that of
the Countess of Newhurgh, after Dahl.

WILSON, William, engraved several land-
scapes, after Claude Lorrain, Poussin, and other
masters. They are in line, and neatly engraved.

WILSON, William Ohaelbs, engraver, was
born about 1750. He worked in mezzotint, and
was employed by Boydell on the 'Shakespeare
Gallery.' His plates were after Smirke, Westall,
West, and Pillement.

WILT. See Van dee Wilt.

WILTON, Joseph, an English engraver,flourished
about the year 1670. He engraved plates of,
various subjects in a style resembling that of'
Eomeyn de Hooghe.


WINCK, Cheistoph, painter and etcher, origin-
ally a shoemaker, was born at Eichstadt in 1738,
and studied art under his brother, Cheisostomds
WiNOK. Christoph painted scenes for the court
theatre at Vienna, and was occupied on altar-pieces
and other pictures for a number of Bavarian
churches. In 1769 he became court painter to
the Elector of Bavaria, and in the following year
assisted in founding the school of design at Munich
which developed afterwards into the Academy. He
died in 1797.

WINDHAM, Joseph, an amateur draughtsman,
was born at Twickenham on the 21st of August,
1739. He was educated at Eton and Christ's
College, Cambridge, where he became an excellent
scholar. He travelled and made many draw-
ings in Prance, Italy, Istria, and Switzerland, and
worked long at measuring the ruins of ancient
Rome. Many of his plans and sections are en-
graved in Cameron's book of the Roman Baths.
He himself wrote most of the letter-press in the
second volume of the Dilettanti Society's ' Ionian
Antiquities.' He died on the 21st of September,
WINDLER (or Windtee). See Wintee.

WIN6AND0RP, F., was a native of Germany,
and flourished about the year 1672. He engraved
several frontispieces and other plates for books.

WINGFIELD, Jambs Digman, an English land-
scape, historical, and subject painter, was born in

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 188 of 201)