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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Fra Bartolommeo. There are several altar-pieces
painted by him in the churches at Luccs», which
prove him to have been an artist of some ability.
Works :

Berlin. Museum. Virgin, Child, and St. John.

Lucca. Cathedral. St. Petronilla.

„ S. Salvadore. The Ascension.

„ Pinacoteca. The Assumption. 1527.

„ S. Miehele. Marriage of the Virgin.

„ Pietra Santa. Nativity. 1519.

Paris. Louvre. Portrait of a Musician.

His son, Lorenzo di Ferro Zacchia, called
Zacohia il Giovane, an indifferent painter and
engraver, also practised at Lucca.

ZACCOLINI, Padre Matteo, was born at Cesena,
in the Roman States, about 1590, and painted per-
spectives, in which he is said to have instructed
Domeniohino and Nicolas Poussin. He became a
Theatine monk, and his principal works are in
the church of that order, on Monte Cavallo. He
wrote some treatises on perspective, the manu-
scripts of which are in the Barberini Library. He
died in 1630.

3b 2

ZACHTLEVEN. See Saftleven.

ZAECH, Bernard, a German engraver, etched a
set of ruins, after Jonas Umbach. There is also
by him a small original landscape with figures,
animals, and ruins. BruUiot mentions twelve
pieces, designs for goldsmiths' work, consisting of
Vases and Goblets, marked B. Z. 1581, and which
he suspects to be by Bernard Zaech. One Daniel
Zaech, a painter, goldsmith, and engraver, was
also at work in 1613.

ZABNRBDAM. See Saenrbdam.

ZAFFONATO, Alessandro, an Italian engraver,
who flourished about 1730. He engraved Raphael's
' Judgment of Solomon,' and a few other plates.

ZAFFONI, Giovanni Maria, better known as
Caldebabi, was a Friulan, and flourished between
1534 and 1570. He was an imitator of Pordenone
and Pomponio Amalteo. The well of the font in
the cathedral of Pordenone was painted by him in
1534 with four scenes in fresco from the lives of
Christ and John the Baptist. In 1542 he painted in
distemper a Nativity, various Saints, and a Patron
in armour in the Church of Pissancana, FriuJi.
This fresco was taken by Ridolfl for the work of
Pordenone. In the year 1555 he decorated the
Montereale Chapel in Pordenone cathedral with
frescoes from the lives of Christ and the Virgin ;
and the church of the Santissima, in the same city,
with frescoes from Old Testament History. In the
church of Montereale are a series of frescoes
painted by him some time previous to 1570 ; they
were valued in that year by Pomponio Amalteo,
and Zaffoni was then dead.

ZAGANELLI. See Dei Zaganelli.

ZAGBL, M. See Zatzinger.

ZAGO, Santo, a native of Venice, was brought
up in the school of Titian, and worked about 1560.
He painted some frescoes and altar-pieces for the
churches at Venice. An altar-piece, in the church
of Santa Caterina, representing Tobit and the Angel,
may be specially named.

ZAHN, Johann Karl Wilhelm, archseologist,
architect, and painter, was born at Rodenberg in
Hesse in 1800, and first instructed at the Academy
of Cassel. In 1822-4 he was in Paris, where he
attended the ateliers of Gros, Chabillon, and Bertin,
and then proceeded to Italy, studying at Rome,
Naples, Pompeii, &c. After his return he decor-
ated the new palace at Cassel, and brought out a
book on the ornaments and paintings of Pompeii,
Herculaneum, and Stabise. In 1830 he returned to
Italy, and spent ten years in drawing, excavating.
and inspecting antiquities. In 1839 he visited
Greece, and shortly afterwards published a con-
tinuation of his work on the Pompeian remains.
In 1850 he travelled in France, England, and the
Netherlands, studying ancient miniatures. He died
at Berlin, August 22, 1871. Zahn's writings had
a considerable influence on the course of modern
German industrial art. He did not confine himself
to the study of the antique, but endeavoured to
direct the attention of his countrymen to the
beauties of mediaeval and renaissance ornament,
and was the author of many important works
besides those above mentioned.



ZAHN, LuDWiG, genre painter, was born at
Munioli in 1830, and died in 1855. Among his
best works were :

Peasant Girl at Harvest Time.

The Emperor Maximilian at the ' Martiu's-wand.'

ZAIS, Giuseppe, was a native of Venice, and
studied under Francesco Zuccarelli, during his
residence in that city. He painted landscapes and
battle-pieces with considerable success. He died
at an advanced age, in 1784. There is a picture
by him in the Venice Academy.

ZAMACOiiS, Eduabdo, a Spanish painter, was
born at Bilbao in 1842. He was a pupil of Balaca and
of Federigo Madrazo, in the Academy of San Fer-
nando at Madrid, and afterwards of Meissonier.
He painted scenes from life in the 16th and 17th
centuries, often dealing with monks and friars, and
mostly comic in character, but seldom without a
touch of malice. After Fortuny, he was, perhaps,
the most brilliant member of the group of painters
to which the new Spanish school owes its vitality.
In ' The Education of a Prince,' his peculiar com-
bination of vivid colour, sparkling execution, sound
drawing, and keen though genial satire, is to be
seen at its best. His death occurred at Madrid in
1871. Among his works we may mention :

The Enlisting of Cervantes. 1863.

The Entry of the Toreros. {Painted in conjunction with

ribert.) 1866.
The King's Favourite. 1868.
The Gate of the Monastery. 1869-.
The Good Pastor. 1869.
The Education of a Prince. 1870.
Platonic Love. 1870.
The Father Confessors.

ZAMBONI, Matted, was, according to Crespi, a
native of Bologna, and flourished about the year
1700. He was one of the ablest disciples of Carlo
Cignani, and painted history with considerable
skill. He had given proof of talent, in two altar-
pieces for the church of San Niccol6, at Rimini,
when he died in the prime of life.

ZAMBRANO, Alonso. See Llera.

ZAMBRANO, Juan Luis, a Spanish painter, was
born at Cordova towards the close of the 16th cen-
tury. He was a disciple and follower of Pablo de
Cespedes. His principal works are in the cathedral
at Cordova, in the church of the convent of Los
Martyres, and in the Colegio de Santa Catalina.
He settled at Seville about the time of the death of
Cespedes, in 1608, and there painted several altar-
pieces and three large pictures upon the staircase
of the convent of San Basilio. He died at Seville
in 1639.

ZAMORA, Juan de, a native of Seville, flour-
ished from about 1650 to 1671. He distinguished
himself as a painter of landscapes, embellished with
historical figures, in which he appears to have
imitated the style of the best masters of the Flemish
school. Some of his best pictures are preserved
in the Episcopal Palace at Seville. There was also
a Diego Zamoea, who painted at the latter part of
the 16th century in tho cathedral of Seville, but
nothing further is known of him.

ZAMORA, Sancho de, was a painter who flour-
ished towards the close of the 15th century. In the
chapel of Santiago, in Toledo Cathedral, there is an
altar-piece painted by him in 1498.

ZAMPEZZO, Q-iovANNi Battista, was born at
Cittadella, near Bassano, in 1620, and studied at
Venice, under Jacopo ApoUonio. He was a suc-
cessful imitator of Jacopo da Ponte, and painted




some altar-pieces for the churches at Bassano. He
died in 1700.

ZAMPIERI, DoMENico, (or Sampibei,) commonly
known as Domenichino, was born at Bologna in
1581, and was placed, when young, under the tuition
of Dionysius Calvaert ; but being treated with
severity by that master, for copying a drawing by
Annibale Carracci, he prevailed on his father to
remove him to the academy of the Carracci, where
Guido and Albani were then students. On the
first award of a prize after his admission, Domeni-
chino was hailed, much to his own astonishment, as
the successful candidate, and this triumph incited
him to greater assiduity. He contracted an in-
timacy with Albani, and on leaving the school of
the Carracci, they visited together Parma, Modena,
and Reggio, to study Correggio and Parmigiano.
On their return to Bologna, Albani went to Rome,
and was soon afterwards followed by Zampieri.
Cardinal Agucchi, Zampieri's first patron, employed
him in his palace, and also gave him commissions.
While in Rome, Domenichino was a frequent visitor
of Annibale Carracci, who was then engaged in the
Farnese, and painted from his cartoons. He also
painted ' The Death of Adonis,' from his own de-
signs, in the garden loggia. The health of Anni-
bale becoming daily worse, he had to pass on many
commissions to his scholars, and it was by his re-
commendation that Guido and Domenichino were
engaged by Cardinal Borghese to paint the frescoes
in San Gregorio. Cardinal Farnese also employed
the latter in some works in fresco, and he was com-
missioned about this time by Cardinal" Aldobrandini
to decorate his villa at Frascati, where he painted
ten frescoes from the history of Apollo. The next
work of Domenichino was his famous ' Communion
of St. Jerome,' painted for the principal altar of
San Girolamo della Carita, and long considered the
second picture in Rome. The reputation Domeni-
chino had acquired had already excited the jealousy
of some of his contemporaries, Lanfranco in par-
ticular, and it was now increased by the applause
bestowed on this picture. Disgusted with their
cabals, he returned to Bologna, where he passed a
few years in the tranquil exercise of his talents.
Pope Gregory XV., however, invited him back to
Rome, and appointed him principal painter and
architect to the Pontifical palace. Domenichino
died in 1641. In the first half of the 19th century
his reputation with amateurs almost rivalled that
of Raphael. With the advance of knowledge, and
the improvement of taste, his works have now fallen
to a truer level. The following is a list of the more
important :


The Madonna del Eosario.

Martyrdom of St. Agnes.

His own Portrait.

Portrait of Cardinal Agucchi.

The Magdalene.

Landscapes — 'The Eepose of
Venus ' and ' Diana and Ac-

Lives of St. Kilns and St. Bar-
tholomew— ^«scoes.

Landscapes — 'The Angel and
Tobias ' and ' St. George and
the Dragon.'

Christ bearing His Cross.

Landscape with Callisto.

Landscape — Fishers.

St. Francis of Assisi. i

St. John.

Susannah in the Bath.

Female Magician.





Grotto Ferrata. Church.
London. Nat. Gall.

„ Bridgewater Gall.

„ Lord Carlisle.
„ Duke of Cleveland.
Modena. Gallery.


Munich Pindtothek.

Naples. Gap. d. Tesoro.

n Museum.

Vaas. Louvre.


Petersburg. Hermitage


S. Lidgi de'


S. Andrea d. Valle.

8. Carlo Gatenari.


Pal. Borghese.

Pal. Bospigliosi.

Pal. Famese.

Sasannah at the Bath.
Subjects from the life of St.

The Guardian Angel.
Condemnation of Adam and

King David.
Appearance of the Virgin and

Child to St. Anthony of

St. Paul caught up to Heaven.
St. Cecilia.
Combat of Hercules and Ache-

Alexander and Timoleon.
The Triumph of Love.
Rinaldo and Armida.
Herminia among the Shepherds.
The Assumption of the Magda-
) Subjects from the Life of St.
J Cecilia.

, The Four Evangelists.
, The four Virtues.
, The Communion of St. Jerome.
Diana and her Kymphs.
The Sibyl of Cumae.
Adam and Eve.
David conquering Goliath.
Frescoes — Karcissus ; Apollo ;

Venus and Adonis.

ZAN, Bbbnaed, an engraver mentioned in the
Abeoedario, is said to have flourished about the
year 1571, and to have marked his prints with
the initials £. Z., and the date. (See also Zaech,

ZANAEDI, Gentile, was, according to Orlandi,
a native of Bologna, and a pupil of Marc Antonio
Franceschini. She possessed an extraordinary
talent for copying, but also painted historical
pictures of her own composition.

ZANCAELI, PoLiPHiLos, (or Giancabli,) was an
ornamental draughtsman, who flourished about
1624. Among his works were twelve plates of
antique foliage for friezes. Many of his designs
were engraved by Odoardo Fialetti.

ZANCHI, Antonio, born at Este in 1639, was
a scholar of the naturalist, Francesco Euschi.
In the Scuola di San Eocco, Venice, is his chief
performance, the 'Prayer of San Eocco.' In the
Academy of Venice there are two of his works,
'Job upbraided by his Wife,' and 'The Prodigal
Son.' A sketch for an ' Assumption of the Virgin '
is in the Uffizi. He died in 1722. Pr. Trevisani
and Pietro Negri were his pupils.

ZANDEE, Cheistoph Eduahd, painter and
architect, was born at Eadegast, in Anhalt, in
1843. He was first brought up to farming, but
abandoned that pursuit to study painting at Munich.
In 1847 he joined Dr. Schimper at Antitscho in
Abyssinia. He assisted the latter in his scientific
pursuits, and made drawings of animals, plants,
costumes, and landscapes. The regent Ubi6 en-
nobled him, and gave him command of the artillery
in the battle of Debela against King Theodore.
After the battle, however, Zander went over to
Theodore, who made him governor of the fortified
island of Gregora, and guardian of the treasury
and archives ; in 1868 he was made Minister of
War, but died in September of the same year
at Mulkutto.

ZANETTI, Gonte Antonio Maria, sometimes
called GlEOLAMO to distinguish him from his
nephew, was a Venetian nobleman, celebrated
both foT his collections of works of art and for his
own work as an amateur engraver. He was born


at Venice about 1680, and was taught drawing as
an accomplishment. At the age of fourteen he
etched a set of twelve original plates, representing
heads and figures, which he dedicated to Dr. Mead.
He afterwards travelled in Italy, France, and Eng-
land, studying the best collections in each country.
With the assistance of others, he published a great
number of engravings on wood, in chiaroscuro, a
process which he is said to have re-discovered
from the drawings of Eaphael, Parmigiano, and
other masters, many of which he had purchased
at the sale of the Arundel Collection. These cuts
are divided into two sets, and altogether consist of
nmety-nine prints, with the portrait of Zanetti
engraved by Faldoni after Eosalba, as frontispiece.
Zanetti was also a writer upon art. He died at
Venice in 1757. He marked his prints with a
monogram, composed of an A, an M-, and a Z,

thus, _^L' Besides those already named, we

have the following etchings by him :

A series of Biblical and Mythological subjects.
A set of twelve plates ; after B. Castiglione.
A coUeetion of Public Statues in Venice.

ZANETTI, Antonio Maria, ' il giovane,' some-
times called Alessandro to distinguish him from
his uncle, was the nephew of the last named, and
was born at Venice about the year 1716. He was
librarian of St. Mark, and was not less distin-
guished than his uncle for his love of art. In
1760 he published a set of eighty plates, de-
signed and etched by himself, from the works of
the Venetian painters, entitled ' Varie Pitture a
fresco de' principali Maestri Veneziani,' &c., and
also assisted his uncle in engravings from the
Venice statues. The work, however, by which he
IS best known, is his ' Pittura Veueziana,' a history
of painting in Venice, in five books (Venice, 1771).
He died in 1778.

ZANETTI, DoMENico, a Bolognese painter, who
worked at the Electoral Court of Diisseldorf at
the beginning of the 18th century. In the Munich
Pinakothek there is a ' Deposition ' by him.

ZANETTO. See Buqatti.

ZANGANELLI (Zaqanelli). See Dei Zaga-


ZANI, Giovanni Battista, was a native of
Bologna, and a scholar of Giovanni Andrea Sirani.
He endeavoured, about the middle of the 17tli
century, to form a collection of etchings from the
works of the most eminent Bolognese painters,
and for that purpose had completed the drawings
from the cloisters of San Michele in Bosco, but
died young before the etchings were finished.
There is but one print known by him, which is of
great rarity ; it is a ' Glory,' after L. Carracoi.

ZANIMBEETI, Filippo, (or Zanibbeti,) was
born at Brescia in 1585, and brought up in Venice,
in the school of Santa Peranda. He painted history
in the style of his master, and pictures by him
are in the churches of Brescia and Venice, notably
a large 'Miracle of the Manna,' at Santa Maria
Nuova in the latter city. He also painted easel
pictures, historical and fabulous subjects, into
which he introduced a great number of small
figures. He died in 1636.

ZANNICHELLI, Peospeeo, a theatrical painter,
born 1698, died 1772, who flourished at Eeggio.


ZANOBEIO. See Cablevaeiis.

ZANOTTI. See Cavazzohi Zanotti.





ZANOTTO. See Bugatti.

ZANUSI, Jakob, was born in the Tyrol about
1700, and studied in Venice. He became court
painter to the Archbishop of Salzburg, and executed
some historical pictures, including an altar-piece at
Salzburg, and several portraits of the Firmian
family at the Castle of Leopoldskron. He died
at Salzburg in 1755.

ZAPPI. See Fontana, Lavinia.

ZARA, LoKENZO da. See Lnzzi.

ZARATO. See L0zzi.

ZARINENA, Fbancisco, was born, according to
Palomino, about the year 1550. He went to Italy
when he was young, where he was a scholar of the
elder Ribalta. His principal works were altar-pieces
for Valenoian churches. He died in 1624, leaving
two sons, Cristobal and Juan, who were his
disciples, and painted history in the style of their
father. Cristobal died at Valencia in 1622, and
Juan in 1634. Several of their works are in the
public buildings of Valencia.

ZARLATTI, GiosEFFO, an engraver, was born at
Modena about the year 1635, and died very young.
We have a few original etchings by him, of historical
and fancy subjects, executed with much spirit.

ZASING-ER. See Zatzingeh.

ZATZINGER,MARTlN,(or MATHEUs),a goldsmith-
engraver, working at Munich about the year 1500.
Much doubt exists as to his identity, there having
been other masters contemporary with him, to

whom the monogram SA.'X) or ^^3^. ^^'^
which certain prints from metal of the early Ger-
man school are signed, may also be ascribed,
namely, Matheus Zinck and Matheus Ztindt (q. v.),
and one Mathes Zwikopf, a goldsmith of Munich,
to whom Nagler is inclined to assign the prints
initialed m. z. The names Zagel, Zuiglee, Zei-
SINGER, have also been suggested. Duplessis and
Thausing, however, speak confidently of the master
M. Z. as Mathseus Zasinger, or Zatzinger. The
earliest date on his existing works is 1600, and he
is thought not to have been alive after 1509. The
master M. Z. is also said to have been a painter
and pupil of Wolgemut. The following prints
assigned to him are in the British Museum :

1. Solomon adoriog Idols. (Dated 1501.)

2. Virgin and Child (' Mater Amabilis '). (Dated 1501.)

3. The Beheading of St. John Baptist.

4. St. Christopher.

5. St. George and the Dragon.

6. The Martyrdom of St. Barbara.

7. The Martyrdom of St. Catharine of Alexandria.

8. St. Catharine of Alexandria,

9. St. Margaret.

10. St. Ursula.

11. Entertainment at the Court of Munich, given by the
Grand Duke Albreoht IV. (Dated 1500.)

12. The Great Tournament at Munich in 1500.

13. The King's Sons shooting at the Dead Body of
their Father; or, The Trial of Filial Affection.
(Erroneously described by Bartsch as a 'Martyrdom
of St. Sebastian.')

14. The Subjugation of Man by Woman.

15. The Embrace. (Dated 1503.)

16. The Two Lovers.

17. A Lady and Gentleman together on Horseback.

18. A Rencontre.

19. Soldiers and Military Band.

20. "Warriors conversing.

21. Life and Death ; an Allegory.

22. Light and Darkness ; an Allegory. (Dated 1500.)

23. Sensuality and its Cost (?). p^ g^

ZAUFFELY, Johann, generally called Zoffany,
was born at Ratisbon in 1733. His father, de-

scended from a Bohemian family, was architect to
the Prince of Thurn and Taxis. Zofiany was first
instructed by Speer, in his native city. He is said to
have run away to Rome at the age of thirteen, to
carry on his studies in painting, but it seems that his
father continued to befriend him, and he remained
in Italy altogether twelve years. On returning
to Germany he made an unhappy marriage, which
led him in 1768 to come to England. Here, however,
he for some time met with so little encouragement,
that he was reduced to great distress. At last a
portrait he painted of the Earl of Barrymore
caused Lord Bute to recommend hin; to the Royal
Family. He soon afterwards began to acquire
fame by his portraits of actors in character, which
are admirable for their truth and vivacity of ex-
pression. Of these, the best, perhaps, were Garrick
as ' Abel Drugger,' Foote and Weston as ' Dr.
Last,' and Foote as ' Major Sturgeon.' The first of
these was exhibited with the Incorporated Society
of Artists in 1762. ZofEany was also a member
of the St. Martin's Lane Academy, and in 1769
was admitted to the newly established Royal
Academy, of which he painted many portraits
of the members. He also painted a group of
the Roj'al Family, and on its completion engaged
to accompany Sir Joseph Banks upon Captain
Cook's voyage, but threw up his engagement
from dissatisfaction with the cabin allotted him, and
finding this displeasing to many friends who had
given him commissions, as well as financially em-
barrassing, he resolved to proceed a third time to
Italy. King George III. gave him an introduction
to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and he was also
assisted by a present of £300. While in Florence
he painted his Interior of the Florentine Gallery,
now in the Royal Collection. Maria Theresa sent
him a commission to paint for her the Royal Family
of Tuscany, which led to liis going in 1778 to
Vienna, and being there raised to the rank of a
baron of the empire. He passed through Coblentz
to England in 1779, Four years later he met with
an opportunity to go to India, where he acquired a
competent fortune by the exercise of his talents.
Although he continued to paint after his return
from India, in 1790, it was evident that his mental
powers and his general health were weakened, and
his later productions exhibit little of the vigour
which characterizes his early works. He died at
Strand-on-the-Green, near Kew, November 11, 1810,
There are some portrait groups by him in the Royal
Collecton ; the College of Physicians possesses a
'Dr, W. Hunter, M.D., delivering a lecture on
anatomy before the Royal Academy ; ' in the Diploma
Gallery at Burlington House there is more than
one interior of a painting school which may be
ascribed to him. Sir G. Beaumont has two theatrical
groups by Zoffany ('Parsons and two others in
"The Kaiser,"' and 'Garrick and King in
"Lethe"') in which the landscape background
is by Richard Wilson. His best known Indian
pictures are ' Col. Mordaunt's Cock Fight,'
' The Embassy of Hyder-Beck,' and ' The Tiger

ZAVATTARI, Francesco, a Milanese painter of
the 15th century, was also by trade a glazier. Aided
by his brother, Cristoforo Zavattari, he executed
in 1444 a series of forty scenes from the legend of
Queen Theodolinda in the chapel of Santa Maria
del Rosario, in the cathedral of Monza, which,
although much faded, are still decipherable. Their
authorship is attested by the following inscription:




Saspice qui transis ut vivos corpore valtus
Peneque spirantes et sigua Bimillima verbis
De Zavattaris hac ornavere capellam
Preter in excelsum convexe picta triune. 1444.

In spite of this many writers ascribe the frescoes
in question to Troso da Monza. In 1453 both
brothers were at work in the Certosa of Pavia.

ZAVATTARI, Gregoeio, whose name frequently
occurs in the annals of Milan, is known to have
been employed on the decorations of the sanctuary
at Caravaggio previous to 1477.

ZAWORZIC. See Sceeta.

ZAYSINGER. See Zatzinger.

ZE. See De Zb.

ZEELANDER, Abkaham, engraver, born at
Amsterdam in 1789, was a pupil of J. B. Marcus.
He engraved plates after Gerard Dou, Brondgeest,
Noel and B. van Overbeck ; and six original land-
scapes with figures. He was for many years
occupied in making a set of outline engravings
from pictures in the possession of William II. of

ZEEMAN, Enoch. See Seeman.

ZEEMANN. See Nooms, Remiqius.

ZEEDW. See Marinus de Zeeuw.

ZEGELAAR, Gereit van, a deaf and dumb
painter, born at Loenen, near Utrecht, in 1719,
painted interiors and portraits. He practised at
Amsterdam, but died at Wageningen in 1794.

ZEGHEES, Daniel, (Segees, &c.,) was born at
Antwerp in 1590. He was first a pupil of his

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 193 of 201)