Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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In 1738 be was appointed engraver to the Elector
of Saxony, and was employed to execute several
plates for the Dresden Gallery collection. Zani
says he died in 1779 ; Ticozzi, in 1783. The
following are among his best plates :

The Seven Sacraments ; after Spagnoletto.

The Martyrdom of St. Peter and St. Paul ; after Nic.

delV Ahhate.
The Crowning of St. Catharine ; after Rubens.
A Sacrifice to Venus ; after Ger. Lairesse.
The Flaying of Marsyas ; after Langhetti.
The Tribute-Money ; after Titian.
David with the Head of Goliath ; after Luc. Giordano.

ZUCCO, Francesco, was bom at Bergamo,
about the end of the 16th century. He studied
under the Campi at Cremona, and with Pietro
Moroni at Bergamo. He painted history and por-
traits, and imitated Paolo Veronese with such
success that his works have often passed for the
productions of that master. A ' Nativity,' and an
'Adoration of the Magi,' in the church of San
Gottardo, at Bergamo, especially recall Cagliari.
Zucco died in 1627.

ZUCCOLI, Luigi, an Italian subject painter of
the 19th century. He was a native of Milan, and
a member of the Academy there. His works,
which were chiefly scenes from Italian domestic
life, won considerable popularity beyond his
native country. He came to England in 1860,
and lived here for five years : he sent a scene
from the Revolution of 1848 at Milan to the 1862
Exhibition, and also occasionally exhibited at the
Royal Academy between 1864 and 1871. He
died at Milan, after a short illness, on January 7,

ZUGNI, Francesco, (or Giugni,) was born at
Brescia about 1559, and was a scholar of Palma
Giovine. He was inferior to his master in design,
but surpassed him in impasto and colour. He
excelled in fresco, and frequently painted figures in
the architectural perspectives of 'Tommaso Sandrino.




One of Zugni's best pictures is ' Tiie Circumcision,'
in the cliurch of Santa Maria delle Grazie, at
Venice. He died in 1621.

ZUMPE, Johannes, was born in 1819, and studied
at Leipsio under Hans Veit Schnorr, under Neher
at Stuttgart, and lastly under Julius Schnorr at
Dresden. He went to Italy on a pension from
the Dresden Academy, and studied the works of
Cornelius. He died at Dresden in 1864. Among
his chief productions were cartoons for the windows
in the abbey church at Stuttgart, a drawing of
'Parnassus' for the Leipsic Art Union, and the
decorative designs for the Loggie of the Dresden

ZUM RING. See Ring.

ZtlNDT, Matthias, (or Zynndt,) an engraver,
was born at Nuremberg in 1498, and died in 1586.
He worked with both the graver and point, and
produced portraits, Scripture subjects, allegories,
and crests. Brulliot mentions an etching with a
mark supposed to be his ; it represents a Vase
with figures of Tritons, standing on sea-horses'
feet, and surmounted by a figure of Neptune.
Bartsch describes these three prints by him :

Portrait of Giovanni de Baleta, Grand Master of the

Knights of Malta. 1566.
Portrait of Louis III. de Bourbon-Oonde. 1568.
View of the city of Grodno, in Lithuania. 1568.

ZUPPELLI, Giovanni Battista, (or Cappellini,)
a native of Cremona, was born about the end of
the 15th century. He painted landscapes, with
subjects from sacred history inserted. He died in

ZURBARAN, Feancisoo, was baptized on No-
vember 7, 1698, which was probably the day of
liis birth. His father was a husbandman, and in-
tended to bring his son up in the same employment ;
but the boy showed so much aptitude for painting
that he was released from the plough, and placed
under the tuition of Juan de Roelas. Under this
master he soon acquired both knowledge and reput-
ation. He determined to strictly follow nature, and
never even to paint a piece of drapery without
the object before him. His admiration of Cara-
vaggio led him to imitate that master's style, and
he won the title of the Spanish Caravaggio. In
1625 he was employed by the Marquis of Malazon to
paint for the chapel of St. Peter in Seville cathedral.
Nearly at the same period he produced his ' St.
Thomas Aquinas ' for the collegiate church of that
saint in Seville. This is one of the finest produc-
tions of the Spanish school. He next painted eleven
scenes from the life of St. Jerome for the Hierony-
mite Friars at Guadalupe, and a few altar-pieces.
On his return to Seville, he painted three pictures
for the Carthusians of Santa Maria de las Cuevas ;
in 1633 he painted several fine pictures for the
Carthusians of Xeres, on one of which he inscribed
his name as painter to the king ; an honour which
he shared with Velazquez. It does not, however,
appear that he was employed at the court till
about 1650, when he was employed to paint the
' Labours of Hercules ' in the Buenretiro. It is
said that Philip IV. often visited him during the
progress of the work, and that one day he expressed
his satisfaction by laying his hand on the painter's
shoulder, and calling him "painter to the king,
and king of painters." Zurbaran died at Madrid,
in 1662, according to Palomino, ' but the date is
uncertain. Among the pupils he formed were the
Palancos and Bernab6 de Ayala. A list of his
more accessible pictures is given below. The

Louvre formerly contained nearly a hundred
pictures by Zurbaran, most of them belonging to
the Spanish Gal!ery of Louis Philippe, which was
dispersed in 1853.


» »

Cadiz. Museum,

Ediuburgh. JVat. Gall.

London. iVa*. Gall.

„ Stafford House.

Madrid. Museum.



Saragossa. Cathedral.

Christ after the Scourging.
SS. Thomas Aquinas and Bona-

Saint Bruno.
The Virgin in Glory.
A Franciscan Monk, kneeling in

Prayer, a SkuU in his Hands.
Virgin and Child, with Infant

St. John. .
The Vision of St. Peter Nolasco.
The Sleep of the Child Jesus.
St. Ca^ilda.
Ten Pictures of the Labours of

Hercules (formerly in the

' Buenretiro ').
St. Francis of Assisi.
St. Peter Nolasco and St. Ray-
mond of Pegnafort.
The Funeral of a Bishop.
St. ApoUonia.
Dead Christ.
Madonna de las Cuevas.
„ „ St. Thomas Aquinas, and the

Four Doctors of the Church,

with Donors.
(And several others.)

ZUSTERMANS. See Sutoermans.

ZUSTRIS. See Sdsteis.

ZWECKER, JoHANN Baptist, painter, was born
at Prankfort-on-the-Main, in 1815. He studied at
Diisseldorf, and in the Art School at Prankfort, and
painted the portraits of Henry I. and Henry VI.
for the 'Kaisersaal,' in his native town. In 1870
he came to London, and practised as an illustrator
of books. He died in London in 1876.

ZWENGAUER, Anton, landscape painter, was
born at Munich, October 11, 1810. He worked
from the antique under Cornelius, but afterwards
turned his attention to landscape, taking many of
his subjects from the Bavarian Highlands and
from Southern Tyrol. In 1853 he was named a
conservator of the Sohleissheim Gallery, and in
1869 of the Munich Pinakothek. He died at
Munich in 1884. His chief works are :

Autumn Landscape, with a Stag in the foreground.

1851. {N'cw Finakotheky Munich.)
Evening on the Alp. 1850. (Bo.)
Sunset, and Stags by a Lake. (Leipsic Museum.)
Two River Landscapes at Sunset. (St, Kensington

Museum^ Townshend Bequest.)

ZWIKOPF. See Zatzingee.

ZWINGER, GusTAV Philipp, painter and etcher,
was born at Nuremberg in 1779. He was the son
and pupil of the painter and engraver Sigmund
Zwingee (1744 — 1813), now chiefly remembered
as a teacher. Gustav completed his studies under
Fijger in Vienna, and returning to his native town,
became in turn professor and director of the Art
School. He was also known as an historical
painter, both in oil and water-colour, and as a
designer of book illustrations. He etched a few
plates and tried his hand at lithography. He died
at Nuremberg in 1819.

ZWOLL, ZWOLLE, or ZWOTT. Great un-
certainty prevails as to the identity of the master
formerly designated by this name. He seems to
have been a goldsmith and engraver, flourishing
at the close of the 15th century. Bartsch calls
him the ' Maltre k la Navette,' or ' Master of the
Weaver's Shuttle,' and gives his name as Zwott.
Other writers have entitled him J. Anoker von,





Zwoll. But the cipher with which the prints
ascribed to him are marked has by recent experts
been declared to be, not a shuttle, but a goldsmith's
scraper or burnisher, and the word Stoott. gener-
ally engrared on the top of the plates, is explained
as being not the name of the artist, but an ab-
breviation of Zwollensis, in allusion to the town
where he resided, namely Zwoll, or Zwolle, in
the province of Overyssel. Tor the name Ancker
there seem to have been no reasonable grounds,
and it has been abandoned. Passavant and other
authorities support the hypothesis that the true
name of the master was Johannes db Colonia, or
John of Cologne, that his style was formed by
the influences of the school of Van Eyck, and that
he is to be identified by a paragraph in a book of
memoirs of the fraternity of Agnetenburg near
Zwolle, which records that about the year 1478 ' a
very pious young man' named John of Cologne,
who was both painter and engraver, was living
with the community, having joined the Brothers
of Common Lot, i.e. the lay section of the fraternity.
The supporters of this theory read the monogram
I. A. M., which usually figures alongside of the
hieroglyph above-mentioned, Johannes Aurifater
Monachus, and we have thus a sufSciently probable
solution of the difficulty. Nagler, however, points
out that the M. could not stand for Monachus, as the
lay brethren were not monks ; and, secondly, that
certain very inferior prints of the late 15th century
exist signed I. C, and marked with the cipher of
a shield with three crowns, the badge of Cologne.
This signature, he contends, is a much more pro-
bable one for the cloister-brother, John of Cologne.
Zani and Ottley, again, unable to harmonize the
various discrepancies in connection with the sub-
ject, have suggested that two separate masters are
responsible for the prints which have given rise
to so much discussion. Dr. Willshire, in his
' Catalogue of German and Flemish Prints in the

British Museum,' has adopted the views of Passa-
vant ; and following these two learned authorities,
we subjoin a list of the exceedingly rare works
assigned to the so-called ' Master of the Shuttle.'
For the exhaustive discussion of all these points,
the student is referred to Willshire' s 'Catalogue of
Flemish and German Prints,' vol. ii. pp. 322 — 364 ;
Nagler's ' Monogrammisten,' vol. iii. pp. 741, 843 ;
Ottley' 8 ' Inquiry into the Origin and Early History
of Engraving upon Copper and Wood,' vol. i. p.
107; and Passavant' s 'Peintre Graveur,' vol. ii.
pp. 178 — 186. Of the following the British Museum
possesses impressions :

The Adoration of the Kings.

The Last Supper.

Christ on the Mount of Olives.

Christ taken in the Garden.

Christ Crucified between two Thieves.

The Entombment of Christ {a Pietd,).

The Saviour standing holding an open Book in one

hand, and giving benediction with the other.
The Virgin with the Infant, who is taming the leaves

of a Book.
Virgin with the Child, standing on a Dragon.
Virgin and Child at a "Window.
St. Gregory celebrating Mass.

A Skeleton in a vaulted Tomb (an, allegory of Death)..
Three Medaliions of sacred subjects on a Plaque.
A Combat with a Centaur.
An architectural design of Gothic character.
A ' Passion ' sequence of fifty-three prints.
The Angelic Salutation. j^ g^

Passavant states that the master was also a
painter, and gives three pictures as by him : an
' Adoration of the Kings,' in the Berlin Museum ;
' The Israelites gathering Manna,' at Paris ; and
a ' Marriage of the Virgin,' at Madrid.

ZYDERWELD. See Zijderweld.

ZYL, (or Zetl,) Gbkaed Pibtbesz van. See


ZYLVELT, Adam van. See Zijlvblt.
ZYMBRECHT. See Simbeecht.



ACHAED, Jean Alexis, painter and etcher,
was born at Voreppe (Is&re), June 8, 1807. He
first appeared at the Salon in 1839, with a 'View
near Cairo,' after which he contributed a number
of landscapes, chiefly French in subject. His
' View near Grenoble ' is in the Luxembourg.
Towards the close of his -life he devoted himself
mainly to etching. He died October 6, 1884.

ADAM, Feanz, a German painter of horses,
equestrian portraits, and battle-pieces, was born
at Milan, May 4, 1815, and was the pupil of
his father, Albrecht Adam. He practised chiefly
at Vienna and Munich. He served with the
Austrian army in the campaigns of 1849 and 1859,
and made innumerable sketches of life in the field,
many of which he afterwards used for pictures.
He was a member of the Academies of Munich and
Vienna, and gained medals in Paris and Berlin.
He died September 29, 1886.

AMERLING, Friedeich, painter, was born at
Vienna, April 14, 1803. After some hard struggles
occasioned by narrow means, he succeeded in
entering the Vienna Academy as a pupil, and
completed his training under Lawrence in London
and under Vernet in Paris. On his return to
Vienna he gained the first prize at the Academy
with his 'Dido forsaken' and 'Moses the Law-
giver.' He several times visited Italy. He became
a very popular portrait painter in his native city, but
continued to paint occasional historical and subject
pictures. Among his best known works in each
genre we may name : portraits of himself, of the
Empercii: Francis I., of Thorwaldsen, of Franz
Grillparzer, and of Prince Windisohgratz, also
'Judith,' ' Ophelia,' ' The Widow,' ' Eoman Woman
with her Infant.' Amerling was a member of the
Vienna Academy. He died at Vienna in January,

ANDERSON, Robert, born in 1842, was a
Scottish engraver of some repute. In the latter
part of his life he devoted himself to painting in
water-colour. He was elected an Associate of the
Royal Scottish Academy in 1879, and died in
Edinburgh, April 24, 1885.

ANGELL, Helen Cordelia, n^e Coleman, was
born in 1847, and early distinguished herself
as a brilliant and original painter of flowers
and kindred subjects, which she was among the
first of modern English painters to treat with
breadth and vigour. She first exhibited at the
Dudley Gallery in 1866. She became a member
of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, but
seceded in 1879, on being elected an associate
exhibitor of the Society of Painters in Water-
Colours, of which she afterwards became a member.
She married, in 1875, Mr. W. T. Angell, and died
at the age of thirty-seven, March 8tli, 1884. Her
last picture was exhibited at the Dudley Gallery in
the winter of 1889.

vol. II.

c CO

ANNIS, W. T., an English mezzotint engraver,
of whom very little is known. He exhibited
landscapes at the Royal Academy between the
years 1798 and 1811, and engraved the following
plates in Turner's Liber Studiorum :

Sunset ; No. 40.

Chepstow Oastle; No. 48. Also

Mary WoUstonecraft Godwin ; after Opie.

ANSDELL, Richard, painter, was born at Liver-
pool in 1815. He was educated at the Bluecoat
School, and was then put into business at Liver-
pool, but his desire to become an artist triumphed,
and he was allowed to study painting. In 1840 he
exhibited his first pictures at the Royal Academy,
' Grouse Shooting ' and ' A Galloway Farm.' He
then made a few not very successful essays in
history, but eventually devoted himself almost
entirely to animal painting, in which genre he
became known as a popular imitator of Landseer.
His ' Turning the Drove ' gained a gold medal at
the Paris Exhibition of 1855. Between 1850 and
1860 he occasionally painted in conjunction with
Thomas Creswiok, the latter supplying landscapes
for Ansdell's studies of cattle, &c. Among the
results of this co-operation were, the ' South-
downs,' the ' Drover's Halt,' and the ' Park.' Mr.
Frith also painted figures in some of Ansdell's
pictures, an example being the milkmaid in ' Feed-
ing the Calves.' In 1856'Ansdell visited Spain,
in company with his friend John Phillip, and
painted a number of subjects of SpAnish popular
life, such as ' The Water-carrier,' ' Mules drinking,'
'Spanish Flower-seller.' He became an associate
of the Royal Academy in 1861, and a member in
1875. Among the best of his later works were
'The Goatherds of Granada' and 'The Home of
the Red Deer.' Ansdell etched a few plates of no
great merit. He died April 25, 1885.

ANTHONY, Mark, landscape painter, was of
Welsh extraction, but was born at Manchester in
1817. He studied medicine in his early youth, and
at the age of sixteen was placed with a doctor at
Cowbridge. Here he spent all his leisure in
sketching and drawing, and his master, who seems
to have shared his artistic tastes, and to have been
himself an amateur of some practice, gave him
occasional lessons in painting, and otherwise en-
couraged his talent. The result was that the young
man, who had some private means, threw up his
medical pursuits, and went to study in earnest in
Paris and at the Hague. He remained abroad for
ten years, making Paris his head-quarters, and in
1837 sent his first landscape for exhibition at the
Royal Academy. In the same year he was working
at Fontainebleau, and there came in contact with
Jules Dupr6 and Corot, whose influence naturally
told strongly upon his art. In 1840 he first
exhibited with the British Institution, and in 1845





was elected a member of tbe Society of British
Artists. With them he exhibited ' Harvest Home '
(1847), 'Prayer for the Absent' (1848), 'Old
Country Churchyard' (1849), ' The Elm at Eve '
(1850). Erom 1851 onwards his works appeared
pretty constantly at the Royal Academy. In 1852
Anthony resigned his membership of the ' British
Artists,' hoping for an A.R.A.-ship, which, how-
ever, never fell to him. He gradually withdrew
from all society, save that of very intimate friends,
and died December 2, 1886. His pictures are
chiefly in the possession of private patrons.

BACON, Erederick, engraver, born in London
in 1803, was a student of the Royal Academy for
some time under Euseli, and afterwards became a
pupil and assistant of the Findens. He engraved,
on his own account, illustrations for the Waverley
Novels, and for Heath's Annuals, &c., and was
much employed by Messrs. Colnaghi and Puckle,
and for the Art Union. In 1869 he retired from
the active exercise of his profession, and in 1882
left England for California, where he invested in a
property, and where he died in 1887.

BALZE, Paul Jean, enamel painter, born at
Rome of French parents in 1815, was a pupil of
Ingres. He was best known by copies made in
conjunction with his brother Raymond Joseph, of
Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican, a work on which
he was engaged ten years. He also worked for
Parisian churches. He died in 1884.

BARKER, Thomas Jones, a popular painter ot
battle-pieces and military subjects, was the son of
" Barker of Bath," from whom he received his first
teaching, and was born in 1815. At the age of
nineteen he went to Paris, and entered the studio
of Horace Vernet, on many of whose pictures he
collaborated. His first pictures were exhibited in
Paris, among them a ' Death of the Grand Mon-
arque ' for Louis Philippe. Among his later works
were 'Meeting of Wellington and Blucher after
Waterloo,' 'Nelson's Prayer in the cabin of the
Victory,' ' The Secret of England's Greatness,' and
'The Riderless Horse, after Sedan.' Barker died
March 29, 1882.

BASTIEN-LEPAGE, Jules, painter, was born
at Damvillers, Lorraine, November 1, 1850. His
parents were poor, and in his early manhood he
had a hard struggle for existence. He began life
as a government clerk in his native district, but at
nineteen quitted the desk, and coming to Paris,
entered Cabanel's atelier. Associated as his name
now is with an art essentially actual and realistic,
it is curious to find him making his debut in
pseudo-pastoral in 18th century taste. One of his
earliest recorded works is ' Women in a wood
attacked by Cupids,' and in 1874 he exhibited at
the Salon a peasant girl surrounded by piping
Cupids, together with his first notable work, ' Le
Portrait du Grandp^re.' The following year was
marked by the production of one of his most pathetic
and masterly studies of humble life 'La Petite
Communiante.' In this same year he competed for
the prix de Rome with a remarkable work, 'Les
Bergers' ('The Angels appearing to the Shep-
herds '). The Art section of the Academy awarded
it the prize, but their decision was overruled by
the majority of the Council. The disappointment,
though severe, did him good service. An outcry
was raised against the injustice of the reversal, and
Bastien-Lepage'sname became well known through-
out the country He himself used to assert that


this was the starting-point of his career. For the
remaining years of his life he was a prominent
figure in the French art world, and became well
known in this country as an exponent of the tra-
ditions of Millet and Courbet, modified by his own
vigorous individuality. He is said to have expressed
an ambition to paint a cycle of rustic subjects,
setting forth the chief events of peasant life in
cihldhood, maturity, and old age, and such pictures
as ' Les Foins,' ' La Saison d'Octobre,' ' Le Men-
diant,' and 'Pauvre Fauvette' may be takeii as
links in the sequence. His ' Joan of Arc ' of 1880,
in which, discarding convention, he represents his
heroine as a poor and even squalid peasant girl,
glorified by a mystic spiritual grandeur, may be
said to summarize his artistic idea. ' He died in
Paris of cancer of the stomach, at the early age of
thirty-six, December 3, 1884. Besides the works
above mentioned, the following are remarkable :

Tlie ■Wood-Cutter.

My Parents.

Rustic Courtship.

Portrait of the Prince ot Wales.

„ „ Madame Sarah Bernhardt.

„ „ M.Albert Wolf, of the Paris 'Figaro.'

BAUDEY, Paul Jacques Aim^, painter, was
born, of humble parentage, at La Eoche-sur-Yon,
Vendue, November 7, 1828. He first studied under
one Sartoris, at La Roche, and was afterwards sent
to Paris with an allowance from his native city.
In Paris he became the pupil of Drolling, and in
1850 won the Grand Prix de Rome with a ' Zenobia
found on the Banks of the Araxes.' Four years
in Rome were spent in the <jtudy of Michelangelo,
Raphael, Titian, and Gorreggio, from each of whom
he endeavoured to take some characteristic quality.
During his stay in Italy he sent pictures to the
Salon which attracted much attention, and this
success continued after his return to Paris. It was
in quasi-historical, decorative painting, in which
his fine sense of balance and his pleasant colour
served him well, that he succeeded best, and so,
about 1865, he was invited to take part in the
decoration of the new Opera. In preparation for
this task he revisited Italy, made a series of partial
copies from Buonarroti's frescoes in the Sistine
Chapel, and studied Raphael at the Stanze. In
1867 he came to England, and finished a series of
copies from Raphael's cartoons. The actual decora-
tion of the Opera /oj/er absorbed Baudry's energies
for some twelve years. The subjects are single
figures of the Muses, Polymnia excepted, and
various scenes from mythology, legend, and even
biblical history. Besides these decorations, Baudry
painted much for private patrons, and at the Salon
of 1881 he obtained the medaille dhonneur for his
' Glorification de la Loi,' a ceiling for the Cour de
Cassation. Throughout his career he combined
portrait painting with his decorative work. Among
his portraits, the best, perhaps, are those of Beul^
(1857), Baron Dupin (1860), diaries Gamier (1868),
and Edmond About (1871). In 1870 Baudry wns
elected a member of the Institute, He died
January 7, 1886.

BAUGNIET, C, a well-known Belgian draughts-
man on stone, who practised chiefly in Paris, and
whose portraits were especially noteworthy. He
died at Sevres, July 3, 1886.

BAVIERA, a native of Parma, and one of the
pupils of Raphael. Of his work nothing is known,
and details of his relations with Sanzio are of the
scantiest, but that he was a trusted friend and con-




fidant of the master appears from the fact that
to him Raphael gave the copper-plates of the en-
gravings executed for him by Marc Antonio, that
his name figures as signatory to a contract con-
cluded on behalf of Raphael in 1615, and that
before his death Raphael confided to his care his
mistress, the famous ' Fornarina.' He is further

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 196 of 201)