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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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the early part of the 19th century. He practised in
London, and his pictures appeared in large numbers
at the Royal Academy, the British Institution, and
the Society of British Artists, between 1832 and
1872. He died in the latter year, and the works
remaining in his studio were sold at Christie's in
July, 1873.

WINGHE, (WiNGHEN,) Jekemias van, painter,
was born at Frankfort in 1587. He was the son
and pupil of Joost Winghe, and also studied under
Frans Badens at Antwerp. He eventually went to
Rome, where he practised successfully, painting
historical and genre pictures, and returning to his
native city in the later years of his life, he there
became well known as a portrait painter. Some of
his pictures are in the Gallery at DUsseldorf. The
subjects and the marks resemble those of his
father, and probably have caused some confusion
in the accounts of both. He died in 1648.

WINGHE, JoDocTJS, Joost, or Joas, (Winghen,
or WiNGEN,) historical painter, was born at Brussels
in 1544. He went young to Italy, and after four
years' study in Rome (where he resided with a
cardinal), returned to Brussels, and was appointed
principal painter to the Prince of Parma. In 1584
he settled in Frankfort, where he painted an allegory
of the Netherlands, as a naked woman chained to
a rock, with Time flying to deliver her. ' The Last
Supper ' (Church of S. G&y, Brussels), ' Samson
being shorn of his Locks,' 'Andromeda,' and
'Apelles painting Campaspe' (Vienna GaUery),
were also among his subjects. The portrait of a
female member of the Von Stalburg family is in
the Staedel Institute at Frankfort. He also designed
forty-nine subjects for engravers and tapestry
weavers. He died at Frankfort in 1603.

WINKEL, Theeesb aus dem, bom at Weissenfels
about 1784, was the daughter of a Saxon ofBcer,
and distinguished herself as a painter as well
as by her playing on the harp and her powers
of elocution. She confined herself chiefly to

WINKLER, Geoeg Feiedeich, painter, was
bom at Dresden in 1772. He was the son of a
well-known theatrical machinist, and was brought
up as a scene-painter. After some study in Vienna,
he was appointed court scene-painter at Dresden
in 1800, and in 1815 to a like post at Berlin. He
published a book on his art, and died in 1837.

WINNE, Li^viN DE, bom in Ghent in 1832,
studied under Fffix de Vigne, and became one of
the best Belgian portrait painters of his time.
He also painted religious pictures, but with less
success. He died in 1880. His portrait of King
Leopold I. of Belgium is in the Brussels Museum.
WINSTANLEY, Hamlet, engraver, born in
1700, at Warrington, was the nephew of Henry
Winstanley, and was designed for a painter. With
that intention he was placed under the tuition
of Sir Godfrey Kneller, and produced some por-
traits, including those of the Bishop of Chester
and of himself with his wife. On leaving his
master he went to Italy, where he resided some
years, and after his return to England applied
himself entirely to engraving. He etched a set
of twenty-five plates from pictures in the col-
lection of the Earl of Derby, by Titian, Tinto-




retto, Paolo Veronese, Bassano, Guido, Castig-
lione, Spagnoletto, C. Maratti, Rubens, Van Dyck,
Rembrandt, and others ; these were pubUshed as
' The Knowsley Gallery.' He also engraved a set of
prints from the paintings by Sir James Thomhill,
in the cupola of St. Paul's. He died in 1761,
probably at Warrington. His own portrait, en-
graved in vol. iii. of Walpole, is at Knowsley.

WINSTANLEY, Hbnkt, who is noticed here as
an etcher, was the architect who projected and
built the first Eddystone lighthouse, and perished
with it when it was destroyed by a storm in 1703.
In 1694 he was clerk of the works at Audley End,
of which, in 1688, he etched a series of views.
These he dedicated to James II., adding an in-
scription in honour of Sir Christopher Wren. They
are now very scarce, but are generally included
in the five-volume edition of Kip's Views, in which
is also found a very large plate of the Eddystone
lighthouse. The inscription beneath runs, " This
Draught was made and engraven by Henry Win-
stanley of Littlebury, Gent, and is sold at his
Water-works ; where also is to be seen at any
time y" modle of y" said Building and principal
Rooms, for sixpence a peice."

WINSTON, Charles, an amateur of stained
glass, was bom at Eamingham, Kent, in 1814.
At his death, which occurred on the 3rd of October,
1864, he left to the nation a large collection of
copies in water-colour from painted windows.

WINT. See Db Wint.

WINTER, Abraham Hendeik, a Dutch painter,
the pupil of P. C. Wonder, was bom at Utrecht in
1800, and died at Amsterdam May 28, 1861. In
the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam there is a ' Sheep-
fold ' by him.

WINTER. See Db Winter.

WINTER, JoHANN Geokg, was bom at Groe-
ningen in the Netherlands in 1707, his father being
an officer of the Bavarian army in garrison there.
He studied under Miiller and Engelhard, at Munich,
and painted portraits both there and at Augsburg.
In 1744 he became court painter to the Emperor
Charles VII., and afterwards painted some frescoes
for the Elector of Cologne at his summer palace
in the neighbourhood of Bonn. He died there in


Windier,) an engraver, was born at Nuremberg
about 1696, and died in 1765. He engraved the
portraits of Sophie Elizabeth, Countess of Reuss-
Plauen, after Miiller ; of J. W. von Imhoffi, after
Decker; and a few others.

WINTER, Joseph Geoeg, (or Winttee,) a
draughtsman and engraver of animals, was bom
at Munich between 1720 and 1730. He was the
son and pupil of Johann Georg Winter, and his
first works were cartoons for the Munich tapestry
factory. He subsequently abandoned painting and
devoted himself to engraving, etching, and design-
ing in Indian ink, taking for his models Ridinger
and Hollar. His favourite subjects were hunting
pieces. He died in 1789. He published a number
of plates from his own designs and after Melchior
Hoos, Teniers, Peter van Laar, Berohem, Wouwer-
man and other masters.

WINTER, Rafael, (orWlNTTER,) painter, etcher,
and lithographer, son of Joseph Georg Winter, was
bom at Munich in 1784. His father dying while
he was but a chUd, his step-father, Mettenleiter,
trained him in art. He painted and etched animals.
He visited Italy, and started a lithographic estab-


lishment in Rome, and afterwards became director
of the Royal Lithographic Institute of Bavaria.
He died in 1852.

WINTEEGERST, Joseph, was born at Waller-
stein in 1783, and became teacher of drawing in
the canton school at Aarau, and afterwards pro-
fessor at Ellvangen. He painted BibUcal scenes
and subjects of romantic genre. Both in teaching
and practice he strove to counteract the influence of
the French school, and to inculcate the principles
of the great Italian masters. He was appointed
Director of the Gallery at Diisseldorf, and died
there in 1867.

WINTERHALTER, Fhanz Xaver, painter and
lithographer, was born at Menzenschwand, near
St. Blasien, in the Black Forest, April 20, 1806.
After studying engraving for a time at Freiburg,
he went in 1823 to Munich, where he received some
instruction from Stieler in portrait painting, work-
ing meantime in Piloty's lithographic institute to
support himself during his novitiate. In 1828 he
moved to Carlsruhe, and a successful portrait of
the Grand Duke Leopold put him on the road to
fortune. He was appointed painter to the court,
and was now enabled to make journeys to France
and Italy for his further improvement. In 1884
he settled in Paris, making, however, constant
journeys to foreign capitals as his position as a
fashionable portrait painter became assured. He
painted many European royalties and distinguished
persons, and his meretricious and mediocre art
soon achieved a vogue greatly above his merits.
He has been compared with Lawrence, to whom,
both in career and oeuvre, he affords a parallel
on a lower plane. Winterhalter's merits are to
be looked for in his composition and organization,
and in his power to suggest the superficial
elegance of an aristocratic sitter. Among his
numerous portraits the most famous were those
of Louis Philippe, Queen Amdlie, and all the
members of the Orleans family ; Napoleon III.,
the Empress Eugenie, and the Prince Imperial
(exhibited at the Salon of 1864) ; the Empress
Eugenie and her Court, the Grand Duchess Helen
of Russia, King Leopold, Queen Victoria and her
family, Prince Mettemich, the Emperor Francis
Joseph, etc. He also painted a few genre pictures
and landscapes, chiefly Italian, and executed some
engravings and lithographs. A few days before
his death he made a will, in which he directed that
twelve pictures he had never shown should remain
in a box in which he had secured them until fifty
years after his death, when they were to be sub-
mitted to the verdict of a generation free from
personal bias for or against him. His wishes were,
however, disregarded, and the case was found to
contain, besides several landscapes and flower-
pieces, two battle-scenes from the Austro-German
war of 1866, a portrait of Pauline Viardot Garcia,
one of Queen Caroline of England, painted from a
miniature in the Brunswick Museum, and a portrait
of Prince Clement Mettemich in his garden at
Johannisberg, with this inscription : " I painted
this portrait in 1858. I was so pleased with it
that I resolved to keep it." Two of the land-
scapes were scenes from the Isle of Wight. He
died at Frankfort, July 8, 1873. His full-length
of the Prince Consort is in the National Portrait

WINTERHALTER, Johann, was bom at
Vohrenbach in the Black Forest in 1743, and
worked for a time at Olmiitz with his uncle, Joseph





Winterhalter, a sculptor. He afterwards studied
under Stem at Briinn, and under Maulpertsch. He
worked in fresco, oil, and miniature, but his chief
works were altar-pieces and other pictures for
churches. He also excelled in architectural studies.
He died at Znaim, in Moravia, in 1807.

WINTOUR, John Ckawfokd, landscape painter,
born in 1825, was an Associate of the Royal Scottish
Academy. He died at Edinburgh, July 29, 1882.

WIRTZ, JOHANN, (or WlEZ,) designer and en-
graver, was bom at Zurich in 1640. He lost one
eye when quite young, but took with avidity to
drawing, and became a scholar of Konrad Meyer.
Portrait painting was his profession, but he is
remembered rather for the etchings produced in
his leisure hours, especially for a set of forty-two
original plates for a book written by himself, entitled
' Johannis WirziiRomse Animale Exemplium,' &c.,
published in 1677. They are etched in a neat style,
resembling that of J. W. Baur. He also etched
Michelangelo's ' Last Judgment,' and two plates
after Holbein, one a woman with a naked child
holding an aiTOW, the other a woman with two
children. He died at Zurich in 1710.

WISSING, WiLLEM, was born in 1656 at
Amsterdam, but was a pupil of Willem Doudyns
at the Hague. He afterwards visited Paris and
England. He was for some time assistant to
Sir Peter Lely, after whose death he became a
favourite with English patrons. He painted all
the Royal Family, and particularly the Duke of
Monmouth, whose portrait he often repeated.
Although he soon found a formidable rival in Sir
Godfrey Kneller, he still was extensively employed,
and after the death of Charles II. was appointed
principal painter to his successor, by whom he was
sent into Holland to take the portraits of WUliam
and Mary. He did not long survive his return to
England, but died in 1687 at Burleigh, the seat of
the Earl of Exeter, whose portrait he had been
painting. John Smith scraped a mezzotint after
Wissing's portrait of himself. It is inscribed Gu-
lielmus Wissingus inter pictores sui saeculi celeber-
rimus, nulli secundtbs, artis sum non exiguum
decus et omamentnm, immodicis brevis est cetas.
Works :

Hampton Court. Mrs. Enott.

„ Duchess of Somerset (?).

„ Queen Mary II.

Mrs. Lawson.
Lord Cutts.
Duke of Monmouth.
„ „ Prince George of Denmark.

„ „ Mary of Modena.

„ „ Queen Mary II.

WISZANIB. See Witzani.

WIT (or Witte). See De Wit (or De Witte).

WiTDOECK, Jean, (Witdouck, or Withouc,)
a Flemish engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1604.
He worked under the immediate eye of Rubens,
after whom he engraved several plates. He also
translated the works of Comelis Schut, and other
masters. The time of his death is unknown. The
following are his best plates :

Melchizedeck presenting Bread and Wine to Abraham :

after Ruhens. 1638.
The Nativity. Eetouched and improved by Bolswert.

The Adoration of the Magi. (Do)
TheBlevationof the Cross, in three sheets (Do.) 1638.
Christ with the two Disciples at Emmaus. (Do.) 1638.
The Assumption of the Virgin. {Do.) 1639.
The Holy Family, with St. John. (Do.)


London. Nat. Port. Gall.

Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth and St. John. (Do)

St. Ildefonso. (Do)

St. Cecilia. Eetouched and improved by Bolswert. (Do)

WITHERINGTON, William Frbdeeiok, land-
scape and figure painter, was bom in London on
the 26th of May, 1785. Brought up to business
by his father, he at first attempted to combine it
with the work of a student at the Royal Academy.
At last, however, he abandoned " the city" for art,
and in 1811 exhibited both at the Academy and
the British Institution. His earlier works were
landscapes with figures, but as time went on the
figures encroached upon the landscape, until his
subjects became almost purely genre. Weak health
led him to desert London for the country, and
thence, in 1835, he sent to the Academy a 'Hop
Garden,' which now well represents him at South
Kensington. The pictures by Witherington, which
used to hang with the rest of the Vernon group in
Trafalgar Square, have been banished to the pro-
vinces. He died April 10, 1865. Works :

London. S. Kens. Mus. The Hop Garden.
Nottingham. Midland } The Cover Side (landscape by

Museum. J Lee).
Oldham. Gallery. The Hop Garland.

Warrington. „ The Stepping Stones.

WITHOOS, Feans, was the youngest son and
scholar of Mathias Withoos, and painted plants
and insects in water-colours, in the style of his
brother Pieter, to whom, however, he was very
inferior. He visited Batavia, where the governor
employed him. He died at Hoorn in 1706.

WIT'HOOS, Johannes, eldest son of Mathias
Withoos, was bom at Amersfort in 1648, and was
taught by his father until he was able to under-
take a journey to Italy on the produce of his
talents. During a residence of several years at
Rome, he painted the most picturesque views in
that vicinity, in water-colours. Though he met with
encouragement at Rome, he returned to Holland,
where his works were not 4ess popular. He was
afterwards invited to the court of the Duke of
Saxe-Lauenburg, in whose service he remained
until his death in 1695.

WITHOOS, Mathias, (or Matthads,) was bom
at Amersfort in 1627, or 1629, and was for six
years a scholar of the architect Jacob van Kampen.
On leaving that master he travelled to Italy in
company with Otto Marcellis, and instead of pur-
suing the line of art in which he had been trained,
adopted that of bis companion, and distinguished
himself as a painter of curious plants, reptiles, and
insects. During a residence of two years in Rome,
he was much employed by the Cardinal de' Medici.
On his return to Holland, in 1650, his works soon
won popularity. The approach of the French in
1672 induced him to retire into North Holland.
He settled at Hoorn, and there he died in 1703.
His daughter, Alida, worked in her father's manner.

WITHOOS, Pietek, the second son of Mathias
Withoos, was bom in 1654, and received his first
instruction in art from his father. He excelled in
painting flowers, plants, and insects, in water-
colours, on vellum. He died at Amsterdam in 1693.

WITTE. See De Witte.

WITTEL, Kaspar van, (usually called Vakvi-
telli, or Vanvitel, also Degli Ocohiali, and Pic-
TOORs,) was born at Utrecht in 1674. He was a
pupil of Mathias Withoos, but went when young
to Italy, (where he Italianized his name,) and then
painted landscapes and architectural subjects. In




Naples he obtained the patronage of the Spanish
Re{j;eiit, but after the revolution there he departed
to Rome. He has painted views in the latter city,
as well as in other cities and seaports of Italy,
with a precision approaching to those of Venice by
Canaletto. He died at Rome in 1736.

WITTIGr, Babtolome, was born at Oels, in
Silesia, about 1610. He excelled in painting
festivals, concerts, and night pieces, and died at
Nuremberg in 1684.

WITZANI, JoHANN Feiedrich, (or Wiszanib,)
painter and etcher, was born at Dresden in 1770,
and was a pupil of Zingg. He first painted minia-
tures and then landscapes. For a while he was
employed at the Meissen porcelain manufactory,
and afterwards devoted himself to painting views
and transparencies, and the production of aquatints
and coloured etchings. He published a book of
instruction in landscape painting. He died in 1835.

WITZANI, Kael AnonsTUS, landscape painter
and etcher, elder brother of Johann Friedrich Wit-
zani, was born at Dresden in 1769. He was a
pupil of Oanale, but interrupted his artistic course
by spending ten years in the artillery. He etched
' The Annunciation to the Shepherds ' after Wou-
werman, a view of a town after Van der Neer, and
a landscape with cattle, after Karel Dujardin. He
shot himseH in 1816.

WIVELL, Abkaham, portrait painter, was bom
in Marylebone on the 9th July, 1786. After some
education at the hands of his mother, he learnt
shoemaking at the Marylebone School of Industry,
but was apprenticed at thirteen to a wig-maker.
This business he followed himself when his time
was up, but beside the wigs in his window he
used to expose for sale some miniatures in water-
colour of his own doing. At the trial of the
Cato Street conspirators he made sketches of their
heads, which had a great success, and led him on to
further ventures in the same field. He obtained
a few commissions for theatrical portraits, and
drew and published portraits of the chief persons
engaged on the trial of Queen Caroline. The money
he made by these productions he lost in publishing
'An Enquiry into the History of the Shakespeare
Portraits,' and ■^as only relieved from distress by
an opportune legacy. He next took to inventing
fire-escapes, and was appointed superintendent of
their plant by the new Society for the Protection
of Life from Fire. After a time he resigned this
post and migrated to Birmingham, where, in 1847,
he was employed to make portraits of railway
magnates for the 'Railway Record.' He twice
exhibited portraits in oil at the Academy, in 1822
and 1830, but his real gift was for a good likeness
in black lead pencil. He died at Birmingham on
the 29th of March, 1849.

WOCHER, Maequard, designer and etcher, was
born at Seckingen, Baden, in- 1758. He was first
instructed by his father, and became a successful
imitator of Aberli. He etched Swiss costumes
after Lory ; Swiss views after the same artist,
after Aschmann,,and from his own drawings ; and
painted a panorama of Thun and its neighbourhood.
He died at Basle in 1825. His father, Tiberius
L WooHEE, (bom at Mimmenhausen, 1728, died at
Reutli, 1799,) was a portrait painter and etcher.


who in 1662 assumed by permission the name of
De Bouzey, was an engraver and sculptor, and
was bom at Bouzey, near Rheims, in 1631 or 1632.
He was for a time sculptor to the Duke of Lor-

raine, but subsequently studied in Italy, and in
1555 settled in Lyons as an engraver, producing
many historical plates and portraits, as well as a
large number of patterns for goldsmiths. In 1561
he took to wood-engraving, and succeeded in that
too. He usually marked his copper-plates with
a monogram composed of the letters P. D. B.
His woodcuts are very numerous, and executed
with great delicacy. They are marked with the

cross of Lorraine jp , Dumesnil gives minute de-
scriptions of 401 plates and woodcuts by him. The
following plates are among his best :

The Sacrifice of Abraham.

Moses saved from the Nile.

Phalaris put into the Brazen Bull.

A Woman witli two Children in her arms, throwing

herself on a funeral pile.
Two small Landscapes, with a great number of figures.
The Battle betwixt Oonstantine and Maxentius ; after

The Besurrection ; after Giorgio Ghisi.

WOENSAM, Anton, (called Anton van Worms,)
was a painter and wood engraver, who flourished in
the 16th century. He was a native of Worms, but
worked chiefly at Cologne. His works show him
to have been a close imitator of Albrecht Dtirer. He
is first mentioned in records, in 1528, and is spoken
of as dead in 1561. His pictures are rare, but
there are examples in several private collections in
Cologne, besides the following in public places :
a 'Madonna,' at Darmstadt; a ' Madonna enthroned
between Saints, in a Landscape,' in the Presbytery
of the Church of St. Severin, Cologne ; and a
' Christ on the Cross.' ' The Arrest of Christ,' in
the Wallraf Museum at Cologne, dated 1520, is
ascribed to him. Between 1528 and 1538 he
executed a large number of cuts for illustrated
Bibles and other works. It is suspected that
he also engraved on copper, but his monogram
so closely resembles that of a certain Saxon en-
graver that this point cannot be regarded as
settled. BruUiot, however, asserts him to be
the author of tyfo copper plates : one represents
a naked man sitting in a cavern and Death stand-
ing near him (dated 1522) ; the other represents St.
Andrew holding his cross in one hand and a book
in the other. Florent le Comte calls him ' Vuor-
mace,' and one of his cuts has the inscription,
' Coloniae, per Anthonium de Vormacia Piotorem.'
His prints are usually marked with an A and a W

intersected, thus ja!l ' The best of his woodcuts

Paradise (for the Cologne Bible of 1529).

The Holy Family (for the work of the Carthusian

Christ on the Cross, with the Virgin, St. John, and the

The Twelve Apostles.
St. Jerome (for the Cologne Bible of 1530).
Charles Y. and the Sultan (a satirical print).
View of Cologne in nine plates — a Panorama of the

city and its people in 1531.

WOENSEL, Pbteonblla, painter, was born at
the Hague in 1785. She was a pupil of Van Os,
and became a successful painter of flowers, fruits,
and insects. She died in 1839.

WOGAN, Thomas, an Irish miniature painter, was
bom about 1740. He studied at Dublin, and prac-
tised both there and in London, exhibiting at the
Royal Academy in 1776-78. He died in Dublin
in 1780.





WOHLGEMUTH. See Wolsemut.

WOLF, Oaspae, was bom at Muri, in Aargau, in
1735, and studied first under Lenzer at Constance,
afterwards at Augsburg, Munich, and Passau, and
lastly under De Loutherbourg in Paris. On return-
ing home he was employed by the connoisseur
Wagner to assist in bringing out 'The Beauties
of Switzerland ' in coloured plates ; but the work
was never completed. Altogether Wolf contri-
buted about one hundred and fifty engravings.
His principal works were landscapes, chiefly wild
mountain scenery. He died at Mannheim in 1798.

WOLF, Hans, was born about 1480, and flour-
ished about 1508-38 at Bamberg, where, in 1518, he
became court painter to the prince bishop. He
was friendly with Albrecht Durer, who drew his
portrait in his sketch-book.

WOLF, JoHANN Andreas, was bom at Munich
in 1652. He was the pupil of his father, JoNAS
Wolf, an obscure painter, and of the sculptor
Ableitner. For a time he followed the manner of
Schdnfeld and Karl Loth, but afterwards improved
his style by the study of some drawings by Raphael.
He painted many pictures for Bavarian churches,
and was appointed court painter at Munich and
Freising. Among his works are a ' St. Andrew '
in the Freising cathedral, an ' Ascension of Christ '
at Kremsmunster, his own portrait in the Old
Pinakothek at Munich, and other examples at
Augsburg, Sohleissheim, &o. He died at Munich
in 1716.

WOLF, LuiSB, was born at Leipsic in 1798, and
studied successively under Langer, Cornelius, Over-
beck, and Sohnorr. She painted religious pictures
in imitation of mediaeval art, also miniature por-
traits in water-colour. A series of the former

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 189 of 201)