Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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The Apple-gatherers ; after the same.





The Rural Cot ; after the same.

The Spanish Pointer ; after iStuiis.

A View of Snowdon ; e^ter Wilson.

Celadon and Amelia ; after the same.

Ceyx and Alcyone ; after the same.

Cicero at his Vaia ; after the same.

Solitude ; after the same : by WoolUtt and Ellis.

Niobe ; after the same.

Phaeton ; after the same.

Apollo and the Seasons ; after Wilson and Mortimer.

Meleager and Atalanta ; after the same.

The ' Jocund Peasants ' and ' Merry Cottagers ' ; after C.

Dusart ; a pair.
The Fishery ; after Wright.
The Boar-himt ; after Pillement.
Diana and Actseon ; after Fil. Lauri.
A pair, Morning and Evening ; after Swanevelt.
Landscape with a Windmill ; after Solomon Suysdael.
A Landscape, with figures and a "Waterfall ; after Ann.

Macbeth and the Witches ; after Zuccarelli.
The Enchanted Castle ; after Claude : by Woollett and

The Temple of Apollo ; after the same.
Boman Edifices in ruins ; after the same.
Jacob and Laban, or, ' Le Grand Pont ' ; after the same.
The Death of General Wolfe ; after West.
The Battle of La Hogue ; after the same.
Charles II. landing at Dover ; after the same (only the

etching is by Woollett; the plate was finished by

William Sharp).
The Storm ; after Joseph Vernet.

For a complete list of Woollett's plates and
further details of his career, see the ' Catalogue
Eaisonn6 of the engraved works of William Wool-
lett ' (London, 1885), by Louis Fagan, of the British

WOOLNOTH, Thomas, an English engraver,
was born in 1785. He engraved many theatrical
portraits after Wageman. He died after 1836.
Amongst his plates are :

The Infant Saviour ; after Correggio.
Portrait of Gevartius ; after Van Dyck.
Ecce Homo ; after Guide (?).

WOOTTON, John, an eminent English painter
of landscapes and animals, was born towards the
end of the 17th century. He was a scholar of
Jan Wijck, and became a distinguished artist in
the branch which he principally pursued. He
excelled in sporting subjects, and in painting dogs
and horses. He was much employed at New-
market in painting the portraits of racers. Seven
pictures of Fox-hunting by him were engraved by
Canot. He painted a portrait of William, Duke of
Cumberland, with the routed army of the Pretender
in the background, which Baron engraved. He
painted excellent landscapes in the styles of Claude
Lorrain and Gaspard Poussin. He designed some
of the illustrations in the first edition of Gay's
' Fables,' published in 1727. In his latter years
his sight failed, and he died in London in 1765.
His works are numerous in English country houses.
WOELIDGE, Thomas, an English portrait
painter and etcher, was born in 1700. He first
practised at Bath, drawing miniature portraits on
vellum, in pencil or Indian ink. He afterwards
painted, in King Street, Covent Garden, portraits
in pastel and oil, including those of Mary Squires,
Elizabeth Canning, and Kitty Fisher. Meeting,
however, with little success, he abandoned paint-
ing and devoted himself to etching. He etched
' The Theatre at Oxford as it appeared on the
Installation of the Earl of Westmoreland,' in 1761;
a work containing a multitude of heads and figures,
mostly portraits, including one of the artist him-
self. Worlidge adopted a style modelled on that

of Eembrandt. His prints are very numerous,
but chiefly consist of Eembrandtesque heads,
and portraits. In 1768, two years after his
death, a series of one hundred and eighty-two en-
gravings of antique gems by him was published.
A complete set of first states on satin is now a
valuable rarity. He has also left an etching of
' Marcus Tullius Cicero,' after the marble at Oxford.
He spent part of his later years at Bath, but died
at Hammersmith September 28, 1766, having ex-
hibited portraits with the Free Society in that same

WOEMS, Anton von. See Woensam.

WOENUM, Ealph Nicholson, was bom at
Thornton, near Durham, in r812. Originally in-
tended for the bar, he chose art as his profession
when he was twenty-two, and studied for five
years in Munich, Dresden, Eome, and Paris. He set-
tled in London in 1840, competed at the first West-
minster Hall Competition, (where he was honour-
ably mentioned,) and in 1846 first printed that
excellent catalogue of the National Gallery which
has served as the model for so many later compil-
ations of the same kind. In 1856 he was appointed
keeper of the Institution to which he had already
done so great a service. After his catalogue, his
best known works with the pen are 'Epochs of
Painting,' and a 'Life of Holbein.' He died in
London on the 15th of December, 1877.

WOEOBIEFP, Maxime Nikifob6witsch, a Ens-
sian painter, was bom in 1787, and was a pupil
of Semen P.Schtschedrin and Alexejeff, but im-
proved himself by travels in the East and Italy.
In 1825 he was appointed professor of perspective
to the St. Petersburg Academy, and founded therein
a school of landscape painting, distinguished by
its daring colour. He died in 1855. Among his
works the following may be noted :

Quay of the Neva on a Summer's Night.

View of Moscow in 1818. {Hermitage.)

View of Constantinople.

The Subterranean Chapel at Bethlehem. {Sermitage.)

Interior of the Church of Golgotha. (Hermitage.) 1824.

Gateway of the Church of the Kedeemer at Jerusalem.

View from the Sabine Mountains.

WOESDALE, James, an English portrait painter,
was the scholar and reputed natural son of Sir
Godfrey Kneller, who dismissed him for marrying
his wife's niece without his consent. He never
arrived at great excellence in art, but, being gifted
with humour and with a happy disposition, he
made friends, and was appointed, by their influence,
master painter to the Board of Ordnance. He
painted a full-length portrait of George II., and
presented it to the Yarmouth Corporation. He
published several poetical pieces, songs, &c., be-
sides some dramatic productions. He died in
London in 1767, leaving instructions that his
tombstone should be thus inscribed :

" Eager to get, but not to keep, the pelf,
A friend to all mankind except himself."

His son, also a painter, succeeded him at the
Board of Ordnance, and died in 1779.

WOESEY, Thomas, an English flower painter,
born in 1829. In his early years he worked at
Birmingham as a painter on papier-mach^. Aspir-
ing to a higher art, he devoted himself to flower
painting about 1850, and obtained a good practice,
exhibiting at some of the London exhibitions. His
death occurred at Birmingham in 1875, shortly
before which he had been elected a member of the
Eoyal Birmingham Society of Artists.




WORST, Jan, a Dutch draughtsman and painter,
was born in 1625. In company with his friend
Jan Lingelbach, he passed some time in Italy,
making drawings of the scenery in bistre and black
chalk. Some of these he afterwards used for
pictures. He died in Holland in 1680.

WORTHINGTON, William Henet, an English
line engraver, was bom about 1795. Specimens of
his work will be found in ' British Museum Marbles,'
and in Pickering's 'History of England.' He also
engraved after Stothard. He was still active as
late as 1833. .

WORTMAN, Cheistian Albeecht, was, accord-
ing to Huber, a native of Pomerania, and flourished
about the, year 1730. He was instructed in en-
graving by Wolfgang, and at the age of twenty-
five was invited to the court of Hesse-Cassel,
where he was appointed engraver to the Land-
grave. In 1727 he went to St. Petersburg, where
he engraved the portraits of several princes and
people about the court. Among others, we may
name the following plates by him :

Anna, Empress of Russia ; after L. Caravaque.

Alexis, son of Peter I. ; after Lundden.

Ernst Ludwig, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.

WOUTBRS, Feans, was born in Lierre, Bra-
bant, October 12, 1614. After receiving some
instruction in art, he was sent to Antwerp, to the
school of Rubens, where he applied himself to
landscape painting. His subjects were generally
taken from the Forest of Soignies, near Brussels,
which he filled with an historical and fabulous
population. There are altar-pieces by him in the
Belgian churches, notably a 'Christ giving the
Keys to St. Peter,' in St. Peter's at Louvain ; and
a 'Visitation,' in the church of the Augustines,
Antwerp ; but he is less successful in large pic-
tures than in small. He was employed as court
painter by the Emperor Ferdinand II., but coming
to England in 1637, and the Emperor dying in
the same year,"he was appointed chief painter to
the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles II. On
the breaking out of the civil war he returned to
Belgium, and was in 1648 appointed director of the
Antwerp Academy, where, in 1659, he was killed
by the accidental discharge of a gun. Pour land-
scapes and some other subjects were etched by
Frans Wouters. Additional works :
Copenhagen. Gallery. Venus and Adonis.
Frankfort. Staedel Inst. A Conflagration by Moonlight
(with the forged signature of
A. Van der Neer).
Vienna. Galley. The Huntress Diana. 1630.

WOUTERS, GoMAE, historical and landscape
painter, was a native of Flanders, but practised
chiefly at Rome. He flourished towards the end
of the 17th century. There are some large prints
by him, representing views in and near Rome, with
figures. Their style resembles that of Callot, and
they are inscribed G. Wouters, Cavalier, del. et


WOUTERS, Jakob, called also Vosmeee and
VosMABR, was born at Delft in 1584. He was an
excellent painter of landscapes, which he quitted,
however, for fruit and flower painting. He went
to Italy, but returned to Delft, where he married,
became Dean of the Guild of St. Luke in 1633, and
died in 1641. One Daniel Vosmabe, perhaps his
son, painted landscapes, views, &c., and flourished
at Delft in 1654. He more than once painted the
disastrous explosion of that year. An example in
the Delft Town-hall is signed Daniel Vosmaer.

WOUTERSZ, JoEANNES, an obscure Dutch
painter, bom at Oudewater. His name occurs as
a citizen of Amsterdam in the civic records of
1542. In the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam there
is a picture by him, representing the bureau of. a
Jurisconsult. The half-obliterated inscription reads:
johan : i : WOVT : an : 15. .

WOUTIERS, (or WOUTERS,) Michblina, or
Maqdalena, a native of Mons or Berghen, and
a portrait painter of the Flemish school, flour-
ished in the first half of the 17th century. No
details concerning her are known, but in the Vienna
Gallery are two half-length figures of saints (a
' S. Joachim ' and a ' S. Joseph '), which were long
erroneously ascribed to Frans Wouters. They
were restored to their rightful author by Herr v.
Engerth in the new Catalogue. Michelina's por-
trait of the Spanish'General, Andres Gantelmo, was
engraved by Pontius in 1643.

WOUWERMAN, Jan, was born at Haarlem in
1629. He was the third son of Paul Joosten, and
the younger brother and pupil of Philips Wouwer-
man. He was admitted into the Guild of St. Luke
in 1655. He painted so ranch in the style of
Wijnants that his pictures are often ascribed to
that master. He died at Haarlem in 1666. The
Rotterdam Museum has a sandy landscape by him.
It is signed J. W.

WOUWERMAN, Paul, was the son of Pieter
Wouwerman, and was born at Haarlem in 1657.
He was educated in art at Antwerp, where he
afterwards became a Carthusian monk, and where
he lived until he was nearly a hundred years old.
He was inscribed on the registers of St. Luke in
1669-70. He died about 1765. There has been
some dispute as to whether he were the son of
Pieter or Philips Wouwerman, but the evidence
favours the statement made above.

WOUWERMAN, Philips, was born at Haarlem,
where he was baptized on May 24, 1614. His
father, Paul Joosten Wouwerman, was a -native
of Alkmaar and a mediocre painter. He married
three times, and had three sons by the third wife,
all of whom became painters. Philips was the
pupil of his father and of Jan Wijnants. At the
age of nineteen he eloped with a young woman of
the old religion to Hamburg, where he married
her. At Hamburg he stayed for a time, working
in the studio of Everard Decker, but in 1640 we
find him back in Haarlem, and received into the
Guild of St. Luke. In 1648 he buried one of his
children. In 1642 a pupil of his was inscribed on
the Guild books ; in 1645 he was Vinder of the
corporation ; in 1655 we again hear of a pupil of
his being received by the Guild ; and then, on May
19, 1668, we find the record of his own funeral,
which cost thirty-seven florins. His wife survived
him less than two years, being buried on January
22, 1670. Her funeral cost twenty-one florins.
These sums, considerable for the time, seem to
negative the idea that the last years of Wouwerman
were passed in poverty. It is said that a priest,
one Cornells Cats, helped him out of his early
difBc'ulties, and set him on the road to comparative
ease, by the loan of a considerable sum early in his
married life, and that the painter never ceased to
show his gratitude. In his short life of forty-nine
years, Wouwerman did a prodigious amount of
work. Even if we deny his authorship of one half
the pictures ascribed to him in the better European
collections, we leave him with at least 500, or
about one for every three weeks during his pro-








ductive years. His popular reputation depends
chiefly on his horses,, but in his finest works he
shows himself a consummate master of composition,
of aerial perspective, and of artistic anatomy. _ As
a.natural eolourist, too, and as a technical painter
he has had few equals. Among his pupils were
his brother Pieter, Koort Witholt, Nicolaas Picke,
Jacob Warnars, and Anthonie de Haen. The
following list is confined to his better and more
accessible pictures :

Amsterdam. B. Museum. The Victorious Peasants.
„ „ The White Horse.

„ „ The Drinking Place.

„ „ The Oamp.

{A7id nine more.)
Museum. The Eiding School.
„ A Hunting Meet.

„ Horses before a Smithy.

(And ihree more.)
Episode of the Chase.
Armed Peasants fighting with
Cavalry (known as 'Le Pil-
lage des Eeiters ').
CavSry Skirmish, near a Burn-
ing Windmill.
The Stable of an Inn, with
Cavaliers about to mount and
' La Cascade ' : a Waterfall and

a Waggon with five Horses.
The Farrier's Shop: 'Lagrotte

du Mar^chal.'
Camp near a River.

(ATid ahout sixty others.)
The Market Cart.
Landscape, with Horsemen.
Halt of Travellers.

I The Hay Wain.

The Sutler's Booth {very fine).

A Hunting Party.

A Cavalry Skirmish.

A Fair in the Outskirts of a
Town (veryjine).

The Hawking Party.

The Camp Farrier.

Travellers robbed by Brigands.

Halt of Sportsmen.

Selling Fish at Scheveningen.
„ Halt of Travellers.

„ Three Cavaliers at a Wayside

„ Two Horsemen near a Foud-

t^n, and a Servant-maid.
„ Peasants in the Fields.

„ A Courtyard with a Farrier.

„ Halt of a Hunting Party.

„ The Eetum from Hawking.

Wat. Gallery. Interior of a Stable {very fine).
„ On the Sea-shore (do. ).

„ Halt of Officers (known as ' La

Belle Laitiere ' ; very fine).
„ Gathering Faggots.

„ Landscape with four-horse

„ A Battle (very fine).

The Stag Hunt.

The Stag Hunt.

Interior of a Stable.
(And fourteen others.)

The ' Bceuf Gras ' in Holland.

Departure of a Hawking Party.

The Stag Hunt.

The Eiding School.

Interior of a Stable.

Cavalry Combat.

Eiding School in the open air.

Travelling Merchants.

Halt of Travellers.

Travellers on the Sea-shore.





Dulwich Gall.

Petersburg. Hermitage.





Petersburg. Hermitaye.

Berlin. Museum.

Glasgow. Gallery.

London. DvZwich Gall.


Soldiers and Feasants fighting,
burning mills in the distance.
„ „ Departure for the Chase.

„ „ The Stag Hunt (one of the

chief pictures of the master).
„ „ Another Stag Hunt.

„ „ Landscape, with Woman cross-

ing a Ford.
(And forty more.)
Vienna. Gallery. An Attack of Bobbers.

„ „ Eiding School and Watering

Place for Horses.
„ „ Bobbers attacking Travellers.

„ „ Halt of Huntsmen.

„ „ Landscape. ■^ ji_

WOUWERMAN, Pibtee, was the son of Paul
Joosten, and the younger brother of Philips Wou-
werman. He was received into the Guild of St.
Luke at Haarlem in 1646. He married in 1654,
and had children. He must have visited Prance,
for in some of his pictures, views in Paris are intro-
duced. It is possible also that he lived for a time
in Antwerp, where his son Paul was apprenticed.
Pieter Wouwerman died about 1683. His pictures
are often ascribed to his brother Philips.
Amsterdam. jB. Museum. Assault on Koevorden. 1672.

A Hunting Party.

The Siege of a Town.

A Halt, after Bain.

A Sandbank and Travellers.
„ „ Seashore, with Figures.

Paris. Louvre. View of the Gate and Tower of

Nesle, Paris.
WREN, Sir Christopher, was bom at East
Knoyle, Wilts, on October 20, 1632; died in London,
February 25, 1723. He demands a place in these
pages by his doings as an engraver. At one time
it was thought by some critics that Wren was the
actual inventor of mezzotint. That he worked at
it, and worked well, is pretty certain, but the time
of his doing so was probably no earlier than 1662-
1665. Delaborde supposes him to have become
acquainted with the secret then possessed by Prince
Rupert, through Evelyn. The plates ascribed to
Sir Christopher are only two in number ; both are
heads of negroes. Of one Delaborde gives a
capital facsimile, by Girard. The other is a smaller
plate. Impressions of both are in the British

WRENK, Franz, engraver, was bom at Stra-
hain, in Carinthia, in 1766. He learnt his art
from J. Jacobe of Vienna, and was employed as
professor at the Engineers' Academy in that city.
Many of his best plates were portraits after Fiiger ;
he also executed a ' Magdalen ' after Gentileschi,
and a landscape after Vernet. He died at Vienna
in 1830.

WRIGHT, Andrew, sergeant painter to Henry
VIII., practised at Southwark early in that king's
reign, but never enjoyed much repute.

WRIGHT, Inigo, was an English mezzotint en-
graver, who flourished about the year 1770, and
engraved after Morland, Frans Hals, and others.
We have among others the following prints by him :

The Family of Van Goyen ; after J. van Goyen.

St. John preaching in the Wilderness ; after F. Lauri.

WRIGHT, John, a miniature painter, who prac-
tised early in the present century, exhibited re-
gularly at the Royal Academy between 1795 and
1819. About 1820 he put an end to his own life.

WRIGHT, John Massey, was born at Penton-
ville in 1773. At the age of sixteen he was intro-
duced to Stothard, who encouraged him in his
artistic attempts. Hemade the acquaintance,




too, of several eminent scene-painters, and was
engaged towards the end of the century to help in
the scene-loft at His Majesty's Theatre. In 1808
he began to exhibit at the Royal Academy, but
about 1820 he devoted himself to water-colours,
was elected a member of the Old Society, and
regularly contributed to their shows. He designed
a great many book-illustrations. He died on the
13th May, 1866, in his ninety-third year. Three of
his water-colour drawings are in the South Ken-
sington Museum.

WRIGHT, John William, an English subject
painter in water-colours, born in London in 1802. He
was the son of John Wright the miniature painter,
and early received instruction from T. Phillips, E.A.
Joining the Water-Colour Society as an Associate in
1831, he regularly exhibited there, becoming a full
member in 1842, and secretary in 1845. His works
also appeared at the Royal Academy from 1825 to
1846. He oooasionally painted miniature portraits,
and worked as a book-illustrator. Specimens of
his work in the latter branch of art will be found
in Heath's ' Book of Beauty,' and in ' The Female
Characters of Shakespeare.' He died in London,
January 14, 1848, leaving his family in straitened
circumstances. 'Two of his water-colour drawings
are in the South Kensington Museum.

WRIGHT, Joseph, distinguished by the sobri-
quet ' Wright of Derby,' was born at that town in
1734. He came in 1751 to London, where he
became a scholar first of Thomas Hudson, and
afterwards of Mortimer. On leaving the latter he
returned to Derby, where he established himself as
a portrait painter. In 1765 he sent two candle-
light and fire pieces to the Exhibition of the Incor-
porated Society, and the following year exhibited
three more of the same class, one of them the well-
known 'Orrery,' now in the Derby Museum. In
1773 he visited Rome and other parts of Italy, and
returned to England in 1776. He then first settled
at Bath, but returned to Derby in 1777. In the
following year he exhibited fire and moonlight
subjects at the Royal Academy, and in 1781 he
was elected an A.R.A. In 1784 he was chosen an
Academician, but did not accept the honour, per-
haps from annoyance at Garvey's having received
it before him, but more probably from fear of the
duties and responsibilities which his membership
might entail. In 1785 he made an exhibition of
twenty-four of his own works, at the great room
in Spring Gardens, of which the principal picture
represented the destruction of the floating bat-
teries before Gibraltar. He died at Derby in 1797.
Several of Wright's pictures have been engraved ;
some are in mezzotint, among them ' The Black-
smith's Forge,' 'The Air-Pump,' and 'The Gladi-
ator ' ; others in line, among them ' The Dead
Soldier,' engraved by Heath, and a scene from ' A
Winter's Tale,' by Middiman, in which the painter
and engraver may be said to rival Wilson and
WooUett. Other subject pictures by him are,
'The .Destruction of the Floating Batteries at
Gibraltar,' ' Edwin at the Tomb of his Ancestor,'
' Belshazzar's Feast,' ' Hero and Leander,' and ' The
Lady in Milton's "Comus."' His 'Eruption of
Vesuvius,' and ' DUeswater,' are both excellent in
their way. Other works :
London. National Gall. An experiment with the air-

Nat. Port. Gall.

Portrait of Sir Sichard Ark-

Portrait of Erasmus Darwin.
„ himself.

WRIGHT, Joseph Michael, a Scottish portrait
painter, born in the first half of the 17th century.
He was taught by Jamesone, and at an early age
migrated to England, where he soon obtained a
good practice. Some years were then spent by
him in Italy, and in 1648 he was elected a member
of the Florence Academy. On his return to Eng-
land, he painted many sitters of eminence during
the Restoration period, and appears to have held
the next place to Lely, to whom Wright's portraits
have been frequently ascribed. On its refusal by
Lely, a commission to paint the Judges for
the Corporation of London was given to Wright.
He was attached to Lord Castlemaine's embassy
to Eome in 1686, and published an account of the
negotiations with the Pope. On his return, he
found his reputation eclipsed by that of Kneller.
Wright is the ' one Wright ' whom Pepys so un-
favourably compares with Lely ; Evelyn speaks
more respectfully of him. He died in London
about 1700. Wright was known by various pseu-
donyms. At Rome he called himself 'Michael
Ritus ' (y. v.), and is so registered at the Roman
Academy. He oooasionally described himself as
' Sootus ' or ' Anglus,' and on the back of one por-
trait as 'Jos. mick Wrilps Londonensis Pictor
Caroli Eegis.' There are by him :
Hampton Court. John Laoy, the aotor. 1675.

London. Nat. For. Gall. Thomas Hobbes.

„ Garrick Club. John Lacy.

„ Lincoln's Inn. Sir Matthew Hale.

Full-length of Prince Eupert, in armour.

His nephew, of the same name, was also a por-
trait painter. He studied in Rome and practised
in Ireland.

WRIGHT, RiCHAKD, marine painter, sometimes
called ' Wright of the Isle of Man,' was born at
Liverpool, in 1735. Without any advantage of
education, he acquired some skill as a painter by
his own genius and industry. In 1764 the Society
of Arts offered a premium for the best marine
picture, when Wright obtained the prize. In 1764
he gained a premium of fitfty guineas for a sea-
piece from which WooUett engraved his plate, ' The
Fishery." He was a member of the Incorporated
Society of Artists, and exhibited with them from

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 191 of 201)