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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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father, Pieter Zeghees, but his taste led him to
flowers and fruit, and he became a disciple of Jan
Brueghel, who at that time painted those subjects.
He was admitted a master of the Guild in 1611 ;
but in 1614 he became a Jesuit, and abandoned
painting during his novitiate. When tliis expired,
he obtained permission to visit Rome, where his
brother Gerard had already made a name. After
a time Zeghers returned home, and his reputation
grew rapidly. Many princes sought his works,
and his convent grew rich by meeting their
wishes. He was the friend of Rubens, for whom
he frequently painted garlands and borders of
flowers around portraits and historical subjects.
His chef d'oeuvre, perhaps, is the garland about
a Virgin and Child, by Rubens, in the Jesuits'
church at Antwerp. Others with whom he colla-
borated in the same fashion were Erasmus Quellinus
the younger, Gornelis Schut, and Abraham van
Diepenbeeck. Many of his garlands, with medal-
lions by contemporary artists, were painted for
Jesuit colleges and chapels, and on the suppression
of the order, the best of these were transported to
the Imperial Gallery in Vienna. Others were sold
at low prices by the Austrian Government. Zeghers
himself cultivated the flowers which served him
for models, and he gave to his imitations the
beauty, brilliancy, and variety with which nature
had clothed the originals. He died at Antwerp in
1661. The following galleries possess examples
of his work : Antwerp, Berlin, Brussels, Bologna,
Copenhagen, Dresden, Dulwich (a very fine one),
Florence (tJffizi), the Hague, Madrid, Munich,
Rotterdam, and Vienna.

ZEGHERS, Geeaed, (Seghees, &c.,) the brother
of Daniel Zeghers, was born at Antwerp in 1591.
He was first a scholar of Hendrik van Balen, but
afterwards studied under Abraham Janssens, and
in Italy. On his arrival at Rome, he became a
disciple of Bartolommeo Manfredi, who had studied
under Caravaggio, He painted street musicians,



soldiers at cards, and so forth, in Caravaggio's
manner. He had won some notoriety by his pro-
ductions of that description, when he was carried
by Cardinal Zapara, the Spanish ambassador at
Rome, to the court of Madrid. He then entered
the service of the Spanish king. For him Zeghers
painted historical subjects, and musical convers-
ations, which were greatly admired ; but after
some years at Madrid (between 1610 and 1620)
the desire to revisit his native country induced
him to seek permission to return to Flanders. On
his arrival at Antwerp, he painted some pictures
for the churches in imitation of the style of Cara-
vaggio, but they were not so favourably received
by the public as he expected. It is asserted by
D'Argenville, and after him by Deschamps, that
Zeghers visited England ; but this statement rests
on no other authority, nor is Zeghers mentioned by
Walpole. Van Dyok painted his portrait, which
Pontius engraved ; another, painted by himself,
was engraved by Pieter de Jode. He died at
Antwerp, March 17, 1651. His works are fairly
numerous; the best, perhaps, are the 'Marriage
of the Virgin ' at Antwerp, and ' Christ in the
House of Martha and Mary' at Madrid. Others
are in the Louvre, and in the museums of Rotter-
dam, Brussels, Ghent, Vienna, &c.

ZEGHERS, Herkules, (Seghees, or Segees,)
a Dutch painter of landscapes and animals, who
must not be confused with the Flemish artists
of the same name. He was born about 1625.
That he was a favourite with Rembrandt may
be gathered from the fact that no less than six
of his landscapes occur in the inventory of that
master's efEeots, taken under the law process
of 1656. It is said that he invented a method
of engraving and printing landscapes in colours
on cloth ; and also that in 1660 he practised what
is now called aquatint. In the British Museum
there are prints from nineteen etchings by this
artist. One was adopted by Waterloo, with the
addition of some foliage to the trees. In the
French National Library there are three more
etchings by him, and in the Dresden collection
fifteen. Zeghers abandoned himself to drink, and
is said to have lost his life in consequence by a
fall. He died about 1679.

ZEGHERS, Jan Baptist, painter, the son of
Gerard Zeghers, was born at Antwerp in 1624.
He was received into the Guild of St. Luke in 1646,
as the son of a master, and in 1649 he was working
at Vienna, under the patronage of the Duke of
Amalfi, who, on the return of the artist to his
native country, warmly recommended him to the
Governor of the Netherlands, the Archduke Leopold.
He was Dean of the Guild of St. Luke in 1669, and
died in 1670 or 1671.

ZEHENDER, Kael Ltjdwig, (or Zehnter,) a
Swiss painter and engraver, was born at Gerzensee
in 1751. In 1769 he went to Paris, and was ap-
pointed designer to the Duke of Ohartres. He
painted landscapes in water-colour, as well as
battles, popular subjects, and scenes from Swiss
history ; among the latter ' The Death of Winkel-
ried ' and ' The Condemnation of Tell.' He died at
Berne in 1814.

ZEI, , a native of Citti San Sepolcro, and

supposed scholar of Cortona, flourished about the
beginning of the 18th century, and painted an
altar-piece for the cathedral of his native place,
representing the liberating Angel visiting the Souls
in Purgatory.

743



Zeiller



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Zeuxis



ZEILLER. Thia was the name of a family of
painters of Reutte in the Tyrol, in the 17th and 18th
centuries.

ZEILLER, Fbanz Anton, was born in 1716.
He was Paul's second son. He studied under
Holzer and Gotz at Augsburg, under Corrado at
Rome, and under Ricci at Venice. After his return
home he worked chiefly for Tyrolese churches. He
died after 1794.

ZEILLER, JoHANN Jakob, was born in 1710, and
was also Paul's son. 'He studied under Conca at
Rome, and under Solimena at Naples. He long
worked in the former city, where he became a
member of the Academy. He painted in fresco
for various monasteries and for the churches of
Reutte and its vicinity. He died in 1783.

ZEILLER, Paul, was born at Reutte in 1653.
He studied under Calabrese in Rome, and then
returned to Reutte and painted for churches there
and in other parts of the Tyrol. He died in 1736.
' ZEISIQ, JoHANN Eleazae, (called Sohenau, or
Schonau,) a German painter and engraver, was
born at Gross Schonau, near Zittau, in or soon
after 1737. He ran away from his father's house
to Dresden, where he combined work as a lawyer's
clerk with the study of art. He was at last
helped by Bessler to enter the Academy, where he
attracted Silvestre's attention, and was by him
taken to Paris in 1766. After many vicissitudes,
he was, in 1770, invited back to Dresden. Two
years later he was appointed director of the school
of design at the Meissen porcelain manufactory ; in
1774 he became professor at Dresden ; and, in 1777,
jointly with Casanova, director of the Dresden
Academy. In 1772 he painted an 'Allegory upon
the Recovery of the Electreaa,' and, in 1790, a
' Crucifixion ' for the Kreuzkirche. He also painted
numerous genre pictures, and etched a set of twelve
plates, with a frontispiece inscribed ' Achetez mes
petites eaux fortes k la douzaine ' (1765). He died
at Dresden in 1806.

ZEITBLOM, Baetholomaus, (or Zeytblom,) a
German painter of Ulm, of whom personally
all that is known is that in 1483 he married a
daughter of Hans Schiichlin, becoming thereby
connected with Martin SchaSner, and that his
death took place in or after 1518. His name occurs
in the civic records of Ulm from 1484 to 1518. It
is said that he was a pupil of Schongauer, and his
works show the influence of both the Eranconian
and Augsburg schools, modified, however, by the
originality of his own genius. In sincerity, sim-
plicity, and purity of feeling, he is, says Waagen,
' of all painters the most thoroughly German.'
(For ' German,' Woermann would here substitute
'Swabian.') His forms are sometimes awkward,
the arms and legs meagre and stifE, but the heads
beautiful, with an expression of mild serenity and
repose ; his colour is rich and harmonious, his
draperies are full of dignity and skilfully cast. The
latest date on any of liis authentic pictures is 1504,
on a picture of the Pope-saint, Alexander, at
Augsburg. Works :

Augsburg. Gallery. Four panels from the Legend

of S. Valentine.

Berlin. Museum, Angels holding up the Suda-

rium (the back of a triptych
formerly at Eschach, the
wings of ■which are in the
Stuttgart Gallery).
» „ S. Peter.

ni=;^ TT?''°' 1 Monasterv. { '^^^. ™g^ ."* ^'^^ ''^'•"'^ '>^t^>^-
near Ulm. J " \ piece, pan



, painted on both sides,



with scenes from the Passion
and from the life of S. John
Baptist. Figures of Saints
at the back of the Shrine.
Bingen, near Sigmaringen. Two altar- wings.
Carlsruhe. Gallery. S. Virgilius of Salzburg, and S.

Laurence.
„ „ S. Maurice and S. Sebastian.

„ „ A Priest elevating the Host,

surrounded by Saints and
Angels.
„ „ Allegory of the Church Mili-

tant and the Church Tri-
umphant.
Munich. Pinakothek. S. Bridget.

„ „ S. Margaret and S. Ursula (two

companion panels, formerly
in the MoritzkapeUe at
Nuremberg).
Sigmaringen. Pracc) Eight panels with scenes from
Sohenzollem's Coll. J the Life of the Virgin (for-
merly at Pf uUendorf ) .
Stuttgart. Gallery. Sixteen pictures, among them

an altar-piece from the
Church of the Hospice in
the Kocherthal — the Na-
tivity and Presentation — with
portrait of the master at the
back of the shrine, signed,
and dated 1497.
Other pictures at Nuremberg (Germanic Museum),
Nbrdlingen, Ulm, Donaueschingen. In the ' Archiv
fiir die zeichnenden Kunste,' for 1860, Harzen
ascribes a series of old Netherlandish (?) prints,
of which facsimiles exist in the British Museum, to
Zeitblom. These prints have given rise to much
discussion, but their ascription to Zeitblom is not
generally accepted. p, g,

ZEITTER, John L., a German painter naturalized
in England. He painted chiefly Polish and Hun-
garian scenery, and domestic subjects. Between
1832 and 1862 he exhibited three hundred and
nineteen pictures at the British Institution, and
with the Society of British Artists. Of the latter
body he was elected a member in 1841. He died
in London in 1862.

ZELLER, Anton, a German painter, of whose
life no details can be learnt. He was at work in
Dresden about the middle of the 18th century, and
he is mentioned in Bavarian documents of 1785.
There is a picture by liim in the Schleissheim
Gallery, and in that of Darmstadt, two copies, one
after Mengs, the other after Guido Reni. The
subject of the Schleissheim picture is a school-
master reading a paper to a circle of listeners.
ZELOTTI. See Farinati, Giov. Batt.
ZENALE. See Martini, Beenabdino.
ZENOBRIO, LucA di CA. See Caelbvaeiis.
ZENOI, DoMENico, (or Zenoni,) was an Italian
engraver, who flourished about the year 1570. He
worked in a style resembling that of Marco da
Ravenna, and is supposed to have been a disciple
of that master. He engraved a set of portraits
entitled, ' Illustrium Jurisoonsultorum Imagines.'
ZEREZO. See Ceeezo.
ZETTER, Paul de. See De Zettee.
ZEUXIS, the most distinguished painter of anti-
quity, was a native of Heracleia, whether the one in
Lower Italy or that on the shores of the Black Sea
is uncertain. It is stated that he was bom in the
78th Olympiad (B.C. 464-60), and died B.C. 396.
He was probably a disciple of Apollodorus ; it is at
least certain that they lived in habits of intimacy,
and Pliny informs us that Apollodorus wrote some
verses in praise of his talents, in which he complains
that " the art of painting had been stolen from him,



Zevio



f AINTEKS AND ENGRAVEfiS.



Siesenis



and that it was Zeuxis who committed the theft."
He did not, like Polygnotus, occupy his talents in
large compositions, but confined himself to single
figures, and was particularly successful in the
beautiful forms of his women. He preferred the
sensuous beauty of the Asiatic school to the strict
idealism of the painter just named. Amongst his
principal works, Phny mentions a picture of
Penelope, in which he seemed to have expressed
the mind of that princess. The Crotonians having
commissioned him to paint a picture of Helen, he
selected five of the most beautiful young women of
the city, and uniting in his single figure what-
ever was most perfect in his models, produced a
work of surpassing loveliness. The subject was
taken from'the passage in the ' Iliad ' where Helen
passes before the Trojan elders assembled at the
Scsean Gate. The painter Nicomachus seeing this
picture some time afterwards, could not restrain
the expression of liis admiration, when a bystander,
not equally capable of appreciating its excellence,
demanded what he saw in the picture to excite
such sensations. " Ah," replied the painter, " take
my eyes, and she will appear to you a goddess 1 "
A picture of ' The Centaur Family ' was another of
his best productions, but it gave rise to the remark
of Lucian that Zeuxis chose his subjects for their
singularity ; it is stated, however, that he withdrew
this very picture from exhibition on finding that
its sensational character blinded observers to its
artistic merits.

The story told by Pliny of the competition
between Zeuxis and Parrhasius, though very gener-
ally known, must not be omitted here. Zeuxis
painted a bunch of grapes with such truth to
nature that birds came and pecked it. Parrhasius
then produced his picture, which appeared to be
concealed under a curtain ; but upon his rival
calling upon him to remove this, it turned out on
inspection that the curtain was the picture itself.
Zeuxis at once confessed himself defeated, observ-
ing that though he had deceived the birds, Parrha-
sius had deceived the author of that deception.
In another instance, Zeuxis is related to have
painted a boy with grapes, which the birds again
pecked at, but this time the artist was mortified at
the result, declaring that if he had painted the boy
as naturally as the grapes, the birds would not
have dared to approach them

Zeuxis also painted an ' Assembly of the Gods,'
' Jupiter,' ' Hercules strangling the Serpent,'
'Cupid crowned with Roses,' 'Marsyas Bound,'
'Pan,' 'Alcmene,' 'Menelaus,' 'An Athlete,' and
' An Old Woman.' He decorated the palace of the
Macedonian king, Archelaus, with pictures, but
most of his best works were carried to Rome, and
thence to Constantinople, where they perished.
From the total omission of his name by Pausanias,
it seems clear that they must all have been dis-
persed and lost sight of even before that writer's
time.

ZEVIO, A. DA. See Altichibko.

ZEVIO, Stefano da. See under Stefano da
Verona.

ZEYL. SeeZiJL.

ZEYSINGBR. See Zatsingee.

ZEYTBLOM. See Zeitblom.

ZIARUKO, John, was a native of Poland, and
was probably a painter. We have by him a set of
large original etchings, representing the ceremonies
at the coronation of Louis XIII. of France.

ZICK, Janhaeius, was bom at Munich in 1733,



or 1734. He was at first a pupil of his father,
Johann Ziok, but in 1757 he went to Basle and then
to Rome, where he became acquainted with Rafael
Mengs. On his return he was, in 1761, appointed
court painter at Coblentz. He also painted exten-
sively in the churches of Upper Swabia, and in
Biberach. He died at Ehrenbreitstein in 1797.

ZICK, Johann, painter, was bom at Ottobeuern
in 1702, and died at Bruohsal in 1762. He studied
in Venice, and worked as a decorative painter in
the Castles of Bruohsal and Wurzburg.

ZIEBEELEIN. See Zubeelein.

ZIEGLER, Claude Jules, a French historical
and portrait painter, born at Langres, March 16,
1804. He worked in the atelier of Ingres, and
subsequently studied fresco under Cornelius at
Munich. His pictures began to appear at the Salon
in 1830, and he soon acquired sufficient reputation
to be intrusted with large decorative works in the
Madeleine. These occupied him from 1835 to
1838. _ He subsequently devoted considerable
attention to ceramic art, and in 1850 published
'Etudes C^ramiques.' There is also a report by
him on Photography at the Paris Exhibition of
1855. In his later years he held the position of
director of the Dijon Academy and Museum. He
died in Paris, December 25, 1856. Amongst his
pictures are :

Amiens. S£tel de Ville. The Peace of Amiens.

Dijon. Museum. ' Les Pasteurs.'

1, „ A Summer Shower.

Lyons. „ Judith. 1847.

Nancy. „ St. George.

Versailles. Palace. Louis XIT. receiving Cardinal

Chigi.

„ „ Comte de Saucerre.

„ „ Various portraits.

ZIEGLER, Henby Bkyan, an English landscape
and genre painter, born in 1798. He was a pupil
of the elder Varley, and exhibited a large number
of works between 1814 and 1874 at the Royal
Academy, the British Institution, and the Society
of British Artists. His latter years were spent at
Ludlow, where he died, August 15, 1874.

ZIEGLER, Johann, designer and engraver, was
bom at Vienna in 1750, and studied at the
Academy there. In conjunction with Karl Schiitz
he brought out a series of fifty etched and coloured
views of that city and its neighbourhood, with
figures in national costumes. He also produced u
series of similar views from the Austrian provinces.
He died at Vienna in 1812.

ZIEGLER, Johann Christian, landscape painter,
was born at Wunsiedl in 1803. He chiefly painted
forest and mountain scenes. He died in 1833.

ZIESEL, Georges FsfiDiiRlc, painter, was born at
Hoogstraeten, near Antwerp, in 1766. He painted
flower-pieces, and occasionally miniatures, brilliant
in colour and delicately finished. He settled at
Antwerp in 1770, and became a close friend of
Pieter Faes and of Ommeganck. He died at
Antwerp in 1809. In the Antwerp Museum there
is a picture of flowers, grapes, and gold-fish on a
marble table by him.

ZIESENIS, Johan Geoeg, was born at Copen-
hagen in 1716. He studied under his father, an
obscure Danish painter, and at the Diisseldorf
Academy. He afterwards became court painter
to the Elector of Hanover. He died at Hanover
in 1777. He worked also at Berlin, Brunswick,
&q., and in 1768 was invited to the Hague, where
he joined the Pictura Society, and painted several

745



Zifrondi



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONABY OP



Zimmermaua



portraits of the Stadtholder William V. and of his
wife. An example of the former is in the E.
Museum, at Amsterdam.

ZIFRONDI, Antonio, (or Cifeondi,) was born,
according to Tassi, at Clusone, in the Bergamese,
in 1657. After being taught the rudiments of
design, he went to Bologna, where he entered the
school of Maro-Antonio Franoeschini, and became
a reputable painter of history. One of his best
works is an ' Annunciation ' in the church of San
Spirito at Clusone, and there are many others in
the churches and private collections there. He
worked for a time in France, with little success.
He died in 1730.

ZIGNANI, Maroo, a Florentine engraver, who
died in 1829. He was a pupil of R. Morghen, and
engraved many plates after Italian masters, among
the best an 'Adoration of the Shepherds,' after
Casolano, and an ' Enthroned Madonna,' after Bres-
cianino.

ZIJDERWELD, Willem, a Dutch painter, was
born at Amsterdam in 1796. In the Haarlem
Museum there is a picture by him representing
Jan van Oldenbarnevelt presenting to Arent Meyn-
dertsz Fabricius the silver-gilt cup voted to the
latter by the States of Holland for his services at
the siege of Ostend. Zijderweld died at Amsterdam,
24 December, 1846.

ZIJL, Geeaekd Pieteesz van, (Ztl, or Zeyl,)
called Gbrakds, and Ghbbaed van Leyden, was
born in Holland in 1606. He distinguished him-
self as a portrait painter, and visited England
in that capacity about the year 1635, when Van
Dyok was in full possession of the public favour.
He formed an intimate acquaintance with that
artist, who occasionally employed him to assist in
draperies and backgrounds. He also painted con-
versations. By the frequent opportunities he had
of profiting by the example and instruction of Van
Dyck, he became a successful imitator of his style;
and after a residence of a few years in London, he
returned (1641) to Amsterdam, where he met with
extensive employment, and was called ' the Little
Van Dyok.' Like that master, he excelled in paint-
ing hands, and his colour is clean. He died in
1667. The ' Departure of the Prodigal ' is stated
by Houbraken to have been his best work. The
Copenhagen Gallery possesses an 'Assembly of
Ladies and Gentlemen dancing ' by him.

ZIJLVELT, Adam, or Anton, van, (Zylvelt,
Sylvelt, &c.,) draughtsman and engraver, was
born at Amsterdam about the year 1643. He
imitated the style of Jan Vissoher with some suc-
cess. He engraved a set of plates after Johann
Lingelbach, representing (seaports, &c. We have
also several portraits by him, some of which are
original. We may name the following :

Dirk Volkertsz Cuerenhert, Engraver.

Btlenne le Moine, Doctor in Theology at Leyden.

Christoph Wibtichius, Professor of the University of

Leyden.
Herman "Witsius, Professor of Theology at Franecter.
Comelis Bosch.

ZILOTTI, DoMENioo Beenardo, was born at
Borso, near Bassano, in 1730, and studied at Venice,
where he afterwards settled. He painted land-
scapes in the style of Francesco Zuooarelli, which
are not without merit. There are several etchings
by Zilotti, some original, others after Simonini,
Mariesohi, and others. He died in 1780.

ZIMBRECHT. See Simbeecht.

ZIMMER, Samuel, draughtsman and painter,



was born at Hamburg in 1751. He was the pupil
successively of Koch, Richard, and J. J. Tischbein ;
he also studied law at Rostock and Gbttingen. He
produced many illustrations of natural history, and
was in 1790 appointed drawing master to Gottingen
University. He died in 1818.

ZIMMERMAN, Clemens von, historical painter,
was born at Diisseldorf in 1788 ; he studied in his
native town under Langer, and in 1808 he accom-
panied his master to Munich, where he entered
the Academy. In 1815 he went to Augsburg,
where he was appointed professor and director of
the school of art. Ten years later he became
professor at the Munich Academy. He assisted
Cornelius in his frescoes at the Glyptothek, and
was also engaged on decorative work in the
colonnades of the Hofgarten, in the corridor of the
Pinakothek, and in the dining-hall of the Residenz.
He died at Munich in 1869. The Pinakothek con-
tains two of his pictures — ' Cimabue finding Giotto
sketching a Lamb,' and ' Pilgrims to Loretto from
the Roman Campagna.' He painted a large num-
ber of portraits, among them those of Queen
Hortense and of King Max I. of Bavaria, and
etched and lithographed many views of Rome. ,

ZIMMERMANN, Heineich Wilhelm, portrait
painter, was born at Dantzic in 1805. In 1828
he went to Vienna, and thence, in 1835, to Paris,
where he placed himself under Delaroche. While
in Paris he painted his ' Sabbath Morning in
Styria,' a large work with twenty-six figures. On
his return to Dantzic he practised chiefly as a
portrait painter. He died at Dantzic in 1841.

ZIMMERMANN, Joseph Anton, engraver, was
born at Augsburg about 1705, and studied at the
Munich Academy under Storkel. In 1753 he was
appointed court engraver to the Elector. He died
at Munich in 1796. His chief work was a series
of portraits of princes and princesses from originals
in the various Bavarian castles.

ZIMMERMANN, Karl Feiedeich, draughtsman
and painter, was born at Berlin in 1793, and studied
under Weitsch and Schadow. In 1814 he fought
as a volunteer in the French campaign, and drew
a number of battle scenes. He afterwards painted
in oil, choosing both domestic and military scenes,
and architectural subjects. His best productions,
however, are a set of designs in illustration of
' Faust,' in the possession of Prince Eadziwill. He
was drowned in the Loisach, near Wolferathshausen,
in 1820.

ZIMMERMANN, Max, (August Maximilian.)
painter and lithographer, was born at Zittau, in
Saxony, July 7, 1811. His father, the impresario
Zimmermann, brought him up as a musician, but
in his leisure he practised lithography. At the
age of twenty-three he abandoned music to devote
himself entirely to lithography, and joining Iiis
brother Albert in Munich, studied drawing under
his direction. He finally took to landscape paint-
ing, which he practised with some success. His
subjects were chiefly forest scenes, studies of trees,
and the like. The New Pinakothek at Munich has
three of his pictures. He died at Munich in 1878.

ZIMMERMANN, Michael, was, according to
Papillon, a native of Vienna, and flourished about
the year 1550. He is said to have engraved a



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 194 of 201)