Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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1765 to 1770. He died about the year 1775. A
French copy was made of Woollett's engraving of
' "The Fishery,' and the name of Vernet affixed as
the painter, but this must have been done with-
out Vemet's knowledge. At Hampton Court there
is a picture by Wright of 'The Royal Yacht bring-
ing Queen Charlotte to England in a Storm,' His
wife and daughter were also painters.

WRIGHT, Thomas,, engraver and portrait
painter, was born at Birmingham, on March 2,
1792. Before he was fourteen he was apprenticed
to Meyer, the engraver. At the end of his time
he joined a fellow-pupil, William Thomas Fry,
whose plates he took up at the etching stage and
finished, Fry's name alone being placed upon
them. After four years of this, he left Fry and
began to engrave portraits, for which he had a real
gift. He worked chiefly after his brother-in-law,
George Dawe, R.A., and in 1822 went to St. Peters-
burg to engrave some of Dawe's pictures there.
In 1826 he came home to England, but four years
later returned to St. Petersburg to arrange Dawe's
affairs, and stayed there fifteen years, painting
portraits and engraving them himself. A series
of these he published in St. Petersburg, with the
title 'Les Contemporains Russes.' On his return





to England he commenced a plate of the ' Infant
Hercules ' of Reynolds, from a copy made by him-
self while in Russia ; but he did not live to com-
plete it. He died in London, March 30, 1849. He
was a member of the Academies of St. Petersburg,
Stockholm, and Florence.

WRIGHT, Thomas, a portrait painter of the
18th century. Little is known of him beyond the
fact that Richard Wilson, R.A., was his pupil. A
portrait by him in the Bodleian shows that his
abilities were respectable.

WTENBROECK. See Uijtenbeouck.

WTTBWABL. See Uitewaal.

WUGHTER8, Abraham, (or Wugtees,) was
born about 1610-15, in Holland, and in 1638 ac-
companied his brother-in-law, Karel vanMander,
to Denmark. He soon made a reputation as a
portrait painter at Copenhagen, and was much
employed by Christian IV. and his court. Dis-
appointed, however, at not being named court
painter when a vacancy occurred, he retired to
Soroe, where he worked until his death. He
painted over fifty portraits of the King, his family,
and other persons of rank, many of them being
engraved by Haelwegh. He died at Soroe in 1683.
The Copenhagen Gallery contains portraits by him
of Prince Waldemar Christian and the minister
Gersdorf (?), and there is a 'Last Supper' by
him in the church of Soroe. In 1675 he suppUed
several illustrations for a Danish translation of
Jakob Cats, and perhaps engraved them himself.
Nagler also ascribes a few etchings to him.

WUEZ. See Vuez.

WUGTERS. • See Wttohtees.

WULFHAGEN, Fbanz, born at Bremen in 1620,
was an obscure scholar of Rembrandt, and painted
after the manner of his master. He died in 1678.

WULPRAAT, Maeqabetha, daughter of Mathijs
Wulfraat, was born at Arnheim in 1678. She
painted in the style of Netscher, producing por-
traits and small historical and mythological pictures.
A ' Cleopatra,' a ' Semiramis,' and two pictures with
wood nymphs, by her, are in existence. She died
in 1738.

WULPRAAT, Mathijs, (or Wulfeabt,) was
born at Arnheim in 1648. He was the son of an
eminent physician, who meant him to follow the
same profession ; but he was devoted to drawing,
and his father, yielding to his bent, placed him
under Abraham Diepraam, a painter of bambocciate.
He himself, however, painted conversations, and
polite assemblies ; also small portraits and domestic
subjects, which were held in great esteem in
Amsterdam, where he chiefly resided, and where
he died in 1727.

WtJRBS, Kael, was an architect and landscape
painter, who practised at Prague, where he was a
professor in the Academy and director of the
Gallery. He died at Prague in 1876.

WUHMSER, NlooLAUS, a native of Strasburg,
was one of four painters who worked in the 14th
century for the Emperor Charles IV. at Karlstein,
near Prague. His collaborators were Theodoric
of Prague, Procop Kunczo, and Tommaso da
Modena. Wurmser was a favourite with the
Emperor, and is mentioned in ancient records of
1359 and 1360 as enjoying certain privileges from
him. Of the works executed at Karlstein, those
ascribed to Wurmser are the large frescoes in the
soffits of the window arches of the chapel. They
consist partly of scenes from Scripture, partly of
single figures. These, though much damaged by
■■■" 734

time and neglect, are remarkable for a certain
impressive dignity, in spite of their queer drawing
and deficient sense of beauty. In the Vienna
Gallery there is a 'Crucifixion,' originally painted
for the high altar of the castle chapel, at Karlstein.
It has been ascribed by Van Mechel and others
after him to Wurmser, but has been also given
to Theodoric of Prague. The altar-piece of 1375,
in the Gallery of the Estates of Bohemia, at Prague,
is generally given to Theodoric, but some writers
ascribe it to Wurmser.

WtJRSCH, JoHANN Melchioe, was bom at
Buochs, in Nidwalden, in 1732, and painted a large
number of pictures for Unterwalden churches as
well as for private persons. He died in 1798.

WtJST, JoHANN Hbinbich, was born at Zurich
in 1741, and received his first instruction from a
house painter, after which he went to Holland,
and there found patrons and employment. He
next spent two years in Paris, and then returned
to Zurich. He painted nature under tranquil
aspects, being especially successful with foliage
and water. He died in 1821.

WDST, Kael Ludwig, was a German engraver,
who flourished about the year 1760. Among other
prints, he engraved a plate representing ' The
Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew,' after Matteo

WUTKI,MlCHEL, (or Wutkt,) landscape painter,
was probably born at Tuln in 1739 (others say at
Krems or Stein in 1738). He studied at Vienna
under Mej^ens, and lived for a long time in Italy,
and painted somewhat in the style of Phihpp Hac-
kert. He died at Vienna in 1823.

WYATT, Heney, an English subject and por-
trait painter, bom at Thickbroom, near Lichfield,
September 17, 1794. He early lost his father, and in
1811 was sent to London by his guardian, Francis
Eginton, the glass painter, to study art. He
worked in the schools of the Academy, and also
in the studio of Sir Thomas Lawrence, receiving,
for the latter part of the time he was with him, a
salary of £300 a year. Returning to Birmingham
in 1817, he practised portraiture there, at Liverpool,
and at Manchester, successively. In 1826 he came
back to London, where he remained for some years,
until he was obliged to go to Leamington for his
health in 1834. Thence he went to Manchester
to paint some portraits, and in the spring of 1838
was struck by paralysis. He never recovered, and
died at Prestwich in 1840. His pictures appeared
at the Royal Academy, at the British Institution,
and at SufEolk Street, between 1817 and 1838.
There are by him : —

Chester. The Castle. Portrait of T. Harrison, Archi-
Glasgow. Gallery. The Philosopher. 1832.

Manchester. „ Vigilance. 1836.

WYATT, Thomas, brother of Henry Wyatt, was
born at Thickbroom about 1799. He studied in the
schools of the Royal Academy, and practised por-
trait painting with little success at Birmingham,
Liverpool, and Manchester. He was secretary to
the Midland Society of Artists. Towards the end
of his life he settled near Lichfield, where he died
after a very long illness, July 7, 1859.

WYCK. See Wijck.

WYGMORE, John, Abbot of Gloucester (MSS.
Cotton, Domit. VIII.) in the 14th century, had a
series of portraits of English kings, down to
Edward XL, painted for his great dining hall, and




is said to have been eminent as a limner and em-
broiderer himself.

WYKE. See Wijck.

WYL, J. VON. See Vonwyl.

"WYLIE, Robert, a landscape and subject
pointer, who by his art should be classed with the
French school. He was bom in 1839, in the Isle
of Man, and while still a child was taken by his
parents to America. His first instruction in art
was received in the Pennsylvania Academy, and
he worked for some time as an ivory carver. In
1865 he came to Europe, and continued his studies
in Paris, where he became a pupil of Barye. He
then settled at Pont Aven, Pinistere, and made his
mark as a painter of Breton scenes and peasantry.
His works appeared at the Salon, where, in 1872,
he was awarded a medal for 'La Sorciere Bre-
tonne.' He died of an aneurism on the 13th
February, 1877.

WYNANTS. See Wijnantb.

WYNEN. See Wijnen.

WYNFIELD, David Wilkib, painter, was a
grand-nephew of Sir David Wilkie, and was bom
in 1837. . He studied at first with a view to taking
orders, but in 1856 determined to be a. painter, and
entered the studio of T. M. Leigh. He first ex-
hibited in 1859, and in 1863 sent to the Royal
Academy ' The Meeting of Edward IV. and Eliza-
beth Woodville.' Prom that time onward he was
a constant exhibitor, painting chiefly historical and
tragic subjects, with occasional excursions into
genre. A careful, conscientious, though somewhat

heavy-handed artist, his strength lay in his solid
simplicity of style, hut he failed as a colourist. He
died May 26, 1887. Among his works we may
mention :

Last Moments of Oliver CromweU. (Foster Coll. S.

Xensington Museum.)
Buckingham murdered. 1872.
The Ladye's Knight. 1873.
Visit from the Inquisitors. 1875.
The New Curate. 1877.

WYNaAERDE. See Van den Wijnqaeede.

WYNTRANCK. See Wijntraok.

WYRSOH, Jean Melchioe Joseph, painter, born
in 1732, was the founder of the Academy of Paint-
ing and Sculpture at Besanjon, and ' professor of
that institution. In the Besangon Museum there
are several of his pictures, chiefly portraits of local
celebrities. He was one of the victims in the
massacre of Stantz, September 9, 1798.

WYTEWELDE, van, a painter who seems

to have enjoyed some repute at Ghent in the middle
of the 15th century. He is known to have been at
work in 1456.

WYTMAN. See Wijtman.

WYTTENBACH, Feiedrioh Anton, painter and
etcher, was born at Treves in 1812. He was a
pupil of Karl Ruben and of Sohadow. In 1832 he
returned to Treves from Diisseldorf, and for a time
devoted himself to architectural pieces, but finally
took to painting animals, especially in hunting
pictures. He has left some etchings. He died at
Treves in 1845.


Xauto Avelli




XANTO AVELLI, Francesco, a majolica painter
of the 16th century. He was a native of Rovigo,
but worked at Urbino. There are plates by him in
the Campana Collection, in the Louvre.

XAVERY, Frans, painter, was the son of Jan
Baptist Xavery, the sculptor, who flourished in
Holland in the latter part of the 17th century.
Frans became a member of the Pictura Society
at the Hague in 1768, practised for some time in
that city, and later in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
He studied first under his uncle Gerhard Joseph,
and afterwards under J. de Wit.

XAVERY, Gerhard Joseph, painter, was the
brother of Jan Baptist Xavery, the sculptor, and
uncle to the brothers Frans and Jakob. He was a
native of Antwerp, but settled in Holland and
practised at the Hague, becoming a member of the
Pictura Society in 1741.

XAVERY, Jakob, was born at the Hague in
1736. He was the son of Jan Baptist Xavery, the
sculptor, and the pupil of Jakob de Wit. He
practised at Amsterdam, Breda, and the Hague, and
pa,ssed some time in Paris. Occasionally he imi-
tated the manner of Berehem in his landscapes, and
approached closely to his master, Jakob de Wit,
in his feigned bas-reliefs. He painted portraits of
several distinguished persons, among them M.
Braamcamp and the sculptor Cressant. He died
towards the end of the 18th century. In the S.
Kensington Museum there is a ' Vase of Fruit and
a Vine Branch ' by him.

XIMENEZ DONOSO, Josef, (or Juan,) a Spanish
historical painter and architect, was born at Con-
suegra in 1628. His father, Antonio Ximenez,
taught him the elements of painting, and he re-
ceived further instruction in the school of Fran-
cisco Fernandez, at Madrid. On the death of
Fernandez he went- to Rome, where he remained
for seven years. He afterwards returned to Madrid,
and practised for a time in the school of Carreno.
He painted several frescoes in collaboration with
Claudio Coello. He succeeded Francisco Rizi as
painter to the Chapter of Toledo, and repainted
the altar-piece by Rizi in the church of St. Gines,
which excited the indignation of his professional

brethren. He died of apoplexy at Madrid in 1690
and was buried in the church of Saint Gines.

XIMENEZ, Francisco, a Spanish historical
painter, was born atTarazona, Aragbn, in 1598. He
studied painting in that city and in Rome. Re-
turning to his own country, he was employed to
paint two large pictures for the cathedral at Sara-
gossa. He died at Saragossa in 1666, and left his
fortune to educate the orphan sons, and to provide
dowries for the daughters, of painters.

XIMENEZ, J. F. See Fernandez Navarrete.

XIMENEZ, P. A. See Atbab, Ximenez.

XIMBNEZ-ANGEL, Josef, a scholar of Antonio
Rubio, of Toledo, succeeded Claudio Coello as
painter to the cathedral of that city in 1695. He
painted frescoes in the Hermitage of Sonseca, repre-
senting incidents in the life of the Virgin, and the
work was considered- creditable ; he also painted a
' St. Anthony ' for the parish of St. Bartholomew
at Toledo, and other subjects from sacred history.

XIMENEZ DE ILLESCAS, Bernabe, a Spanish
historical painter, was bom at Lucenain 1613, and
from his infancy showed a disposition for art. He
entered the army, however, and when stationed in
Italy his fondness for drawing and painting revived,
and for six years he studied the works of the great
masters, and became a tolerable, if not a very good,
painter. On his return to Spain he painted for
private persons, and died while occupied on his
first public work, at Andujar, in 1671. Leonardo de
Castro and Miguel ParrUla were his scholars.

XIMENO, Josef, a Spanish draughtsman and en-
graver, made the designs for the sumptuous edition
of Solis's ' History of the Conquest of Mexico,'
published at Madrid in 1783, and also for the edition
of the ' Galatea ' of Cervantes, published in 1784.
He was living and at work in 1791.

XIMENO, Matias, a painter of Old Castille.
He was a pupil of Vincenzo Carduoho, and flour-
ished about the middle of the 17th century. He
painted four lateral altars for the Jeronymites of
Siguenza, representing ' The Incarnation,' ' The
Nativity,' ' The Epiphany,' and ' The Presentation
in the Temple.' His 'Conversion of St. Paul,'
dated 1652, is, perhaps, his best work.






YAHIA, BEN Mahmud, an Arab painter, living
about 1236, who executed one hundred and one
miniature pictures, illustrating the Anecdotes of
Hariri, which are now in the French National

YANEZ, Hernando, (or Yanes), was a native
of Almedina in La Mancha. He flourished about
the year 1631, and appears to have studied under
Leonardo da Vinci. About the year mentioned,
he was painting in the cathedral of Cuenca, for
the cathedral treasurer, Gomez Carillo de Albornoz,
a man of considerable judgment in works of art,
who had visited Italy. The death of Yanes is
supposed to have occurred between 1550 and 1560.

YATES, Thomas, an English marine painter and
draughtsman, was born in the latter half of the 18th
century. He served in the Royal Navy, in which
he rose to the rank of Lieutenant, and practised
art as an amateur. Between 1788 and 1794 he
exhibited sea-pieces at the Royal Academy, and
also published a series of drawings of ' Celebrated
Naval Actions.' He was shot in a quarrel, and died
in 1796. His widow was the famous actress.

YBATES, Geoeqb, an English engraver, who
' flourished in the reign of Charles I., and is known
by a portrait of George Mountaigne, Bishop of
London and Archbishop of York.
t^YEATES, Nicholas, an obscure English en-
graver, who flourished about 1680, and who, in
conjunction with John Collins, executed a few
portraits, among them one of the Parliamentary
General, Sir William Waller.

YELLOWLEES, William, a Scottish painter,
was born at Mellerstain in 1796. He came to
Edinburgh in 1812, and studied there under William
Shiels, the animal painter. He began practice as
a portrait painter and soon became popular, winning
the sobriquet of ' the little Raeburn,' partly by the
small size, but more by the excellence of his work.
He painted in Edinburgh for about fifteen years,
and then moved to London, where he met with
much success. Prince Albert was among his
patrons. He contributed twenty portraits to the
Royal Academy between 1829 and 1845. He died
in London in 1856 (?). There is a portrait by him
in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.

YEPBS, ToMAS DB, was a native of Valencia.
He excelled in painting flowers, fruit, fish, and
game. There are many of his works in the private
collections at Madrid, Seville, and in bis native
city. He died in 1674.

YKBNS, Fkans, bom at Antwerp in 1601, was
an excellent painter of flowers, fruit, and dead
game. He studied under his uncle, Osias Beert,
and afterwards in Prance. In 1630-31 he was free
of the Guild of St. Luke in his native town, and
about 1666 worked for a short time in Brussels.
He is said to have died in distressed circumstances
in 1693. In the Vienna Gallery there is a flower-
piece by him, in the Berlin Museum a study of
fruit, in the Madrid Gallery a picture of dead
game, fruit, &c., and in the Hermitage, St. Peters-
burg, a fine panel of large size, the ' Purchase of

YKBNS, Jan, painter, was born at Antwerp in
VOL. II. 3 B

1625. He was the son and pupil of Pieter Ykens
the elder, and practised first as a sculptor. At
Lierre, in the church of the Beguines, there is a
' Centurion at the Feet of Christ ' by him. It ia
signed, Johannes Yhens, Inv. et F. 1651.

YKENS, Laurence Catharine, the daughter
of Jan, was born at Antwerp in 1659. She excelled
in painting flowers, fruit, and insects. She was
received into the Guild of St. Luke in 1687. In
the Madrid Gallery are two of her pieces, each
consisting of a landscape in a medallion, surrounded
by a garland of fruit and flowers.

YKENS, PiETEE, the elder, painter, was born at
Antwerp in 1599, and died in 1649. No details as
to his life and works are known, and he is chiefly
remembered as the father of Jan Ykens, and
grandfather of Pieter Ykens the younger.

YKENS, Pieter, the younger, painter, was the
son of Jan Ykens, and was born at Antwerp about
1648. He was probably his father's pupil. In
1672 he became free of the Guild of St. Luke, and
in 1689 Dean, but escaped office by paying a flne
of sixty patacons and the promise of a ' picture
painted in his best manner.' In 1671 he married
a daughter of the painter Peter van Bredael, and by
her had twelve children. He died in 1695 or 1696.
The following works by him are kiiown :
Antwerp. Museum. St. Catharine disputing witli

the Philosophers.
„ „ Portrait of Jan Baptist Greyns.

„ „ Portrait of Janssens de Hujoel,

in a frame carved and em-
blazoned by Jan Baptist de

Lille. Museum. Saint Theresa,' ' signed Ftr.

Xkens Inventor et Fecit.

His son and pupil, Pieter Jan, also practised at

YOLI, (or Yole). See JoLi, Antonio.

YONGKIND, JoHAN Barthold. See Jongkind

YOUNG, John, born in 1755, was a mezzotint
engraver and designer, but is better known for his
outlines of celebrated English Picture Galleries.
Amongthese are the Stafibrd,Angerstein,Grosv6nor,
Leicester, and Miles Collections. His best mezzo-
tint is after Mortimer's picture of the fight between
Broughton, the prize-fighter, and Stevenson, coach-
man to Sir William Wyndham. He exhibited some
mezzotint portraits at the Academy in 1794. John
Young was Keeper of the British Institution, and
was an active promoter of the Artists' Benevolent
Fund. He died in London, March 7, 1825.

YOUNG, ToBlAsi an English landscape painter,
exhibited at the Academy in 1816 and 1817, and
painted the scenery for Lord Barrymore's private
theatre at Wargrave. He practised for some time
at Southampton, to which town and its neighbour-
hood his reputation was chiefly confined. In the
Southampton Town Hall there is a ' Judgment of
Solomon ' by him. He died in 1824.

YPEREN, Karbl van, or YPRilS, Charles d',
painter, sculptor, and architect, was bom at Ypris
in 1510. He travelled for improvement in Italy,





and is said to have been a pupil of Tintoretto. Van
Mander says that his death was caused by his
stabbing himself, in a fit of delirium, at a banquet
gived in his honour by the artists of Courtrai, in
1563 or 1564. Some of his works are to be seen at
Ypres, a ' SS. Peter and Paul/ in the church of
St. Peter, and an ' Adoration of the Magi,' at the
hospital, among others.

YRIARTE. See Imahte.

YSENDYCK, Antoinb Van, painter, bom at
Antwerp in 1801, was a pupil of Van Bree. In
1823 he won the Roman pension at the Antwerp
Academy, and after a term in Italy, worked for ten
years in Paris. He was a member of the Academies
of Amsterdam and Antwerp. He became director
of the Academy at Mens in 1840, and died at
Brussels in 1875. Among his pictures we may
name a ' Christ Blessing the Children,' a ' Charity,'
and a portrait of Van Bree. Several examples of
his work are at Versailles.

YSSELSTEYN, A. F., a Dutch artist of the 17th
century, known only by the picture of a dead cock
in the Schleissheim Gallery.

YUNG, Antoine Robert, called Lejeune, en-
graver, was born in Paris in 1789, and was a pupil
of Gros. In 1824 and in 1834 he exhibited vig-
nettes at the Salon, after drawings by D^vdria
Chasselat, Colin, and Choquet.

YUNK, Enrico, painter, was bom at Turin in
1840. He studied first at the Academy of Turin,
and afterwards in Paris, under Gfoome and Picot.
He painted chiefly scenes from Italian peasant life,
and subjects gathered during his travels in Turkey,
Spain, and Egypt. Towards the close of his life
he worked mainly in Rome and Pisa," in which
latter city he died, November 18, 1878.

YUSO. See Irala Yuso.

YVART, Baddouin, painter, bom at Boulogne
in 1610, was a member of the Matti-ise and of the
Academy, into which he was received in 1663. He
was employed on the decorative paintings in Salle
169 of the palace at Versailles, and the Versailles
Museum has a ' Consecration of Louis XIV.' and
' Siege of Douai ' by him. He died December 12th,






ZAAGMOOLEN, Mabtinus, was a native of
Holland. He was working from 1640 to 1660, but
neither his birthplace nor the master under whom
he studied is known. Houbraken calls him a
painter of history, and describes a ' Last Judgment'
by him. He was the master of Jan Luiken, the
engraver, and of Michiel van Musscher.

ZAAL, I. or J., was a Flemish engraver of the
latter part of the 17th century, by whom we have
a large etching after a Boar-hunt, by Snyders. Its
date appears to be 1673.

ZAANREDAM. See Sabnbedam.

ZABELLI, Antonio, (or Zabaglio,) was born
at Florence about the year 1740. He engraved
several portraits for the collection published by
Francesco Allegrini, at Florence, in 1762 ; and some
plates after the principal pictures at Naples : among
them the following :

Mary Magdalene ; after Guercino.
The Flight into Egypt ; after Guido Herd.
The Meeting of Christ and St. John ; after the same.
The Three Marys at the Tomb of Christ ; after Ann.

ZABELLO, Giovanni Francesco, an engraver,
w.-iH, according to Orlandi, a native of Bergamo,
and flourished about the year 1646. Ho marked
his prints with a die and the date.

ZACCAGNA, Turfing, a Florentine painter, who
flourished about 1537. He was a pupil of Luoa
Signorelli, and painted a ' Burial and Ascension of
the Virgin' in the choir of the cathedral of Cortona.

ZACCHETTI, Bernardino, was a painter of
Reggio, who flourished about 1523. He has been
called a disciple of Raphael, and is also said to
have worked with Michelangelo in the Sistine
chapel. His picture of ' St. Paul ' in the church
of San Prospero, at Reggio, is in the style of

ZACOHIA, Paolo, ' il Vecchio,' was a native of
Lucca, where he worked from about 1520 to 1530.
He probably studied at Florence, for his works
show traces of the influence of Ghirlandajo and of

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 192 of 201)