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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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were reproduced in forty plates engraved by
Barfus, Walde, and Petzsch, and published at
Gottingen with text by Dr. Sohoberlein, under the
title of ' Hauscapelle.' She died at Bogenhausen,
near Munich, in 1859.

WOLF, Uleich Ludwig, designer and engraver,
was born at Berlin in 1772. He was destined for
a sculptor, but became a painter, and the pupil of
Meil and Carstens. He received so many com-
missions for illustrative designs, however, that he
soon abandoned -painting. He illustrated Shake-
speare, Schiller, and Ossian ; whilst his portrait of
Frederick II. upon his favourite horse, Conde, was
pronounced the most truthful of that monarch's
likenesses. He also etched, engraved, and litho-
graphed a number of plates. He was a member
of the Academy o£ Berlin, where he died in 1832.

WOLFAERTS, Artus, (or Wolffoedt,) his-
torical painter, was born at Antwerp in 1581, and
was made free of the Guild of St. Luke in 1616-17.
His subjects were often taken from the Bible or
,from mythology, and had landscapes and archi-
tectural compositions for their backgrounds. He
also painted peasant gatherings in the style of
Teniers. His reputation was great during life,
: and Van Dyck painted his portrait. He died in
I 164L

WOLFAERTS, Jan B , the son of Artus (?),

was born at Antwerp in 1625. After travelling for
a time in Italy, he seems to have settled in Holland.
He was received into the Guild at Haarlem in 1647.
His works were chiefly landscapes in the manner
of Cuyp, sometimes with animals. He died in 1687.

WOLPENSBERGER, Johann Jakob, was born

at Rumlikon, in the canton of Zurich, in 1797, and

; commenced his artistic career by colouring prints for


the establishment of H. Piissli. He then went on
foot to Naples, where he worked at first under
Huber, and afterwards on his own account. Under
commission from the Duke of Berwick, he went
to Sicily in 1821 to paint views in that island.
He then worked for a while in Rome, visited
Athens in 1832, Constantinople and Asia Minor
in 1834. After his return from the East in 1838,
he exhibited in Zurich some two hundred of his
water-colour pictures. He visited Vienna, Paris,
and London, where some of his works became
popular in engravings. His latest productions were
views in Switzerland. He died at Zurich in 1850.
His favourite model was Salvator Rosa.

WOLFF, Benjamin, a German painter settled
in Holland, was born at Dessau in 1758. He
studied for a time in Italy, and in 1814 was ap-
pointed Keeper of the Amsterdam Museum, where
there is a copy of Titian's ' Portrait of Francis I.'
by him. He died at Amsterdam, October 16, 1825.

WOLFGANG, Andreas MatthIds, an engraver,
son of Georg Andreas Wolfgang, was born at
Augsburg in 1662, or perhaps 1660, and learned
drawing and engraving from his father. He ac-
companied his brother Johann Georg to England,
and on his return voyage was taken by pirates
and carried to Algiers. Ransomed by his father,
he then settled at Augsburg, where he died in
1736. He engraved many portraits of distinguished
persons, of which the best, perhaps, are those
of the Margrave of Anspach, of Prince Eugenfe,
and of the Emperor Charles VI. He also engraved
some battle-pieces and genre subjects.

WOLFGANG, Gboeg Andeeas, engraver and
goldsmith, was bom at Chemnitz, Saxony, in 1631.
He at first engraved sword-blades and other
weapons, but afterwards learnt to work on copper
from Mattheus Kiissel. He engraved historical
subjects and portraits after Schonfeldt, Wer-
ner, Zierl, and others, in line. He also scraped
some mezzotints. He died at Augsburg in 1716.
Among others, we have the following prints by
him :

Georg- Friedricli, Margrave of Brandenburg; after C,

Peter Muller, Jurisconsult.
A Sacrifice to Diana ; after J. H. Schonfeldt.
Saul consulting the Shade of Samuel ; after J, Werner.
A set of ten subjects from the Old and New Testament;

after Umiach.

Johannes Koeb, a medallion.
A young Warrior in armour, with flowing hair.
An old Man seated at a table, an old Woman behind

bis chair.
A young Man with long curled hair, and an old Man

with a beard.
Susannah at the Bath ; after Holbein.

A younger Georg Andreas Wolfgang was the
son of Johann Georg Wolfgang, and was bom at
Augsburg in 1703. He was a portrait painter, and
worked for some time in England, but afterwards
became court painter at Gotha. .

WOLFGANG, Gustav Andreas, painter and en-
graver, was the son of Andreas Matthaus Wolf-
gang, and was born at Augsburg in 1692. He was
taught engraving by his uncle, Johann Georg, and
executed several portrait plates in the same neat
style. He died at his birthplace in 1775.

WOLFGANG, Johann Georg, an engraver, the
younger son of Georg Andreas Wolfgang, was bom
at Augsburg in 1664, and was his father's pupil.




He was carried to Algiers with his brother, Andreas
Matthaus, and after his return was invited, in 1704,
to the court of Berlin, and appointed engraver to
the first king of Prussia. He died in 1748. He
has left a considerable number of portraits, exe-
cuted much more neatly than those of his father
and brother. He also engraved a set of prints for
a folio volume entitled 'Notitia Universitatis Pran-
cofurtansB,' published in 1707. His best plate is
a ' Crucifix,' after Le Brun. The following are
among his portraits :

Friedrioh 'Wilhelni, Elector of Brandenburg ; from the

equestrian statue by Jacohi. %
August Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg ;

c^ter Franck.
Jonann Melchior Dinglinger ; after A. Pesne.

■WOLFVOETjViCTOK, (who has been confounded
by some writers with the pupil of Rembrandt, Jan
Victoors, or Fictoors,) was the son of a painter of
the same name. He was born at Antwerp in 1612.
He was the scholar first of his father, and after-
wards of Rubens, whose style he studied with much
success. In 1644 he entered the Artists' Guild. A
' Visitation ' by him, in the church of St. Jacques
at Antwerp, is in imitation of the same subject on
the wing of Rubens's ' Descent from the Cross ' in
the cathedral of Antwerp. In the Dresden Gallery
there is a ' Head of Medusa,' signed ' Victor Wolf-'
voet.' He died in his native city in 1652.

WOLGEMUT, Michael, (or Wohlgemuth,) 'the
moat famous master of the early school of Pran-
conia, was bom at Nuremberg in 1434. He is first
mentioned in the town records in 1473. In 1472
he married the widow of a brother painter, one
Hans PleydenwurfE, and his step-son, Wilhelm,
assisted him for a time in his atelier. He had
many pupils, and it is believed that not only was
the painting of large ^Itarpieces carried on in his
workshop, but also the carving of their adjuncts,
and of church furniture generally. His earliest
works are four scenes from the 'Passion ' (1465), now
in the Munich Pinakothek. A later work, painted
in 1479, is a large altar-piece in the Marienkirche
at Zwickau, which shows a marked improvement
upon his earlier productions. In the Vienna Gallery
there is a 'St. Jerome' painted by him in 1511.
Scenes from the saint's history are depicted in the
background ; the donors, a man and woman, kneel
at his side. Wolgemut was an excellent portrait
painter. Dr. Woermann ascribes to him the por-
traits of a man and his wife, in the ' Amalienstift,'
at Dessau ; also a small half-length of Ursula
Tucher, in the Cassel Gallery, and three members
of the same stock in the Weimar Museum.
Wolgemut died at Nuremberg, November 30, 1519.
Three years before his death Albrecht Diirer painted
his portrait, which is in the Munich Gallery. _ It
bears an inscription in old German to the following
effect : " This has Albrecht Dtirer portrayed after
his master Michael Wolgemut, in the year 1516.
He was then eighty-two years old, and lived until
the year 1619, when he died on Saint Andrew's
Day (30 November), early, before the sun rose.'
Diirer's drawing for this portrait is in the Albertina,
Vienna. Dr. Thausing attaches the greatest im-
portance to the influence of Wolgemut over Diirer,
and has done much to restore the general prestige
of the older master. Additional works :

Augsburg. Gallery. The Eesurreotion.

„ „ The Crucifixion.

Darmstadt. Gallery. The wings of an Altar-piece.

Iiiverpool. Institute. Christ before Pilate.

Liverpool. Institute. (?) Deposition from the Cross.
(Wings of an altar-piece, no.
1049 in the National Gallery,
which was formerly ascribed
to Aldegrever.)
Munich. , Fiimlcothek. The Marriage of St. Catharine.
,1 „ The Twelve Apostles.

„ „ A Crucifixion.

Nuremberg. ifon'i«.Br«p. St. Bridget.
„ ■ „ Saints.

„ „ A Crucifixion.

The assertion that Wolgemut was himself an
engraver is still open to doubt, but the balance of
authority now inclines strongly to the opinion which
wonld make him the author of the much-contested
prints signed with the initial W. Down to the
commencement of the 19th century, Wolgemut
had been generally identified with the ' Master W.'
Bartsch then found, in the Albertina, an impression
of the ' Man of Sorrows, between Mary and John,'
also engraved by Schongauer, on which an old
written inscription was legible, to the effect that
"this engraver was named Wenzel, and was a
goldsmith." This, combined with the inscription
on a copy of Schongauer's ' Death of Mary,' namely,
Wenceslaus de Olomucz ibidem, led to Wenzel's
identification with the Master W, who was assumed
to have copied Schongauer in his youth and Dtirer
in his old age. Thausing, however, reverts to the
old belief, and his opinion now tends to prevail.
The chief plates signed W. and ascribable to
Wolgemut are as follows :

The Angelic Salutation, {Two versions.)

The Nativity. {Copy from Schtrngauer.)

The Last Supper.

Christ on the Mount of Olives. {Copy from Schonyaaer.')

Pilate washing his hands. {Do.)

Christ on the Cross. {After Schongauer.)

The Man of Sorrows. {Free copy from Schongauer.)

Virgin and Child with a Paroquet. {Reversed copy from

Schongauer. )
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew.
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew. {After Meister

Stephan. ?)
St. George and the Dragon. {Copy from Schongauer^
St. Sebastian. {Copy in reverse from Schongauer.)
St. Sebastian. (-Do.)
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.
St. Judas Thaddeus. {Copy from Schongauer.)
St. Thomas. {Do.)
St. Barbara.

St. Catharine. {Reversed copy from Schongauer.)
The Two Lovers, walking.
The Abduction of Amymone.
The Hostess and the Cook.
The Two Lovers, seated.
The Subjugation of Man by "Woman.
A Savage with Shields. {Reversed copy from Schongauer^
An Angel with a Shield. (Do.)
A female Savage with Child and Shield. {Do)
Seated Female with a Shield. {Do.)
' Eoma Caput Mundi.' (A famous satirical print, of

which three impressions are known, one at Dresden, one

at Frankfort, and one at the British Museum.)

Whatever conclusion may be come to on the
subject of these W plates, there is no doubt that
Wolgemut was a prolific producer of designs for
the wood-cutter. In 1491 Anton Koberger brought
out the ' Sohatzkammer der wahren Reiohthiiiner
Ses Heils und der ewigen Seligkeit,"' with his de-
. signs. This was followed by Schedel's ' History of
the World,' full of wood-cuts, as to which a note
at the end informs us that they were engraved
under the supervision of Wolgemut and Wilhelm
Pleydenwurff. See Thausing, ' Life of Diirer,' 1882.
(Ener. Translation, Caps. IV. and VIII.) w, A.



WOLLASTON, J., was born in London about
the year 1672, and painted portraits, which had
the reputation of being good likenesses. Besides
painting, he performed on the violin and flute, and
played at the concerts of Thomas Britton, the
Musical Small-Coal Man, whose portrait he twice
painted ; one of these portraits was purchased by
Sir Hans Sloane, and is now in the National Por-
trait Gallery, transferred from the British Museum.
Wollaston died in the Charterhouse at an advanced

WOLLASTON, John, an English portrait painter
of the 18th century, who painted a portrait of
Whitefleld preaching, which is now in the National
Portrait Gallery. It was engraved by John
Faber. Emigrating to America, he painted several
portraits at Philadelphia in 1768. He afterwards
had a good practice in Virginia, where he painted
Washington's mother.

WOLSTBNHOLME, D. ) Two English

WOLSTBNHOLME, D. June, j animal paint-
ers of the 19th century. The father practised at
Cheshunt, and afterwards at Tumford, exhibiting
at the Eoyal Academy, the British Institution, and
the Society of British Artists from 1803 to 1859.
The son was born about 1800, and practised in
London, exhibiting at the Eoyal Academy between
1819 and 1849.

WOLTERS, Henrietta, miniature painter, was
born at Amsterdam in 1692. She was the daughter
and pupil of Theodorus van Pee. She afterwards
studied miniature under Jacques Christophe le
Blond, and soon surpassed her preceptor in delicacy
of handling and beauty of colour. The portraits
of Van Dyck were her favourite models. Her
talent soon attracted attention, and she was em-
ployed by the principal families of Amsterdam. In
1719 she married the painter Herman Woltees
(born at Zwolle in 1682, died 1755 or 56), who
assisted her in some of her works, especially in
the draperies. Peter the Great invited her to St.
Petersburg, but attachment to her own country
led her to refuse bis offer. An invitation from
Frederick William, King of Prussia, met with
the same answer, and she died at Amsterdam
in 1741.

WOLUWE, Jan van, painter and illuminator,
was one of the eariiest artists of the Flemish school,
and flourished in Brabant towards the close of the
14th century. He held the post of painter to the
ducal court, and ancient records show that between
1378 and 1386 he executed a large number of
works for the Duchess Jeanne de Brabant, among
them a diptych for her oratory in Brussels, but
none of these have survived.

WONDER, PiETER Cristoefel, was born at
Utrecht in 1777. He studied at the Dusseldorf
Academy in 1802-4. He visited England, and
worked in London from 1823 to 1831. His works
were portraits, family pictures, and conversation
pieces ; he was also a designer and etcher. He
was a member of the Amsterdam Academy, and
died in that city, July 12, 1852. The Eijks Museum
has a picture by him, and his ' Herring Seller' is
in the Rotterdam Museum.

WOOD, John, an English engraver, flourished
in London about the year 1745, and is believed to
have received his instruction under Chatelain.
He engraved several plates for the set of land-
scapes published by Boydell in 1747. His death
occurred about 1780. Among other prints by him
we have the following :




Two Landscapes ; after Gaspard Poassin.

Two Italian Landscapes ; after Claude Lorrain.

A Fire-light ; after Eemirandt.

Lake Nemi ; after Bichard Wilson.

A View of London from Greenwich ; after Tillemans.

WOOD, John, painter, was bom in London on
the 29th June, 1801. He was the son of a drawing
master, showed an early inclination for art himself,
and went successively to Sass's Academy and the
schools of the Eoyal Academy. At the Academy,
in 1825, he won the gold medal ; in 1834, the com-
mission for an altar-piece for St. James's, Ber-
mondsey ; and, in 1836, a prize at Manchester for
his ' Elizabeth in the Tower,' and a premium of
£1000, in open competition, for a ' Baptism of
Christ.' But his later work did not fulfil the ex-
pectations thus excited, and he died obscure on
the 19th April, 1870.

WOOD, John George, an English water-colour
painter and draughtsman, was born in the latter part
of the 18th century. He practised in London, and
exhibited landscapes, chiefly Welsh, at the Royal
Academy from 1793 to 1811. He died in 1838.
He published the following illustrated works :

' Plans for Labourers' Cottages.' 1792.

' Six Views of Llangollen.' 1793.

' Elements of Perspective.' 1799.

' Lectures on Perspective.' 1804.

' The Principal Eivers of Wales.' 1813.

' The Principles . . of sketching . . from Nature.' 1814.

WOOD, Matthew, copyist, &c., held an ap-
pointment in the Post Office. He exhibited at the
Eoyal Academy between 1841 and 1855, and com-
mitted suicide in 1855.

WOOD, Thomas, was born in London, April 24,
1800. He was educated at the Eoyal Academy,
and afterwards painted landscape in water-colour.
Between 1828 and 1863 he exhibited eighteen
drawings with the Academy, many being of a
very great merit. In 1835 he was appointed draw-
ing-master to Harrow School, a post which he was
compelled to resign in 1871, from loss of sight.
He died at Conisborough Vicarage, Yorkshire, in
1878, and was buried in York.

WOOD, William, an English miniature painter,
was bom in 1768. He practised with success in
London, and exhibited at the Academy from 1788
to 1807. He took a prominent part in founding
the Society of Associated Artists in Water-Colours,
in 1808, and became their president. In 1808 he
published an essay on National and Sepulchral
Monuments. He died in London in 1809.

WOODCOCK, Robert, marine painter, was bom
in or about 1691, of a gentle family. He had a
place under the Government, but quitted it to
devote himself to art, and confined himself \o sea-
pieces. He studied the technical part of his sub-
ject with so much attention, that he could model
a full-rigged ship with the utmost exactness. In
1723 he began to paint in oil, and in two years
is said to have copied above forty pictures of W.
Van de Velde. He was also an amateur musician
of .some skill, and published a few compositions of
his own. He died of the gout, in 1728.

WOODFIELD, Charles, painter of topographical
landscapes, was born about 1660. , He was a pupil
of Isaac Fuller, and in his rare fits of industry
painted buildings, antiquities, and views. He died
in 1724.

WOODFOEDE, Samuel, an English subject and

landscape painter, was born at Castle Gary in 1764.

Early showing a talent for art, he was enabled by

I the help of Sir R. C. Hoare to enter the schools




of the Royal Academy at the age of eighteen.
Three years later, the same patron sent him to
Italy, where he studied until 1791. Returning to
England, he worked for Boydell's Shakespeare
Galleryj and painted fancy subjects and portraits.
His 'Forest scene from Titus Andronicus,' painted
for Boydell, was engraved by Anker Smith. But
though very laborious, success came to him slowly.
In 1800 he was elected an Associate of the Aca-
demy, where he had exhibited for several years,
and in 1807 a full member. In 1815 he married,
and soon after set out for Italy. His career was
cut short by a fever, and he died at Ferrara in
1817. There are by him :

London. S. Academy. Dorinda wounded by Sylvia.
„ >S. Ken,. Museum. Pan teaching Apollo. 1790.
( Water-cohurs.)

WOODHOUSE, John Thomas, an English ama-
teur painter of portraits and subjects, was born in
1780. He was educated at Caius College, Cambridge,
where he graduated M.D., though he never practised
medicine. His reputation as an artist was acquired
by his portraits of his friends and contemporaries,
and he exhibited a few subject pictures at the Royal
Academy. He died at Cambridge in 1845. There
are portraits by him of the Rev. Chauncy Hare
Townshend and his sister, and of Henry Hare
Townshend, in the South Kensington Museum.

WOODING, P , an Enghsh line engraver,

practised towards the close of the 18th century,
and was the master of William Bromley.

WOODMAN, Richard, an English engraver, was
born about the middle of the 18th century. He
worked in London, in_stipple, up to about 1810.
Amongst his best plates are :

The Choice of Penelope ; after J. Eiley.
Cihildren at Play ; aft^ N. Poassin.

WOODMAN, Richard, engraver and draughts-
man, was born in London in 1784, and was the son
of the above. When about fifteen he entered the
studio of R. M. Meadows, a stipple engraver, where
besides learning to engrave he received a few les-
sons in colouring from a fellow-pupil. After leav-
ing Meadows he was employed for a time in colour-
ing the engraved fac-similes of Westall's drawings.
In 1808 he accepted an offer from Wedgwood to
superintend the engravers' department at Etruria,
but did not remain there long. On returning to
London he was employed on large sporting plates,
and engraved several subjects in line for Knight's
' Pictorial Gallery.' Towards the end of his life
he relinquished the graver for water-colour and
miniature painting. He died December 15, 1859.
His best plate is ' The Judgment of Paris,' after

WOODWARD, George M., an English carica-
turist, born in the second half of the 18th century.
His earliest works appeared in 1792. In 1797
Rowlandson engraved his 'Cupid's Magic Lan-
thom.' He caricatured Mrs. Billington in a design
called ' The Musical Mania for 1802.' He led an
irregular life, and died in a state of destitution in
an inn in Bow Street, London, in 1809. Besides
his separate plates, he published the following
illustrated works :

' Eccentric Excursions in England.' 1798.

' Le Bran travestied.' 1800.

' The Caricature Magazine.' 1807.

' Oomic 'Works in Prose and Poetry.' 1808.

WOODWARD, Thomas, animal painter, was
bom at Pershore, Worcestershire, in 1801. He

was a pupil of Abraham Cooper, R.A. At the age
of fifteen he began to exhibit at the British Institu-
tion, while from 1822 to the year of his death he
was seldom absent from the Academy. He died
at Worcester in 1852. Works :

Turks with their Chargers. 1823.

The Chariot Race. 1829.

Horse pursued by 'Wolves. 1831.

Detachment of Cromwellian Cavalry surprised in »
Pass. 1841. A Tempting Present.

■Welsh Shepherdess and her Dogs. 1845.

Mazeppa. 1851. Battle of Worcester.

WOOLLETT, William, an eminent English en-
graver, was bom at Maidstone, August 15,1735. His
father, by descent a Dutchman, was a flax dresser,
but a lottery ticket in which he had a share haidng
drawn a prize of £5000, he on the strength of it
took a public-house called the ' Turk's Head.' Here
young Woollett is said to have determined his
future career by scratching a clever Turk's Head
on a pewter pot. His father sent him to London,
binding him apprentice to an obscure engraver,
John Tinney of Fleet Street, but he owed his fine
style to nothing but his native genius. By an in-
telligent union of the point and the burin, he car-
ried landscape engraving to a perfection unknown
before his time, and still unsurpassed. His fore-
grounds are as deep and vigorous as his distances
are tender and delicate. In his exquisite prints
from Richard Wilson, he has impressed on the
copper the very mind and feeling of that classic
painter. The talent of Woollett was not, however,
confined to landscape ; he engraved historical sub-
jects and portraits with equal success. Of his his-
torical plates, the two best, perhaps, are those after
West's ' Death of Wolfe,' and ' Battle off Cape La
Hogue.' He belonged to the St. Martin's Lane
Academy, and in 1766 was received into the In-
corporated Society of Artists, to which he sub-
sequently became secretary. On November 27,
1775, he was appointed engraver to the king.
Woollett lived for many years at 11 Green Street,
Leicester Square, and later in Charlotte Street,
Rathbone Place. It is said that he was in the
habit of firing a cannon from the roof of his house
when he had finished an important plate. His
character as a man was exemplary. Naturally
modest and amiable, he never censured the works
of others, or omitted to point out their merit. He
died in London, May 23, 1785, from the effects of
an injury received some years before while playing
at Dutch Pins. He was buried in Old St. Pancras
Churchyard, a plain tombstone marking his resting-
place. On this stone some anonymous versifier
wrote the following in pencil :

" Here 'Woollett rests, expecting to be saved ;
He graved well, but is not well engraved."

The distich may have had some part in bringing
about a subscription for a fit memorial. This was
executed by Thomas Banks, R.A., and was placed
in the west cloister of Westminster Abbey. The
following is a list of Woollett's more important

George III. ; after Allan Bamsay.

Peter Paul Bubens ; after Van byck.

The Merry Villagers ; after Thomas Jones.

.^neas and Dido ; after Jones and Mortimer.

A Landscape, with Buildings ; after John Smith ; the

' Second Premium ' print.
Another Landscape; after George Smith; the 'First

Premium ' print.
The Hay-makers ; after the same.

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 190 of 201)